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1.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 17(4): 365-374, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997014

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Normal thyroid status throughout pregnancy is important for both maternal and fetal health. Despite the bulk of contemporary research honing on thyroid function in gestation and the relevant disorders, there are still gaps in our current knowledge about the etiology and treatment of thyroid diseases in pregnant women. AREAS COVERED: This article analyzes the adaptation of the thyroid gland to gestational physiological changes and attempts to explain the effect of several factors on thyroid function in pregnancy. It also stresses proper utilization and interpretation of thyroid tests during pregnancy and underlines the significance of proper screening and treatment of pregnant women aiming at favorable health outcomes. EXPERT OPINION: Appropriate strategies for diagnosing and treating thyroid disease in pregnancy are important. Laboratory thyroid testing plays a leading role, but test results should be interpreted with caution. Given the possible serious maternal and fetal/neonatal complications of thyroid disease in pregnancy, we recommend universal screening with TSH measurements of all pregnant women. Additional assessment with determination of the levels of free thyroid hormones and thyroid antibodies may be necessary under certain conditions. The economic burden of such interventions should be considered.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy Complications , Thyroid Diseases , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnant Women , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Function Tests
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 939842, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993783

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic calls for extensive research on various medical topics. Since the beginning of the pandemic, multiple studies investigated the impact of SARS CoV-2 on thyroid function. However, crucial data, such as trend progression over time or influence of commonly used drugs, might still be missing. We checked the thyroid function in 174 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19. Our research covered three separate time points of hospitalization (days 1, 4, and 10). We did not exclude patients treated with glucocorticoids but, instead, compared them with patients not treated with steroids. We correlated the results of thyroid function tests with markers of systemic inflammation. We checked if abnormal thyroid function can predict unfavorable outcomes defined as combined primary endpoint and/or secondary endpoints; the combined primary endpoint was the occurrence of death, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation, vasopressor infusion, or prolonged hospital stay, and the secondary endpoint was any of the listed events. In general, 80.46% of evaluated patients displayed abnormalities in thyroid function tests over at least one time point throughout the observation. We noticed a high prevalence of features typical for thyroid dysfunction in non-thyroidal illness (NTI). Free triiodothyronine (fT3) concentration was significantly lower in the group requiring glucocorticoids. Patients displaying abnormal thyroid function were statistically more likely to meet the predefined combined primary endpoint. We found that fT3 measured at admission could be perceived as an independent predictor of endpoint completion for all analyzed groups. Thyroid involvement is common in COVID-19. Our study supports the idea of thyroid function abnormalities being important clinical tools and allowing early recognition of possible detrimental outcomes of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Dysgenesis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Function Tests
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979263

ABSTRACT

We evaluated patients who presented with thyroid dysfunction correlated symptoms that started when the Government took important measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19. These measures have influenced the safety of many people's jobs. Data were collected from 378 patients that were clinically evaluated at the Endocrinology Department, between September 2020 and January 2021. Their health status modifications were statistically analyzed in correlation with their life and work changes. These changes were induced by measures associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The lifestyle changes correlated with the COVID-19 pandemic have been present in both categories of patients: euthyroid and dysthyroid patients; 87.50% of euthyroid patients physically felt the pandemic-induced changes in their lives. It resulted in changes in lifestyle and job insecurity has a statistically significant influence (p < 0.01) on their state of health. The presence of life/work changes in men is strongly reflected in their state of health (p = 0.0004). Work instability that occurred as a side effect of the COVID-19 pandemic induced symptoms that made many people believe they have an endocrinology disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Life Style , Male , Pandemics , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 900964, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933632

ABSTRACT

After the beginning of COVID-19 vaccination campaigns, several reports of thyroid disease possibly related to the COVID-19 vaccination progressively appeared in the literature, raising the question of whether the thyroid disorder might be a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine complication. The aim of this study was to analyze the data about COVID-19 vaccination and thyroid disease, evaluate the size and quality of related literature, assess the type of these events, and investigate their timing of onset with respect the vaccination. Pubmed/MEDLINE and Cochrane were systematically reviewed until February 2022 to retrieve the largest number of original papers, case reports, and case series articles reporting thyroid disease after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Forty-six articles were included with a total of 99 patients aged from 26 to 73 years were described, of whom 74.75% female. Regarding the vaccination received, 49.49% of patients received Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech), 14.14% CoronaVac (Sinovac), 12.12% Vaxzevria (Oxford/Astrazeneca), 11.11% Spikevax (Moderna), 3.03% Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen, Johnson & Johnson), one patient Covaxin (Bharat Biotech) and one patient Convidecia (Cansino). In 7 cases the thyroid disorder developed after the third dose with a combination of different vaccines. Regarding the type of thyroid disorder, 59 were subacute thyroiditis (SAT), 29 Graves' disease (GD), 2 co-occurrence of SAT and GD, 6 painless thyroiditis (PT), and single cases of thyroid eye disease and hypothyroidism associated with mixedema. The timeline between vaccination and thyroid disorder ranged between 0.5 to 60 days, with an average of 10.96 days. Considering the limited follow-up time, a complete remission was reported in most of SAT and PT cases while a persistence was observed in GD. In conclusion, both size and quality of published data about thyroid inconveniences after COVID-19 vaccination are limited; thyroid disorders may occur within 2 months after COVID-19 vaccination; among all thyroid diseases after COVID-19 vaccination, GD and SAT seem to be more frequent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Graves Disease , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Diseases/chemically induced , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroiditis, Subacute , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(9): e3781-e3789, 2022 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916990

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: There are concerns for COVID-19 vaccination in triggering thyroid autoimmunity and causing thyroid dysfunction. Also, data on the effect of preexisting thyroid autoimmunity on the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination are limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of COVID-19 vaccination on thyroid function and antibodies, and the influence of preexisting thyroid autoimmunity on neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. METHODS: Adults without a history of COVID-19/thyroid disorders who received the COVID-19 vaccination during June to August 2021 were recruited. All received 2 doses of vaccines. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (fT3), antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), and antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies were measured at baseline and 8 weeks post vaccination. NAb against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain was measured. RESULTS: A total of 215 individuals were included (129 [60%] BNT162b2; 86 [40%] CoronaVac recipients): mean age 49.6 years, 37.2% men, and 12.1% anti-TPO/Tg positive at baseline. After vaccination, TSH did not change (P = .225), but fT4 slightly increased (from 12.0 ±â€…1.1 to 12.2 ±â€…1.2 pmol/L [from 0.93 ±â€…0.09 to 0.95 ±â€…0.09 ng/dL], P < .001) and fT3 slightly decreased (from 4.1 ±â€…0.4 to 4.0 ±â€…0.4 pmol/L [from 2.67 ±â€…0.26 to 2.60 ±â€…0.26 pg/mL], P < .001). Only 3 patients (1.4%) had abnormal thyroid function post vaccination, none clinically overt. Anti-TPO and anti-Tg titers increased modestly after vaccination (P < .001), without statistically significant changes in anti-TPO/Tg positivity. Changes in thyroid function and antithyroid antibodies were consistent between BNT162b2 and CoronaVac recipients, except for greater anti-TPO titer increase post BNT162b2 (P < .001). NAb responses were similar between individuals with and without preexisting thyroid autoimmunity (P = .855). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a modest increase in antithyroid antibody titers. Anti-TPO increase was greater among BNT162b2 recipients. However, there was no clinically significant thyroid dysfunction post vaccination. NAb responses were not influenced by preexisting thyroid autoimmunity. Our results provide important reassurance for people to receive the COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , Adult , Antibody Formation , Autoimmunity , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyrotropin
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884151

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 represents a worldwide public health emergency, and, beyond the respiratory symptoms characterizing the classic viral disease, growing evidence has highlighted a possible reciprocal relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and thyroid dysfunction. The updated data discussed in this review suggests a role of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the thyroid gland, with multiple thyroid pictures described. Conversely, no conclusion can be drawn on the association between pre-existing thyroid disease and increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this scenario, selenium (Se), an essential trace element critical for thyroid function and known as an effective agent against viral infections, is emerging as a potential novel therapeutic option for the treatment of COVID-19. Large multicentre cohort studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying thyroid dysfunction during or following recovery from COVID-19, including Se status. Meanwhile, clinical trials should be performed to evaluate whether adequate intake of Se can help address COVID-19 in Se-deficient patients, also avoiding thyroid complications that can contribute to worsening outcomes during infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Thyroid Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/therapeutic use , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology
7.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 66(4): 472-480, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879726

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, severity and presence of symptoms of respiratory tract infections and COVID-19, in patients with pre-existing thyroid dysfunction compared to individuals without thyroid diseases, during the peak month of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands. Subjects and methods: In this retrospective observational cohort study, all patients currently under follow-up at the Radboud UMC for thyroid dysfunction received a digital questionnaire. Primary outcomes were incidence of self-reported sickness and cases diagnosed with COVID-19. We compared these primary outcomes between these patients and individuals without thyroid diseases that received the same questionnaire, recruited from the Human Functional Genomics Cohort at the Radboud UMC. Results: In total, 238 patients with pre-existing thyroid dysfunction and 161 controls were included. Patients did not report more sickness (30.7% vs. 29.2%; p = 0.752) or microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (1.7% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.351). COVID-19 clinical diagnosis was more frequently made in patients with thyroid diseases (4.2% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.032), despite overall lower incidence of self-reported respiratory related symptoms (52.8% vs. 63.8%; p = 0.028), compared to controls. Sub-group analysis between patients with autoimmune and not-autoimmune thyroid dysfunction did not reveal significant associations with respect to any of the outcome measures. Conclusion: This retrospective survey of a cohort of patients with from a tertiary academic hospital suggests that pre-existing thyroid dysfunction, independent from the aetiology, does not lead to an apparent risk to develop respiratory tract infections and COVID-19 related symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33 Suppl 27: 105-107, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840516

ABSTRACT

Few conflicting data are currently available on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with autoimmune disorders. The studies performed so far are influenced, in most cases, by the treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, making it difficult to ascertain the burden of autoimmunity per se. For this reason, herein we assessed the susceptibility to COVID-19 in immunosuppressive drug-naïve patients with autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune gastritis (AIG), celiac disease (CD), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Telephone interviews were conducted on 400 patients-100 for each group-in May 2021 by looking at the positivity of molecular nasopharyngeal swabs and/or serology for SARS-CoV-2, the need for hospitalization, the outcome, and the vaccination status. Overall, a positive COVID-19 test was reported in 33 patients (8.2%), comparable with that of the Lombardy general population (8.2%). In particular, seven patients with AIG, 9 with CD, 8 with T1D, and 9 with AITD experienced COVID-19. Only three patients required hospitalization, none died, and 235 (58.7%) were vaccinated, 43 with AIG, 47 with CD, 91 with T1D, and 54 with AITD. These results seem to suggest that autoimmunity per se does not increase the susceptibility to COVID-19. Also, COVID-19 seems to be mild in these patients, as indicated by the low hospitalization rates and adverse outcomes, although further studies are needed to better clarify this issue.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Gastritis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Thyroid Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(10): 1835-1863, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763507

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The safety and efficacy of the several types of COVID-19 vaccines, including mRNA-based, viral vector-based, and inactivated vaccines, have been approved by WHO. The vaccines can confer protection against severe SARS-CoV-2 infection through induction of the anti-spike protein neutralizing antibodies. However, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been associated with very rare complications, such as thyroid disorders. This review was conducted to highlight main features of thyroid abnormalities following COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A comprehensive search within electronic databases was performed to collect reports of thyroid disorders after vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: Among 83 reported cases including in this review, the most cases of thyroid abnormalities were observed after vaccination with mRNA-based vaccines (68.7%), followed by viral vector vaccines (15.7%) and 14.5% cases following inactivated vaccines. Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) was the most common COVID-19 vaccination-related thyroid disease, accounting for 60.2% of all cases, followed by Graves' disease (GD) with 25.3%. Moreover, some cases with focal painful thyroiditis (3.6%), silent thyroiditis (3.6%), concurrent GD and SAT (2.4%), thyroid eye disease (1.2%), overt hypothyroidism (1.2%), atypical subacute thyroiditis (1.2%), and painless thyroiditis with TPP (1.2%) were also reported. Overall, in 58.0% of SAT cases and in 61.9% of GD cases, the onset of the symptoms occurred following the first vaccine dose with a median of 10.0 days (ranged: 3-21 days) and 10.0 days (ranged: 1-60 days) after vaccination, respectively. Moreover, 40.0% of SAT patients and 38.1% of GD patients developed the symptoms after the second dose with a median of 10.5 days (ranged: 0.5-37 days) and 14.0 days (ranged: 2-35 days) after vaccination, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fortunately, almost all cases with COVID-19 vaccination-associated thyroid dysfunctions had a favorable outcome following therapy. The benefits of COVID-19 vaccinations in terms of terminating the pandemic and/or reducing mortality rates can exceed any risk of infrequent complications such as a transient thyroid malfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Thyroid Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Graves Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroiditis/epidemiology , Thyroiditis, Subacute/epidemiology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
10.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(8): 1521-1526, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756988

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of repurposing health care facilities in response to COVID-19 on the access of patients with thyroid disease to health care. METHODS: This study consisted of a web-based survey. The survey was anonymous and consisted of forty questions. RESULTS: This survey included 206 respondents. 91.3% of the respondents had health insurance through the Republic Fund of Health Insurance, 9.7% had private or both health insurances, and 3.4% did not have any health insurance. A significant proportion of respondents (60.4%) had to switch from public to private health care to reach a physician and 73.8% had to switch from public to private laboratories. For the 91.9%, this was perceived as a financial burden. Before the pandemic, 83.1% of respondents reported regular follow-up by physicians, which decreased to 44.9% during the pandemic (p < 0.01). 76.3% of the respondents regarded that their thyroid disease was managed optimally before the pandemic, while this figure declined to only 48% during the pandemic (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the medical care of thyroid patients in Serbia. For the patients treated in the public health care system, access to general practice was hindered, while access to specialist care was disrupted. It led to a switch from public to private health care, which was perceived as a financial burden for almost all the respondents. However, private health care proved to be an important safety net when the public system was overwhelmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Serbia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/therapy
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(5): 102464, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic properties of thyroid disorder during admission on poor prognosis and factors that may influence the relationship in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed, EBSCO, and CENTRAL was conducted from inception to August 27, 2021. The main exposure was unspecified and specified thyroid disorders-hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism. The outcome of interest was the COVID-19 composite poor outcome that comprises of severity, mortality, ICU admission, and hospitalization. RESULTS: There were 24,734 patients from 20 studies. Meta-analysis showed that thyroid disorder was associated with composite poor outcome (OR 2.87 (95% CI 2.04-4.04), p < 0.001; I2 = 62.4%, p < 0.001). Meta regression showed that age (p = 0.047) and hypertension (p = 0.01), but not gender (p = 0.15), DM (p = 0.10), CAD/CVD (p = 0.38), obesity (p = 0.84), and COPD (p = 0.07) affected the association. Subgroup analysis showed that thyroid disorder increased risk of severe COVID-19 (OR 5.13 (95% CI 3.22-8.17), p < 0.05; I2 = 0%, p = 0.70) and mortality (OR 2.78 (95%CI 1.31-5.90), p < 0.05; I2 = 80%, p < 0.01). Pooled diagnostic analysis of thyroid disorder yielded a sensitivity of 0.22 (0.13-0.35), specificity of 0.92 (0.87-0.95), and AUC of 0.72. The probability of poor outcome was 38% in patients with thyroid disorder and 15% in patients without thyroid abnormality. CONCLUSION: On-admission thyroid disorder was associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypothyroidism , Thyroid Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology
12.
J Int Med Res ; 50(2): 3000605221082898, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714565

ABSTRACT

In this review, I aim to provide a complete overview of recent advances in knowledge regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced thyroid dysfunction. I discuss the findings regarding the role of SARS-CoV-2 in the development of thyroid dysfunction, including subacute thyroiditis, Graves' disease, non-thyroidal illness, thyrotoxicosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis during and subsequent to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The thyroid gland and the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis may represent key targets of SARS-CoV-2. Thyroid dysfunction during and subsequent to COVID-19 has been documented in clinical studies and is usually reversible. Most of the thyroid disorders, including Graves' disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and subacute thyroiditis, have been documented as sequelae to COVID-19, and the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been implicated in the aetiology of each. COVID-19 has been suggested to trigger the activation of pre-existing thyroid disease or autoimmunity. Furthermore, patients with uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis are at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection-related consequences. Because of the neutropenia caused by antithyroid medications, which may obscure the signs of COVID-19, this group of patients should receive special attention. It is suggested that thyroid dysfunction during COVID-19 is caused by direct infection of the thyroid or "cytokine storm"-mediated autoimmune effects on the thyroid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graves Disease , Thyroid Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Graves Disease/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Diseases/complications
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 774346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662575

ABSTRACT

Background: Both lymphopenia and thyroid dysfunction are commonly observed among COVID-19 patients. Whether thyroid function independently correlates with lymphocyte counts (LYM) remains to be elucidated. Methods: We included consecutive adults without known thyroid disorder admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for COVID-19 from July 2020 to April 2021 who had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and LYM measured on admission. Results: A total of 541 patients were included. Median LYM was 1.22 x 109/L, with 36.0% of the cohort lymphopenic. 83 patients (15.4%) had abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs), mostly non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). Patients with lymphopenia had lower TSH, fT4 and fT3 levels than those without. Multivariable stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that both TSH (standardized beta 0.160, p<0.001) and fT3 (standardized beta 0.094, p=0.023), but not fT4, remained independently correlated with LYM, in addition to age, SARS-CoV-2 viral load, C-reactive protein levels, coagulation profile, sodium levels and more severe clinical presentations. Among the 40 patients who had reassessment of TFTs and LYM after discharge, at a median of 9 days from admission, there were significant increases in TSH (p=0.031), fT3 (p<0.001) and LYM (p<0.001). Furthermore, patients who had both lymphopenia and NTIS were more likely to deteriorate compared to those who only had either one alone, and those without lymphopenia or NTIS (p for trend <0.001). Conclusion: TSH and fT3 levels showed independent positive correlations with LYM among COVID-19 patients, supporting the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and immune system in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyrotropin/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Thyroid Diseases/virology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Hormones/blood
14.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(6): 1189-1200, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653860

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To perform a systematic review on published cases of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) secondary to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, to highlight main features and increase the awareness of this condition. METHODS: Original reports of SAT developed after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (mRNA, viral vector, or inactivated virus vaccines) were retrieved from a search of electronic databases. Individual patient data on demographics, medical history, type of vaccine, workup and therapies were collected. Wilcoxon rank-sum, Kruskal-Wallis and chi-squared tests were employed for comparisons. RESULTS: 30 articles including 48 reports were retrieved, 3 additional cases evaluated by the Authors were described and included for analysis. Of the 51 patients, 38 (74.5%) were women, median age was 39.5 years (IQR 34-47). Patients developed SAT after a median of 10 days (IQR 4-14) after the vaccine shot. Baseline thyroid exams revealed thyrotoxicosis in 88.2% of patients, decreasing at 31.6% at follow-up. Corticosteroids were used in 56.4% of treated patients. Patients undergoing non-mRNA vaccines were most frequently Asian (p = 0.019) and reported more frequently weight loss (p = 0.021). All patients with a previous diagnosis of thyroid disease belonged to the mRNA vaccine group. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-associated SAT is a novel entity that should be acknowledged by physicians. Previous history of thyroid disease may predispose to develop SAT after mRNA vaccines, but further studies and larger cohorts are needed to verify this suggestion. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-associated SAT is usually of mild/moderate severity and could be easily treated in most cases, thus it should not raise any concern regarding the need to be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroiditis, Subacute , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroiditis, Subacute/etiology , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935075, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Thyroiditis is an important extrahepatic association in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. There have been reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the onset or re-activation of autoimmune hypothyroidism. Therefore, we performed this prospective observational study of 42 patients with COVID-19 infection and a history of hepatitis C virus infection and thyroid disease with follow-up thyroid function and autoantibody testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS From April 2020 to October 2020, we performed a prospective observational study of patients with cured hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and documented thyroid disease who became infected with SARS-CoV-2 (confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection via reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCT] from the upper respiratory tract, both nasal and pharyngeal swabs). Evaluation at 1 and 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection included serum determination of antithyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin [anti-Tg] and antithyroid peroxidase [ATPO]), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and evaluation of thyroid medication, with dose adjustment if required. RESULTS One-month follow-up showed that both patients with autoimmune thyroiditis as well as patients without antibodies had increased ATPO levels. Also, levels of TSH, fT3, and fT4 were significantly decreased. At 3-month follow-up, levels of ATPO were decreased in all patient groups and the levels of thyroid hormones increased to normal values. CONCLUSIONS This study supports previous reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and thyroid dysfunction associated with thyroid autoantibodies. Thyroid function tests may be considered as part of the laboratory work-up in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Hypothyroidism/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/blood , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
16.
Intern Med ; 60(22): 3573-3576, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518409

ABSTRACT

Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a disorder of the thyroid gland and difficult to diagnose. It is probably triggered by a viral infection. Recently, several articles have reported SAT after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, reports describing SAT after SARS-CoV-2 in Japan are lacking. We herein report the first case of SAT after SARS-CoV-2 infection in Japan. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, some patients can develop not only pneumonia but also SAT. Thus, a careful follow-up is recommended for patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on thyroid dysfunction should not be ignored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroiditis, Subacute , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroiditis, Subacute/diagnosis
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 746602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477814

ABSTRACT

Background: Some studies have indicated that interferon (IFN) may be valuable in COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the impact of short-term IFN on incident thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity among COVID-19 survivors. Methods: We included consecutive adults without known thyroid disorder admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for COVID-19 from July 2020 to January 2021 who had thyroid function tests (TFTs) and anti-thyroid antibodies measured both on admission and at three months. Results: 226 patients were included (median age 55.0 years; 49.6% men): 135 were IFN-treated. There tended to be more abnormal TFTs upon reassessment in IFN-treated patients (8.1% vs 2.2%, p=0.080). 179 patients (65.4% IFN-treated) had a complete reassessment of anti-thyroid antibodies. There were significant increases in titres of both anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO: baseline 29.21 units [IQR: 14.97 - 67.14] vs reassessment 34.30 units [IQR: 18.82 - 94.65], p<0.001) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg: baseline 8.23 units [IQR: 5.40 - 18.44] vs reassessment 9.14 units [IQR: 6.83 - 17.17], p=0.001) in the IFN-treated group but not IFN-naïve group. IFN treatment (standardised beta 0.245, p=0.001) was independently associated with changes in anti-TPO titre. Of the 143 patients negative for anti-TPO at baseline, 8 became anti-TPO positive upon reassessment (seven IFN-treated; one IFN-naïve). Incident anti-TPO positivity was more likely to be associated with abnormal TFTs upon reassessment (phi 0.188, p=0.025). Conclusion: IFN for COVID-19 was associated with modest increases in anti-thyroid antibody titres, and a trend of more incident anti-TPO positivity and abnormal TFTs during convalescence. Our findings suggest that clinicians monitor the thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies among IFN-treated COVID-19 survivors, and call for further follow-up studies regarding the clinical significance of these changes.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon beta-1b/adverse effects , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Thyroid Diseases/chemically induced , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Adult , Antibodies/analysis , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449274

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the outbreak and rapid spread of the novel SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has evolved into an unprecedented global pandemic. The infection impairs several human organs and systems, however, it is not clear how it affects thyroid function. The study therefore aimed at measuring plasma levels of thyroid hormones and Hs-CRP in COVID-19 patients and apparently healthy uninfected controls to assess the possible effect of SAR-CoV-2 infection on thyroid function. METHODS: in this cross-sectional study carried out between May-August 2020, 90 consenting participants comprising 45 COVID-19 patients and 45 apparently healthy uninfected controls were recruited. Plasma FT3, FT4, TSH and Hs-CRP were measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20 and statistical significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: the mean plasma FT3 and TSH concentrations were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). Euthyroidism was observed in all uninfected controls, whereas 35 (77.8%) COVID-19 patients were euthyroid. Sick euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in 7 (15.6%) and 3 (6.7%) COVID-19 patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: though there was a preponderance of euthyroidism among COVID-19 patients, significantly higher mean plasma levels of TSH and FT3, sick euthyroid syndrome and subclinical hypothyroidism observed among some COVID-19 patients may be indicative of disease-related thyroid function changes. Hence, there is need to pay attention to thyroid function during and after treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/virology , Female , Humans , Hypothyroidism/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Thyroid Diseases/virology , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Young Adult
19.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 28(5): 525-532, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381057

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with excess morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension and diabetes but little is known about thyroid diseases. Thus, our goal was to review the literature with respect to: (i) Are patients with underlying hypo- or hyperthyroidism at increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection? (ii) do underlying hypo- and hyperthyroidism impact the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection? (iii) does SARS-CoV-2 infection cause de novo thyroid dysfunction? RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with hypo- or hyperthyroidism do not have an increased risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2, and a diagnosis of hypo- or hyperthyroidism is not associated with a worsened prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with subsequent thyrotoxicosis, euthyroid sick syndrome, subacute thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroid disease. SUMMARY: These findings suggest that receiving treatment for thyroid dysfunction does not per se impact the patients' risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection, or the management of those who already contracted it. Additional studies with larger numbers of patients and long-term follow-up are required in order to clarify whether patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more or less prone to develop thyroid dysfunction and/or thyroid autoimmunity than patients recovering from other virus infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes , Thyroid Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology
20.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(1): 181-188, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317607

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, elective thyroid surgery is experiencing delays. The problem is that the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing. The research purposes were to systematically collect the literature data on the characteristics of those thyroid operations performed and to assess the safety/risks associated with thyroid surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We used all the procedures consistent with the PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive literature in MEDLINE (PubMed) and Scopus was made using ''Thyroid'' and "coronavirus" as search terms. RESULTS: Of a total of 293 articles identified, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria. The total number of patients undergoing thyroid surgery was 2217. The indication for surgery was malignancy in 1347 cases (60.8%). Screening protocols varied depending on hospital protocol and maximum levels of personal protection equipment were adopted. The hospital length of stay was 2-3 days. Total thyroidectomy was chosen for 1557 patients (1557/1868, 83.4%), of which 596 procedures (596/1558, 38.3%) were combined with lymph node dissections. Cross-infections were registered in 14 cases (14/721, 1.9%), of which three (3/721, 0.4%) with severe pulmonary complications of COVID-19. 377 patients (377/1868, 20.2%) had complications after surgery, of which 285 (285/377, 75.6%) hypoparathyroidism and 71 (71/377, 18.8%) recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. CONCLUSION: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission after thyroid surgery is relatively low. Our study could promote the restart of planned thyroid surgery due to COVID-19. Future studies are warranted to obtain more solid data about the risk of complications after thyroid surgery during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/surgery , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism/epidemiology , Laryngeal Nerve Injuries/epidemiology , Lymph Node Excision/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects
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