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1.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44 Suppl 1: 101-113, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063738

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and end organ damage. TMAs have varying underlying pathophysiology and can therefore present with an array of clinical presentations. Renal involvement is common as the kidney is particularly susceptible to the endothelial damage and microvascular occlusion. TMAs require rapid assessment, diagnosis, and commencement of appropriate treatment due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with them. Ground-breaking research into the pathogenesis of TMAs over the past 20 years has driven the successful development of targeted therapeutics revolutionizing patient outcomes. This review outlines the clinical presentations, pathogenesis, diagnostic tests and treatments for TMAs.


Subject(s)
Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Humans , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/therapy
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043777

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to clinically significant multisystem disorders that also affect the kidney. According to recent data, renal injury in the form of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in native kidneys ranks third in frequency. Our review of global literature revealed 46 cases of TMA in association with COVID-19. Among identified cases, 18 patients presented as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and 28 cases presented as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Altogether, seven patients with aHUS had previously proven pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic complement abnormalities. TMA occurred at the time of viremia or even after viral clearance. Infection with COVID-19 resulted in almost no or only mild respiratory symptoms in the majority of patients, while digestive symptoms occurred in almost one-third of patients. Regarding the clinical presentation of COVID-19-associated TMA, the cases showed no major deviations from the known presentation. Patients with TTP were treated with plasma exchange (88.9%) or fresh frozen plasma (11.1%), corticosteroids (88.9%), rituximab (38.9%), and caplacizumab (11.1%). Furthermore, 53.6% of patients with aHUS underwent plasma exchange with or without steroid as initial therapy, and 57.1% of patients received a C5 complement inhibitor. Mortality in the studied cohort was 16.7% for patients with TTP and 10.7% for patients with aHUS. The exact role of COVID-19 in the setting of COVID-19-associated TMA remains unclear. COVID-19 likely represents a second hit of aHUS or TTP that manifests in genetically predisposed individuals. Early identification of the TMA subtype and appropriate prompt and specific treatment could lead to good outcomes comparable to survival and recovery statistics for TMA of all causes.


Subject(s)
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Complement Inactivating Agents , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , Rituximab , Steroids , Thiamine , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology
4.
Kidney Int ; 98(6): 1620, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382625
5.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(6): 1523-1544, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975051

ABSTRACT

The major targets of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are the respiratory and immune systems. However, a significant proportion of hospitalized patients had kidney dysfunction. The histopathological surveys have principally focused on respiratory, hematopoietic, and immune systems, whereas histopathologic data of kidney injury are lacking. Our study aimed to summarize the renal histopathological findings in COVID-19 from the published case report and case series. We conducted a systematic searching of databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for published reports of COVID-19 patients with renal histopathological changes from autopsy studies and from "for cause" indication biopsies. Included in our study are case reports and case series with extractable quantitative data on patient demographics such as age, sex, ethnicity, as well as data on renal function tests, their comorbidities, and biopsy to study the histopathological changes. Data were analyzed with Microsoft Excel. To evaluate the methodological quality, we chose the framework for appraisal, synthesis, and application of evidence suggested by Murad et al. Systematic searches of literature found 31 studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. These studies included a total of 139 cases, where individual case details including clinical and histopathological findings were available. The median age of the cases was 62 years with a male:female ratio of 2.5:1. Associated comorbidities were noted in 78.4% of cases. The majority of the cases had renal dysfunction with proteinuria which was documented in more than two-thirds of the cases. The histopathological findings observed the frequent tubular involvement manifested by acute tubular injury. Regarding glomerular pathology, collapsing glomerulopathy emerged as a distinct lesion in these patients and was noted among 46.8% of cases with glomerular lesions. A small subset of cases (4.3%) had thrombotic microangiopathy. Collapsing glomerulopathy emerged as a hallmark of glomerular changes among COVID-19 patients. Tubular damage is common and is linked to multiple factors including ischemia, sepsis among others. In the form of thrombotic microangiopathy seen in a subset of patients, vascular damage hints toward the hyper-coagulable state associated with the infection. The demonstration of viral particles in renal tissue remains debatable and requires further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Diseases , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Female , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/physiology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Proteinuria/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications
6.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 37(9): 1967-1980, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971713

ABSTRACT

The syndrome of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a clinical-pathological entity characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and end organ involvement. It comprises a spectrum of underlying etiologies that may differ in children and adults. In children, apart from ruling out shigatoxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and other infection-associated TMA like Streptococcus pneumoniae-HUS, rare inherited causes including complement-associated HUS, cobalamin defects, and mutations in diacylglycerol kinase epsilon gene must be investigated. TMA should also be considered in the setting of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this review, acquired and inherited causes of TMA are described with a focus on particularities of the main causes of TMA in children. A pragmatic approach that may help the clinician tailor evaluation and management is provided. The described approach will allow for early initiation of treatment while waiting for the definitive diagnosis of the underlying TMA.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Child , Complement System Proteins , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/etiology , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/genetics , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/therapy
7.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 37(11): 2781-2784, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease characterized by systemic thrombotic microangiopathy mainly in the kidneys and mostly due to genetic disorders leading to uncontrolled activation of the complement system. Severe complications of SARS-CoV2 infection are linked to microvascular injury and complement activation is suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of endothelial cell damage in severe COVID-19. METHODS: We present the first two cases of aHUS triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection in two unrelated infants with the same mutation in the RNA exosome gene EXOSC3. This mutation is known to cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1b, an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease. So far, no kidney involvement in affected persons was reported. RESULTS: As eculizumab treatment was unsuccessful and complement-mediated disorders were ruled out, we suppose that the atypical HUS in our two patients is not due to complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy but rather due to a dysfunction of the RNA exosome. CONCLUSIONS: The RNA exosome is crucial for the precise processing and degradation of nuclear and cytoplasmatic RNA. We suspect that the SARS-CoV-2 infection led to changes in RNA that could not be offset by the defective RNA exosome in our two patients. The accumulation/wrong processing of the viral RNA must have led to the endothelial cell damage resulting in aHUS. This would be a new - "RNA-induced" - mechanism of aHUS.


Subject(s)
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome , COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Complement System Proteins , Exosome Multienzyme Ribonuclease Complex/genetics , Humans , Infant , Mutation , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , RNA, Viral , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/genetics
8.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(3): 224-228, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780264

ABSTRACT

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a lethal disease resulting in systemic thrombotic microangiopathies due to complement dysregulation. Immune activation by viral infections, such as SARS-CoV-2, may trigger hemolytic attack. A 38-year-old man, who had been previously diagnosed with aHUS due to complement component 3 mutation, was proven to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 without respiratory symptoms. No specific intervention was given to the patient, and he developed hematuria and oliguria three days after diagnosis. The patient was subsequently referred to our hospital and treated with eculizumab (900 mg). Afterward, the hemolytic symptoms improved rapidly. To the best of our knowledge, there have been reports of at least ten cases of hemolysis triggered by COVID-19 in patients with aHUS, and a potential clinical benefit of eculizumab for hemolytic attack, as well as for COVID-19, has been suggested. Here, we report the findings of a case, which indicate the efficacy of eculizumab introduction at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome , COVID-19 , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Adult , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Hemolysis , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis
9.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(7): 522-528, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) usually causes a mild illness among children. However, in a minority of children, it may be associated with the life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), or thrombotic microangiopathy, or sequelae like type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We describe a previously healthy, 12-year-old boy with new-onset T1DM with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the setting of MIS-C, with a course complicated by thrombotic microangiopathy. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with four days history of fever, non-bilious vomiting, polyuria and polydipsia. On evaluation, he was noted to have diabetic ketoacidosis. Although Diabetic ketoacidosis with insulin and intravenous fluids, his hospital course was notable for shock requiring vasopressor, purpura fulminans with eschar formation, neurological manifestations (left hemiparesis due to right middle cerebral artery territory infarct, mononeuritis multiplex) and thrombotic microangiopathy. MIS-C-like illness secondary to COVID-19 was suspected due to diabetic ketoacidosis, thrombotic microangiopathy, elevated inflammatory markers, history of contact with COVID-19-infected individual and detectable COVID-19 IgG antibodies. He improved following management with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, low-molecular-weight heparin and aspirin, and was discharged on hospital day 48. CONCLUSION: MIS-C-like illness should be considered in children and adolescents presenting with complex multisystem involvement in this era of COVID 19. Management with immunomodulatory agents can be lifesaving.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Purpura Fulminans , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Humans , Male , Purpura Fulminans/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 142, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy has been invoked as one of the most important mechanisms of damage in COVID-19 patients. Protease ADAMTS13 is a marker of microangiopathy responsible for controlling von Willebrand multimers size. Von Willebrand factor/ADAMTS13 ratio has been found impaired in COVID-19 patients outside pregnancy. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 90 pregnant women admitted to two tertiary academic hospitals in Italy with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic, clinical information and routine laboratory data were collected at the hospital admission and until discharge. We investigated whether vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis imbalance is a predictor of adverse outcomes. Logistic regression analysis, which controlled for potential confounders, was performed to evaluate the association between laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Most women (55.6%) were parae, with median gestational age at admission of 39 weeks. At hospital admission, 63.3% were asymptomatic for COVID-19 and 24.4% showed more than one sign or symptom of infection. Nulliparae with group O showed Willebrand / ADA MTS-13 ratios significantly lower than non-O, whereas in multiparae this difference was not observed. Logistic regression showed that ratio von Willebrand to ADAMTS13 was significantly and independently associated with preterm delivery (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.5). CONCLUSION: This study shows an imbalance of vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis in pregnant women with COVID-19, leading to a significantly higher and independent risk of preterm delivery. Monitoring these biomarkers might support decision making process to manage and follow-up pregnancies in this setting.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Premature Birth/blood , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Academic Medical Centers , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Young Adult
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 322-325, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693386

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a Japanese man with severe rhabdomyolysis and multiple thrombosis of arterioles after the first dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine. He developed rapidly progressive rhabdomyolysis and infarctions of multiple organs. Antiplatelet factor 4 antibody test was negative. Despite the intensive supportive care, including aggressive fluid administration, hemodialysis, administration of anticoagulants, high-dose steroid, and eculizumab, the patient ultimately died of multiple organ failure. Autopsy revealed multiple thrombosis in the arterioles and organ necrosis. Low serum complements and C3 deposition in the renal glomeruli detected by immunofluorescence suggested a possible immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of rhabdomyolysis and multiple thrombosis of the arterioles as an adverse event following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rhabdomyolysis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology
12.
Rom J Intern Med ; 60(2): 138-142, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613500

ABSTRACT

The evidence regarding thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) related to Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with complement gene mutations as a cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) are limited. We presented the case of a 23-year-old male patient admitted with an asymptomatic form of COVID-19, but with uncontrolled hypertension and AKI. Kidney biopsy showed severe lesions of TMA. In evolution patient had persistent microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, decreased level of haptoglobin and increased LDH level. Decreased complement C3 level and the presence of schistocytes were found for the first time after biopsy. Kidney function progressively decreased and the patient remained hemodialysis dependent. Complement work-up showed a heterozygous variant with unknown significance in complement factor I (CFI) c.-13G>A, affecting the 5' UTR region of the gene. In addition, the patient was found to be heterozygous for the complement factor H (CFH) H3 haplotype (involving the rare alleles of c.-331C>T, Q672Q and E936D polymorphisms) reported as a risk factor of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. This case of AKI associated with severe TMA and secondary hemolytic uremic syndrome highlights the importance of genetic risk modifiers in the alternative pathway dysregulation of the complement in the setting of COVID-19, even in asymptomatic forms.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Adult , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/complications , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Diseases/complications , Humans , Male , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/genetics , Young Adult
13.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(1): 32-35, 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579165

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, some patients who develop severe forms of COVID-19 present thrombotic microangiopathy in the course of the disease's clinical progression. METHODS: Data came from direct patient observation and clinical records. We performed a kidney biopsy and used optical microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. RESULTS: We present the case of a 78-year-old male patient, mestizo, overweight with a history of high blood pressure, ischemic cardiopathy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who was first admitted to the hospital due to respiratory symptoms and diarrhea related to COVID-19, from which he recovered. He was subsequently readmitted with symptoms of acute renal dysfunction accompanied by mild anemia and thrombocytopenia; at the same time, he resulted negative for COVID-19 via a real-time polymerase chain reaction test. A kidney biopsy revealed thrombi in glomerular capillaries, acute tubular necrosis, thickening of extraglomerular blood vessel walls, and C3 deposits in the glomerular tufts. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a case of thrombotic microangiopathy with kidney biopsy in a patient recovering from COVID-19. Acute renal dysfunction is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy that has been observed in patients recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Aged , Cuba , Humans , Kidney , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 587, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is an exceedingly rare thrombotic microangiopathy caused by accelerated activation of the alternative complement pathway. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report two cases of patients presenting with suspected atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome precipitated by coronavirus disease 2019 infection. The first patient, a 25-year-old Hispanic male, had one prior episode of thrombotic microangiopathy presumed to be atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome precipitated by influenza A, and re-presented with thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, nonoliguric renal failure, and normal ADAMTS13 activity, with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 positivity. The second patient, a 31-year-old Caucasian female, had no personal history of thrombotic microangiopathy, though reported a family history of suspected atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. She presented with similar laboratory derangements, oliguric renal failure requiring hemodialysis, and confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 positivity. Both patients were treated with eculizumab with complete resolution of their hematologic and renal complications. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this represents the largest case series of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome precipitated by coronavirus disease 2019 in adults.


Subject(s)
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Adult , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/diagnosis , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Br J Haematol ; 196(4): 902-922, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566272

ABSTRACT

In 145 previously healthy non-critically ill young adults, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related symptoms, risk factors for thrombosis, coagulation and inflammatory parameters were compared, with 29 patients reporting unusual thrombotic events (UTEs) and 116 not having thrombotic events. The inflammatory indices, coagulation and prothrombotic platelet phenotype (PTPP) were significantly higher in patients with UTEs versus those without. Patients with UTEs were categorised according to detection of thrombophilic genes (TGs), coagulation and inflammatory markers to the non-TG and TG subcohort. A total of 38 UTEs were identified, which included splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT; 11), stroke (six), cerebral vein thrombosis (five), thrombotic microangiopathy (four), limb ischaemia and inferior vena cava thrombosis (three each), ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (two), superior vena cava thrombosis (two), upper limb deep venous thrombosis and retinal vein thrombosis, one each. We found a 55% prevalence of TGs mainly heterozygous coagulation factor II, thrombin (FII)-G20210A, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-V617F, protein-S, and antithrombin III deficiency with a high (76·9%) prevalence of venous UTEs, multiple vessels thrombosis, and recurrence rate among the TG versus non-TG subcohort. The presence of JAK2-V617F, and FII-G20210A mutations was linked with SVT. Thrombosis in the non-TG subcohort was associated with more haemorrhagic problems, thrombosis progression and a significantly higher level of inflammatory markers, PTPP, mean platelet volume, von Willebrand factor, and factor VIII, which remained high for up to 6 months, as well as elevated D-dimer. Acquired and inherited thrombophilia with endotheliopathy appeared to be a relevant mechanism to explain the occurrence of UTEs that are not correlated to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Factor VIII/analysis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Young Adult , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
16.
Nephron ; 146(2): 197-202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528608

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) through the activation of an alternative and lectin complement pathway. TMA is one of the main reasons for acute kidney injury development in patients with COVID-19. In this study, we present 3 TMA cases with severe kidney injury triggered by SARS-CoV-2. In the absence of other TMA causes, we diagnosed the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, triggered by SARS-CoV-2 due to abnormal complement activation. Because of both coagulation factors activation, and the high level of D-dimer in patients with COVID-19, it is crucial to differentiate disseminated intravascular coagulation from TMA. The use of anticomplement therapies such as eculizumab should be considered in refractory cases of progressive COVID-19. Controlled clinical trials are required before a definitive statement can be made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/drug therapy
18.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440891

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly heterogeneous and complex medical disorder; indeed, severe COVID-19 is probably amongst the most complex of medical conditions known to medical science. While enormous strides have been made in understanding the molecular pathways involved in patients infected with coronaviruses an overarching and comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is lacking. Such an understanding is essential in the formulation of effective prophylactic and treatment strategies. Based on clinical, proteomic, and genomic studies as well as autopsy data severe COVID-19 disease can be considered to be the connection of three basic pathologic processes, namely a pulmonary macrophage activation syndrome with uncontrolled inflammation, a complement-mediated endothelialitis together with a procoagulant state with a thrombotic microangiopathy. In addition, platelet activation with the release of serotonin and the activation and degranulation of mast cells contributes to the hyper-inflammatory state. Auto-antibodies have been demonstrated in a large number of hospitalized patients which adds to the end-organ damage and pro-thrombotic state. This paper provides a clinical overview of the major pathogenetic mechanism leading to severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Complement Activation , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/physiopathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/virology , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serotonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/blood , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/immunology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/physiopathology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/virology
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 604759, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389169

ABSTRACT

Objective: To first describe and estimate the potential pathogenic role of Ig4 autoantibodies in complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in a patient with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Methods: This study is a case report presenting a retrospective review of the patient's medical chart. Plasma complement C3 and C4 levels, immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses were determined by nephelometry, the complement pathways' activity (CH50, AP50, MBL) using WIESLAB® Complement System assays. Human complement factor H levels, anti-complement factor H auto-antibodies were analyzed by ELISA, using HRP-labeled secondary antibodies specific for human IgG, IgG4, and IgA, respectively. Genetic analyses were performed by exome sequencing of 14 gens implicated in complement disorders, as well as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification looking specifically for CFH, CFHR1-2-3, and 5. Results: Our brief report presents the first case of IgG4-RD with complement-mediated TMA originating from both pathogenic CFHR 1 and CFHR 4 genes deletions, and inhibitory anti-complement factor H autoantibodies of the IgG4 subclass. Remission was achieved with plasmaphereses, corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide. Following remission, the patient was diagnosed with lymphocytic meningitis and SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: IgG4-RD can be associated with pathogenic IgG4 autoantibodies. Genetic predisposition such as CFHR1 and CFHR4 gene deletions enhance the susceptibility to the formation of inhibitory anti-Factor H IgG4 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Apolipoproteins/genetics , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/genetics , Autoantibodies/immunology , Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins/genetics , Complement Factor H/immunology , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/genetics , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/immunology , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/pathology , Female , Gene Deletion , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/immunology , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/pathology , Middle Aged , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/immunology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/pathology
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327620

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are associated with a variety of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), but haematological irAEs are rare. We report a case of presumed complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (CM-TMA) in a 78-year-old man with metastatic melanoma following treatment with ICIs. Following two doses of combination nivolumab and ipilimumab therapy, he developed microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased creatinine. ADAMTS13 activity was preserved, CH50 was high, haptoglobin was depleted and a blood film demonstrated fragments. Given this constellation of findings, a diagnosis of CM-TMA was made. Immunotherapy was held and the patient received steroids and supportive care. Six months after his last dose of immunotherapy, he has no evidence of melanoma or CM-TMA. CM-TMA should be suspected in patients on ICI with unexplained anaemia and thrombocytopenia with preserved ADAMTS13 activity. Suspicion of complement dysregulation may have therapeutic implications, such as the necessity of complement pathway inhibition.


Subject(s)
Melanoma , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Aged , Complement Inactivating Agents , Humans , Ipilimumab/adverse effects , Male , Melanoma/drug therapy , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/chemically induced
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