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1.
Biochimie ; 202: 206-211, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060445

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis is a hallmark of severe COVID-19. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an inflammation-inducible serpin with anti-inflammatory, tissue protective and anticoagulant properties may be involved in severe COVID-19 pathophysiology including thrombosis onset. In this study, we examined AAT ability to predict occurrence of thrombosis and in-hospital mortality during COVID-19. To do so, we performed a monocentric cross-sectional study of 137 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 of whom 56 (41%) were critically ill and 33 (22.4%) suffered from thrombosis during hospitalization. We measured AAT and IL-6 plasma levels in all patients and phenotyped AAT in a subset of patients with or without thrombosis paired for age, sex and COVID-19 severity. We observed that AAT levels at admission were higher in both non-survivors and thrombosis patients than in survivors and non-thrombosis patients. AAT: IL-6 ratio was lower in non-survivors and thrombosis patients. In a logistic regression multivariable analysis model adjusted on age, BMI and D-dimer levels, a higher AAT: IL-6 was a protective factor of both in-hospital mortality (Odds ratio, OR: 0.07 95%CI [0.02-0.25], p < 0.001) and thrombosis (OR 0.36 95%CI [0.14-0.82], p = 0.02). AAT phenotyping did not show a higher proportion of AAT abnormal variants in thrombosis patients.Our findings suggest an insufficient production of AAT regarding inflammation intensity during severe COVID-19. AAT appeared as a powerful predictive marker of severity, mortality and thrombosis mirroring the imbalance between harmful inflammation and protective counter-balancing mechanism in COVID-19. Restoring the balance between AAT and inflammation could offer therapeutic opportunities in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Interleukin-6 , Thrombosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/blood , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/blood , Thrombosis/virology
3.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 52, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-induced disease 19 (COVID-19) infects more than three hundred and sixty million patients worldwide, and people with severe symptoms frequently die of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent studies indicated that excessive neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contributed to immunothrombosis, thereby leading to extensive intravascular coagulopathy and multiple organ dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced NET formation would be helpful to reduce thrombosis and prevent ARDS in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We incubated SARS-CoV-2 with neutrophils in the presence or absence of platelets to observe NET formation. We further isolated extracellular vesicles from COVID-19 patients' sera (COVID-19-EVs) to examine their ability to induce NET formation. RESULTS: We demonstrated that antagonistic mAbs against anti-CLEC5A mAb and anti-TLR2 mAb can inhibit COVID-19-EVs-induced NET formation, and generated clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice to confirm the critical roles of CLEC5A and TLR2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation in vivo. We found that virus-free extracellular COVID-19 EVs induced robust NET formation via Syk-coupled C-type lectin member 5A (CLEC5A) and TLR2. Blockade of CLEC5A inhibited COVID-19 EVs-induced NETosis, and simultaneous blockade of CLEC5A and TLR2 further suppressed SARS-CoV-2-induced NETosis in vitro. Moreover, thromboinflammation was attenuated dramatically in clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2-activated platelets produce EVs to enhance thromboinflammation via CLEC5A and TLR2, and highlight the importance of CLEC5A and TLR2 as therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lectins, C-Type , Neutrophils , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Animals , Blood Platelets/immunology , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Mice , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Receptors, Cell Surface , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology
4.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 309, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919755

ABSTRACT

Blood clot formation induced by dysfunctional coagulation is a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a high-risk factor for severe illness and death. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in COVID-19-induced immunothrombosis. Furthermore, human cathelicidin, a NET component, can perturb the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its ACE2 receptor, which mediates viral entry into cells. At present, however, the levels of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides after SARS-CoV-2 infection and their role in COVID-19 thrombosis formation remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed coagulation function and found a decrease in thrombin time but an increase in fibrinogen level, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time in COVID-19 patients. In addition, the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 was upregulated by the spike protein and significantly elevated in the plasma of patients. Furthermore, LL-37 levels were negatively correlated with thrombin time but positively correlated with fibrinogen level. In addition to platelet activation, cathelicidin peptides enhanced the activity of coagulation factors, such as factor Xa (FXa) and thrombin, which may induce hypercoagulation in diseases with high cathelicidin peptide levels. Injection of cathelicidin peptides promoted the formation of thrombosis, whereas deletion of cathelicidin inhibited thrombosis in vivo. These results suggest that cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is elevated during SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may induce hypercoagulation in COVID-19 patients by activating coagulation factors.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation Factors , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinogen , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thrombosis/virology
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(3): e1009892, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731577

ABSTRACT

Emerging clinical evidence suggests that thrombosis in the microvasculature of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) plays an essential role in dictating the disease progression. Because of the infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, patients' fresh blood samples are limited to access for in vitro experimental investigations. Herein, we employ a novel multiscale and multiphysics computational framework to perform predictive modeling of the pathological thrombus formation in the microvasculature using data from patients with COVID-19. This framework seamlessly integrates the key components in the process of blood clotting, including hemodynamics, transport of coagulation factors and coagulation kinetics, blood cell mechanics and adhesive dynamics, and thus allows us to quantify the contributions of many prothrombotic factors reported in the literature, such as stasis, the derangement in blood coagulation factor levels and activities, inflammatory responses of endothelial cells and leukocytes to the microthrombus formation in COVID-19. Our simulation results show that among the coagulation factors considered, antithrombin and factor V play more prominent roles in promoting thrombosis. Our simulations also suggest that recruitment of WBCs to the endothelial cells exacerbates thrombogenesis and contributes to the blockage of the blood flow. Additionally, we show that the recent identification of flowing blood cell clusters could be a result of detachment of WBCs from thrombogenic sites, which may serve as a nidus for new clot formation. These findings point to potential targets that should be further evaluated, and prioritized in the anti-thrombotic treatment of patients with COVID-19. Altogether, our computational framework provides a powerful tool for quantitative understanding of the mechanism of pathological thrombus formation and offers insights into new therapeutic approaches for treating COVID-19 associated thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Microvessels/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/virology , Anticoagulants , Blood Coagulation , Computational Biology , Humans , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e051624, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mortality rate of COVID-19 is elevated in males compared with females. OBJECTIVE: Determine the extent that the elevated thrombotic risk in males relative to females contributes to excess COVID-19 mortality in males. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Data sourced from electronic medical records from over 200 US hospital systems. PARTICIPANTS: 60 877 patients aged 18 years and older hospitalised with COVID-19. EXPOSURE: Exposure variable: biological sex; key variable of interest: thrombosis. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was COVID-19 mortality. We measured: (1) mortality rate of males relative to females, (2) rate of thrombotic diagnoses occurring during hospitalisation for COVID-19 in both sexes and (3) mortality rate when evidence of thrombosis was present. RESULTS: The COVID-19 mortality rate of males was 29.9% higher than that of females. Males had a 35.8% higher rate of receiving a thrombotic diagnosis compared with females. The mortality rate of all patients with a thrombotic diagnosis was 40.0%-over twice that of patients with COVID-19 without a thrombotic diagnosis (adjusted OR 2.50 (2.37 to 2.64), p<0.001). When defining thrombosis as either a documented thrombotic diagnosis or a D-dimer level ≥3.0 µg/mL, 16.4% of the excess mortality in male patients could be explained by increased thrombotic risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the higher COVID-19 mortality rate in males may be significantly accounted for by the elevated risk of thrombosis among males. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie increased male thrombotic risk may allow for the advancement of effective anticoagulation strategies that reduce COVID-19 mortality in males.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Adult , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/virology
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(9): 917-928, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706820

ABSTRACT

Clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings support an association between coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and thromboembolic disease. Acute COVID-19 infection is characterized by mononuclear cell reactivity and pan-endothelialitis, contributing to a high incidence of thrombosis in large and small blood vessels, both arterial and venous. Observational studies and randomized trials have investigated whether full-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes compared with prophylactic dose heparin. Although no benefit for therapeutic heparin has been found in patients who are critically ill hospitalized with COVID-19, some studies support a possible role for therapeutic anticoagulation in patients not yet requiring intensive care unit support. We summarize the pathology, rationale, and current evidence for use of anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19 and describe the main design elements of the ongoing FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation trial, in which 3,600 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 not requiring intensive care unit level of care are being randomized to prophylactic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose apixaban. (FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation Strategy [FREEDOM COVID]; NCT04512079).


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/virology , Thrombosis/virology
9.
Biochem J ; 479(4): 537-559, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705036

ABSTRACT

Post-acute sequelae of COVID (PASC), usually referred to as 'Long COVID' (a phenotype of COVID-19), is a relatively frequent consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in which symptoms such as breathlessness, fatigue, 'brain fog', tissue damage, inflammation, and coagulopathies (dysfunctions of the blood coagulation system) persist long after the initial infection. It bears similarities to other post-viral syndromes, and to myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Many regulatory health bodies still do not recognize this syndrome as a separate disease entity, and refer to it under the broad terminology of 'COVID', although its demographics are quite different from those of acute COVID-19. A few years ago, we discovered that fibrinogen in blood can clot into an anomalous 'amyloid' form of fibrin that (like other ß-rich amyloids and prions) is relatively resistant to proteolysis (fibrinolysis). The result, as is strongly manifested in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) of individuals with Long COVID, is extensive fibrin amyloid microclots that can persist, can entrap other proteins, and that may lead to the production of various autoantibodies. These microclots are more-or-less easily measured in PPP with the stain thioflavin T and a simple fluorescence microscope. Although the symptoms of Long COVID are multifarious, we here argue that the ability of these fibrin amyloid microclots (fibrinaloids) to block up capillaries, and thus to limit the passage of red blood cells and hence O2 exchange, can actually underpin the majority of these symptoms. Consistent with this, in a preliminary report, it has been shown that suitable and closely monitored 'triple' anticoagulant therapy that leads to the removal of the microclots also removes the other symptoms. Fibrin amyloid microclots represent a novel and potentially important target for both the understanding and treatment of Long COVID and related disorders.


Subject(s)
Amyloid , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Lung , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombosis , Amyloid/blood , Amyloid/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrin/chemistry , Fibrin/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology
10.
Cells ; 11(2)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625673

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to be a worldwide public health crisis. Among the several severe manifestations of this disease, thrombotic processes drive the catastrophic organ failure and mortality in these patients. In addition to a well-established cytokine storm associated with the disease, perturbations in platelets, endothelial cells, and the coagulation system are key in triggering systemic coagulopathy, involving both the macro- and microvasculatures of different organs. Of the several mechanisms that might contribute to dysregulation of these cells following SARS-CoV-2 infection, the current review focuses on the role of activated Janus kinase (JAK) signaling in augmenting thrombotic processes and organ dysfunction. The review concludes with presenting the current understanding and emerging controversies concerning the potential therapeutic applications of JAK inhibitors for ameliorating the inflammation-thrombosis phenotype in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Janus Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Thrombosis/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Thrombosis/virology
12.
Lupus ; 30(14): 2276-2285, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582666

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high rate of thrombosis. Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTT) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are reported in COVID-19 patients. The majority of publications have not reported whether patients develop clinically relevant persistent aPL, and the clinical significance of new aPL-positivity in COVID-19 is currently unknown. However, the reports of aPL-positivity in COVID-19 raised the question whether common mechanisms exist in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In both conditions, thrombotic microangiopathy resulting in microvascular injury and thrombosis is hypothesized to occur through multiple pathways, including endothelial damage, complement activation, and release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis). APS-ACTION, an international APS research network, created a COVID-19 working group that reviewed common mechanisms, positive aPL tests in COVID-19 patients, and implications of COVID-19 infection for patients with known aPL positivity or APS, with the goals of proposing guidance for clinical management and monitoring of aPL-positive COVID-19 patients. This guidance also serves as a call and focus for clinical and basic scientific research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Thrombosis/virology
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580687

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is associated with a broad spectrum of presentations, but alveolar capillary microthrombi have been described as a common finding in COVID-19 patients, appearing as a consequence of a severe endothelial injury with endothelial cell membrane disruption. These observations clearly point to the identification of a COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, which may contribute to thrombosis, multi-organ damage, and cause of severity and fatality. One significant finding that emerges in prothrombotic abnormalities observed in COVID-19 patients is that the coagulation alterations are mainly mediated by the activation of platelets and intrinsically related to viral-mediated endothelial inflammation. Beyond the well-known role in hemostasis, the ability of platelets to also release various potent cytokines and chemokines has elevated these small cells from simple cell fragments to crucial modulators in the blood, including their inflammatory functions, that have a large influence on the immune response during infectious disease. Indeed, platelets are involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury also by promoting NET formation and affecting vascular permeability. Specifically, the deposition by activated platelets of the chemokine platelet factor 4 at sites of inflammation promotes adhesion of neutrophils on endothelial cells and thrombogenesis, and it seems deeply involved in the phenomenon of vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Importantly, the hyperactivated platelet phenotype along with evidence of cytokine storm, high levels of P-selectin, D-dimer, and, on the other hand, decreased levels of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and thrombocytopenia may be considered suitable biomarkers that distinguish the late stage of COVID-19 progression in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/blood , Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Phenotype , Platelet Activation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombocytopenia/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7135, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565715

ABSTRACT

A characteristic clinical feature of COVID-19 is the frequent incidence of microvascular thrombosis. In fact, COVID-19 autopsy reports have shown widespread thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by extensive diffuse microthrombi within peripheral capillaries and arterioles in lungs, hearts, and other organs, resulting in multiorgan failure. However, the underlying process of COVID-19-associated microvascular thrombosis remains elusive due to the lack of tools to statistically examine platelet aggregation (i.e., the initiation of microthrombus formation) in detail. Here we report the landscape of circulating platelet aggregates in COVID-19 obtained by massive single-cell image-based profiling and temporal monitoring of the blood of COVID-19 patients (n = 110). Surprisingly, our analysis of the big image data shows the anomalous presence of excessive platelet aggregates in nearly 90% of all COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, results indicate strong links between the concentration of platelet aggregates and the severity, mortality, respiratory condition, and vascular endothelial dysfunction level of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Platelet Aggregation , Single-Cell Analysis , Thrombosis/virology , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Microscopy , Sex Factors
15.
FASEB J ; 35(12): e21969, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532548

ABSTRACT

Several evidence suggests that, in addition to the respiratory tract, also the gastrointestinal tract is a main site of severe acute respiratory syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, as an example of a multi-organ vascular damage, likely associated with poor prognosis. To assess mechanisms SARS-CoV-2 responsible of tissue infection and vascular injury, correlating with thrombotic damage, specimens of the digestive tract positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein were analyzed deriving from three patients, negative to naso-oro-pharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2. These COVID-19-negative patients came to clinical observation due to urgent abdominal surgery that removed different sections of the digestive tract after thrombotic events. Immunohistochemical for the expression of SARS-CoV-2 combined with a panel of SARS-CoV-2 related proteins angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was performed. Tissue samples were also evaluated by electron microscopy for ultrastructural virus localization and cell characterization. The damage of the tissue was assessed by ultrastructural analysis. It has been observed that CD147 expression levels correlate with SARS-CoV-2 infection extent, vascular damage and an increased expression of VEGF and thrombosis. The confirmation of CD147 co-localization with SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein binding on gastrointestinal tissues and the reduction of the infection level in intestinal epithelial cells after CD147 neutralization, suggest CD147 as a possible key factor for viral susceptibility of gastrointestinal tissue. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection of gastrointestinal tissue might be consequently implicated in abdominal thrombosis, where VEGF might mediate the vascular damage.


Subject(s)
Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Digestive System Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Aged , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Digestive System Diseases/genetics , Digestive System Diseases/metabolism , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Thrombosis/genetics , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
16.
OMICS ; 25(12): 770-781, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528153

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a systemic disease affecting not only the lungs but also multiple organ systems. Clinical studies implicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes imbalance of cellular homeostasis and immune response that trigger cytokine storm, oxidative stress, thrombosis, and insulin resistance. Mathematical modeling can offer in-depth understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and illuminate how subcellular mechanisms and feedback loops underpin disease progression and multiorgan failure. We report here a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection pathway network with cytokine storm, oxidative stress, thrombosis, insulin resistance, and nitric oxide (NO) pathways. The biochemical systems theory model shows autocrine loops with positive feedback enabling excessive immune response, cytokines, transcription factors, and interferons, which can imbalance homeostasis of the system. The simulations suggest that changes in immune response led to uncontrolled release of cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and affect insulin, coagulation, and NO signaling pathways. Increased production of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), thrombin, PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), and other procoagulant factors led to thrombosis. By analyzing complex biochemical reactions, this model forecasts the key intermediates, potential biomarkers, and risk factors at different stages of COVID-19. These insights can be useful for drug discovery and development, as well as precision treatment of multiorgan implications of COVID-19 as seen in systems medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Insulin Resistance/immunology , Nitric Oxide/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thrombosis/virology
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1007-1009, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525578
18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 999-1006, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525574

ABSTRACT

A high incidence of thrombosis in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 was identified early during the pandemic. Accurately quantifying thrombotic risk may assist prognosis and guide appropriate thromboprophylaxis. Observational studies have estimated the rate of thrombosis in both hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19, and how this corresponds to the severity of illness. In this review, we provide an overview of the incidence and prevalence of arterial and venous thrombotic events in patients with COVID-19 and highlight the limitations in the studies to date. Asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19 and those with mild symptoms are at very low risk of thrombotic complications. However, rates of thrombosis are substantially increased in hospitalised patients, and are strikingly high in those patients who are critically-ill requiring treatment on the intensive care unit and especially those requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Clinicians managing such patients need to be aware of these risks and take appropriate steps with respect to thromboprophylaxis and heightened clinical vigilance. Large prospective observational studies will more accurately quantify thrombotic rate, and randomized controlled trials are currently investigating optimal thromboprophylactic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Incidence , Observational Studies as Topic , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1010-1019, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525579

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is responsible for a pandemic of unparalleled portion over the past century. While the acute phase of infection causes significant morbidity and mortality, post-acute sequelae that can affect essentially any organ system is rapidly taking on an equally large part of the overall impact on human health, quality of life, attempts to return to normalcy and the global economy. Herein, we summarize the potential role of von Willebrand Factor and extracellular vesicles toward understanding the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, duration of illness, diagnostic approach and management of COVID-19 and its sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Thrombosis , von Willebrand Factor , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Quality of Life , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/virology
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