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1.
Endocrine ; 76(3): 635-641, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872731

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Data about the effects of COVID-19 on the endocrine system are increasing over time. In the present study, we investigated the effects of COVID-19 on the thyroid gland among COVID-19 survivors by comparing them with healthy subjects. METHODS: Adult COVID-19 survivors who were managed and followed up in the Infectious Disease clinic were asked to participate in this study. COVID-19 survivors were recruited via a convenience sampling and those who agreed to participate in this study were seen by endocrinologists for assessments. The blood tests were obtained for thyroid antibodies and thyroid function tests. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG) was done by the same physician. The ellipsoid formula was used for the calculation of thyroid gland volume. RESULTS: 64 adult COVID-19 survivors and 70 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The COVID-19 survivors were evaluated at median 5.7 months (IQR: 4-6.5) (range: 2-7 months) after acute infection. The mean thyroid gland volume was significantly lower in COVID-19 survivors (10.3 ± 3.4 mL) than in the controls (14 ± 5.3 mL) (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels between the groups. Among the twelve patients who had thyroid function evaluated in acute COVID-19, fT3 values were lower in acute COVID-19 than at the time of USG evaluation (3.04 ± 0.41 vs 3.47 ± 0.31 pg/mL), (p = 0.02). Among COVID-19 survivors, mild TSH elevation was detected in 4 (6.2%) patients and all of the other COVID-19 survivors (93.7%) were euthyroid. CONCLUSIONS: At 6 months after acute COVID, COVID-19 survivors had smaller thyroid gland volume than healthy controls, and only a few of the COVID-19 survivors had abnormal thyroid function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 774346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662575

ABSTRACT

Background: Both lymphopenia and thyroid dysfunction are commonly observed among COVID-19 patients. Whether thyroid function independently correlates with lymphocyte counts (LYM) remains to be elucidated. Methods: We included consecutive adults without known thyroid disorder admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for COVID-19 from July 2020 to April 2021 who had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and LYM measured on admission. Results: A total of 541 patients were included. Median LYM was 1.22 x 109/L, with 36.0% of the cohort lymphopenic. 83 patients (15.4%) had abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs), mostly non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). Patients with lymphopenia had lower TSH, fT4 and fT3 levels than those without. Multivariable stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that both TSH (standardized beta 0.160, p<0.001) and fT3 (standardized beta 0.094, p=0.023), but not fT4, remained independently correlated with LYM, in addition to age, SARS-CoV-2 viral load, C-reactive protein levels, coagulation profile, sodium levels and more severe clinical presentations. Among the 40 patients who had reassessment of TFTs and LYM after discharge, at a median of 9 days from admission, there were significant increases in TSH (p=0.031), fT3 (p<0.001) and LYM (p<0.001). Furthermore, patients who had both lymphopenia and NTIS were more likely to deteriorate compared to those who only had either one alone, and those without lymphopenia or NTIS (p for trend <0.001). Conclusion: TSH and fT3 levels showed independent positive correlations with LYM among COVID-19 patients, supporting the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and immune system in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyrotropin/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Thyroid Diseases/virology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Hormones/blood
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935075, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Thyroiditis is an important extrahepatic association in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. There have been reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the onset or re-activation of autoimmune hypothyroidism. Therefore, we performed this prospective observational study of 42 patients with COVID-19 infection and a history of hepatitis C virus infection and thyroid disease with follow-up thyroid function and autoantibody testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS From April 2020 to October 2020, we performed a prospective observational study of patients with cured hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and documented thyroid disease who became infected with SARS-CoV-2 (confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection via reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCT] from the upper respiratory tract, both nasal and pharyngeal swabs). Evaluation at 1 and 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection included serum determination of antithyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin [anti-Tg] and antithyroid peroxidase [ATPO]), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and evaluation of thyroid medication, with dose adjustment if required. RESULTS One-month follow-up showed that both patients with autoimmune thyroiditis as well as patients without antibodies had increased ATPO levels. Also, levels of TSH, fT3, and fT4 were significantly decreased. At 3-month follow-up, levels of ATPO were decreased in all patient groups and the levels of thyroid hormones increased to normal values. CONCLUSIONS This study supports previous reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and thyroid dysfunction associated with thyroid autoantibodies. Thyroid function tests may be considered as part of the laboratory work-up in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Hypothyroidism/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/blood , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
4.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(4): 837-847, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19) represents the current worldwide emergency. According to past evidence, a simple biomarker, such as low free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels, within the framework of euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), might help to identify patients with unfavourable outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of ESS significance in hospitalized mild COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Prospective study, from 1 April 2020 to 31 May 2021. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19 patients with mild disease at hospital admission. MAIN MEASURES: At hospital admission, eligible patients underwent a complete thyroid function evaluation. Subjects with previous thyroid disease or with thyroid-interfering medications were excluded. Levels of fT3 were correlated to biochemical markers and to patient outcome, the latter considered as favourable in the event of infection recovery and unfavourable in the event of death or transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU). KEY RESULTS: Of 600 screened patients, 506 were eligible for this study. Of those, 94 (19%) died during hospitalization and 80 (18%) required a transfer to ICU. The most frequent thyroid disorder was ESS (57%). Admission levels of fT3 were significantly lower within the unfavourable outcome subgroup (p < 0.001) and were negatively associated with several poor prognostic markers, including IL-6 (p < 0.001). In Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses, fT3 was independently associated with poor outcome and death (p = 0.005 and p = 0.037, respectively). A critical fT3 threshold for levels < 2.7 pmol/l (sensitivity 69%, specificity 61%) was associated with a 3.5-fold increased risk of negative outcome (95%CI 2.34-5.34). CONCLUSION: Low fT3 levels, in the framework of ESS, resulted as being a valid predictor of unfavourable outcomes in a very early stage population of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/etiology , Triiodothyronine/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/blood , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Thyroid Function Tests
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 746602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477814

ABSTRACT

Background: Some studies have indicated that interferon (IFN) may be valuable in COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the impact of short-term IFN on incident thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity among COVID-19 survivors. Methods: We included consecutive adults without known thyroid disorder admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for COVID-19 from July 2020 to January 2021 who had thyroid function tests (TFTs) and anti-thyroid antibodies measured both on admission and at three months. Results: 226 patients were included (median age 55.0 years; 49.6% men): 135 were IFN-treated. There tended to be more abnormal TFTs upon reassessment in IFN-treated patients (8.1% vs 2.2%, p=0.080). 179 patients (65.4% IFN-treated) had a complete reassessment of anti-thyroid antibodies. There were significant increases in titres of both anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO: baseline 29.21 units [IQR: 14.97 - 67.14] vs reassessment 34.30 units [IQR: 18.82 - 94.65], p<0.001) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg: baseline 8.23 units [IQR: 5.40 - 18.44] vs reassessment 9.14 units [IQR: 6.83 - 17.17], p=0.001) in the IFN-treated group but not IFN-naïve group. IFN treatment (standardised beta 0.245, p=0.001) was independently associated with changes in anti-TPO titre. Of the 143 patients negative for anti-TPO at baseline, 8 became anti-TPO positive upon reassessment (seven IFN-treated; one IFN-naïve). Incident anti-TPO positivity was more likely to be associated with abnormal TFTs upon reassessment (phi 0.188, p=0.025). Conclusion: IFN for COVID-19 was associated with modest increases in anti-thyroid antibody titres, and a trend of more incident anti-TPO positivity and abnormal TFTs during convalescence. Our findings suggest that clinicians monitor the thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies among IFN-treated COVID-19 survivors, and call for further follow-up studies regarding the clinical significance of these changes.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon beta-1b/adverse effects , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Thyroid Diseases/chemically induced , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Adult , Antibodies/analysis , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
7.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(3): 582-589, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of Graves' disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) raised concerns that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may trigger thyroid autoimmunity. We aimed to address the current uncertainties regarding incident thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity among COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: We included consecutive adult COVID-19 patients without known thyroid disorders, who were admitted to Queen Mary Hospital from July 21 to September 21, 2020 and had serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and anti-thyroid antibodies measured both on admission and at 3 months. RESULTS: In total, 122 patients were included. Among 20 patients with abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs) on admission (mostly low fT3), 15 recovered. Among 102 patients with initial normal TFTs, two had new-onset abnormalities that could represent different phases of thyroiditis. Among 104 patients whose anti-thyroid antibody titers were reassessed, we observed increases in anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) (P<0.001) and anti-thyroglobulin (P<0.001), but not anti-thyroid stimulating hormone receptor titers (P=0.486). Of 82 patients with negative anti-TPO findings at baseline, 16 had a significant interval increase in anti-TPO titer by >12 U, and four became anti-TPO-positive. Worse baseline clinical severity (P=0.018), elevated C-reactive protein during hospitalization (P=0.033), and higher baseline anti-TPO titer (P=0.005) were associated with a significant increase in anti-TPO titer. CONCLUSION: Most patients with thyroid dysfunction on admission recovered during convalescence. Abnormal TFTs suggestive of thyroiditis occurred during convalescence, but infrequently. Importantly, our novel observation of an increase in anti-thyroid antibody titers post-COVID-19 warrants further follow-up for incident thyroid dysfunction among COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Gland/immunology , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Adult , Autoimmunity/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thyroid Diseases/etiology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/etiology
8.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(12): 2735-2739, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260620

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: "Non thyroidal illness syndrome" (NTIS) or "euthyroid sick syndrome" (ESS) is a possible biochemical finding in euthyroid patients with severe diseases. It is characterized by a reduction of serum T3 (fT3), sometimes followed by reduction of serum T4 (fT4). The relationship between thyroid hormones levels and mortality is well known and different studies showed a direct association between NTIS and mortality. The sudden spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV 2) infection (COVID-19) and its high mortality become a world healthcare problem. Our aim in this paper was to investigate if patients affected by COVID-19 presented NTIS and the relationship between thyroid function and severity of this infection. METHODS: We evaluated the thyroid function in two different groups of consecutive patients affected by COVID-19 with respect to a control group of euthyroid patients. Group A included patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia while patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) for acute respiratory syndrome formed the group B. Group C identified the control group of euthyroid patients. RESULTS: Patients from group A and group B showed a statistically significant reduction in fT3 and TSH compared to group C. In group B, compared to group A, a further statistically significant reduction of fT3 and TSH was found. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in-patients can present NTIS. FT3 and TSH serum levels are lower in patients with more severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/complications , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(8): 2208-2220, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234575

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to exert an immense burden on global health services. Moreover, up to 63% of patients experience persistent symptoms, including fatigue, after acute illness. Endocrine systems are vulnerable to the effects of COVID-19 as many glands express the ACE2 receptor, used by the SARS-CoV-2 virion for cellular access. However, the effects of COVID-19 on adrenal and thyroid gland function after acute COVID-19 remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to evaluate adrenal and thyroid gland function in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was undertaken at the Clinical Research Facility, Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust, including 70 patients ≥18 years of age, at least 3 months after diagnosis of COVID-19. Participants attended a research study visit (8:00-9:30 am), during which a short Synacthen test (250 µg IV bolus) and thyroid function assessments were performed. RESULTS: All patients had a peak cortisol ≥450 nmol/L after Synacthen, consistent with adequate adrenal reserve. Basal and peak serum cortisol did not differ according to disease severity or history of dexamethasone treatment during COVID-19. There was no difference in baseline or peak cortisol after Synacthen or in thyroid function tests, or thyroid status, in patients with fatigue (n = 44) compared to those without (n = 26). CONCLUSION: Adrenal and thyroid function ≥3 months after presentation with COVID-19 was preserved. While a significant proportion of patients experienced persistent fatigue, their symptoms were not accounted for by alterations in adrenal or thyroid function. These findings have important implications for the clinical care of patients after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands/physiology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(9): 1801-1814, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction has been observed in patients with COVID-19, and endocrinologists are requested to understand this clinical issue. Pandemic-related restrictions and reorganization of healthcare services may affect thyroid disease management. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To analyze and discuss the relationship between COVID-19 and thyroid diseases from several perspectives. PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, ClinicalTrial.gov were searched for this purpose by using free text words and medical subject headings as follows: "sars cov 2", "covid 19", "subacute thyroiditis", "atypical thyroiditis", "chronic thyroiditis", "hashimoto's thyroiditis", "graves' disease", "thyroid nodule", "differentiated thyroid cancer", "medullary thyroid cancer", "methimazole", "levothyroxine", "multikinase inhibitor", "remdesivir", "tocilizumab". Data were collected, analyzed, and discussed to answer the following clinical questions: "What evidence suggests that COVID-19 may induce detrimental consequences on thyroid function?"; "Could previous or concomitant thyroid diseases deteriorate the prognosis of COVID-19 once the infection has occurred?"; "Could medical management of thyroid diseases influence the clinical course of COVID-19?"; "Does medical management of COVID-19 interfere with thyroid function?"; "Are there defined strategies to better manage endocrine diseases despite restrictive measures and in-hospital and ambulatory activities reorganizations?". RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 may induce thyroid dysfunction that is usually reversible, including subclinical and atypical thyroiditis. Patients with baseline thyroid diseases are not at higher risk of contracting or transmitting SARS-CoV-2, and baseline thyroid dysfunction does not foster a worse progression of COVID-19. However, it is unclear whether low levels of free triiodothyronine, observed in seriously ill patients with COVID-19, may worsen the disease's clinical progression and, consequently, if triiodothyronine supplementation could be a tool for reducing this burden. Glucocorticoids and heparin may affect thyroid hormone secretion and measurement, respectively, leading to possible misdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in severe cases of COVID-19. High-risk thyroid nodules require a fine-needle aspiration without relevant delay, whereas other non-urgent diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions should be postponed. DISCUSSION: Currently, we know that SARS-CoV-2 could lead to short-term and reversible thyroid dysfunction, but thyroid diseases seem not to affect the progression of COVID-19. Adequate management of patients with thyroid diseases remains essential during the pandemic, but it could be compromised because of healthcare service restrictions. Endocrine care centers should continuously recognize and classify priority cases for in-person visits and therapeutic procedures. Telemedicine may be a useful tool for managing patients not requiring in-person visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Thyroid Function Tests/trends , Thyroid Gland/immunology
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(5): 699-709, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alterations in thyroid function tests (TFTs) have been recorded during SARS-CoV-2 infection as associated to either a destructive thyroiditis or a non-thyroidal illness. METHODS: We studied 144 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to a single center in intensive or subintensive care units. Those with previous thyroid dysfunctions or taking interfering drugs were excluded. Differently from previous reports, TSH, FT3, FT4, thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg autoantibodies (TgAb) were measured at baseline and every 3-7 days. C-reacting protein (CRP), cortisol and IL-6 were also assayed. RESULTS: The majority of patients had a normal TSH at admission, usually with normal FT4 and FT3. Low TSH levels were found either at admission or during hospitalization in 39% of patients, associated with low FT3 in half of the cases. FT4 and Tg levels were normal, and TgAb-negative. TSH and FT3 were invariably restored at the time of discharge in survivors, whereas were permanently low in most deceased cases, but only FT3 levels were predictors of mortality. Cortisol, CRP and IL-6 levels were higher in patients with low TSH and FT3 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of our COVID-19 patients without interfering drugs had normal TFTs both at admission and during follow-up. In this series, the transient finding of low TSH with normal FT4 and low FT3 levels, inversely correlated with CRP, cortisol and IL-6 and associated with normal Tg levels, is likely due to the cytokine storm induced by SARS-Cov-2 with a direct or mediated impact on TSH secretion and deiodinase activity, and likely not to a destructive thyroiditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Thyroglobulin/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoantibodies/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroglobulin/immunology , Thyroid Function Tests
12.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(1): 30-35, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120166

ABSTRACT

This review highlights the most interesting research in thyroidology conducted in 2020. The publications of interest discussed below dealt with the following topics: thyroid dysfunction, risk of thyroid cancer, molecular diagnostics and new therapeutics for thyroid cancer, and thyroid disease in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocrinology/trends , Thyroid Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
13.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 95(3): 369-377, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112220

ABSTRACT

The literature on COVID-19-related thyroid complications has accumulated over the past year or so as the pandemic has accelerated throughout the world. In particular, several recent case reports have been published describing a possible correlation between COVID-19 disease and subacute thyroiditis (SAT). In this review, we briefly present one of our own patients and review the current published literature in this area up to January 2021, including analyses of major series of thyroid function tests in patients with significant COVID-19 infection. We conclude that while the great majority of patients with severe COVID-19 infection may show manifestations of the sick euthyroid syndrome, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of SAT, especially in the early weeks and months following even mild COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroiditis, Subacute , Thyroiditis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroiditis/virology , Thyroiditis, Subacute/virology
14.
Thyroid ; 31(1): 8-11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066232

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019, it has affected >200 countries, areas, or territories in 6 continents. At present, whether COVID-19 has an effect on thyroid function is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate thyroid function in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and chest computed tomography scans were retrospectively reviewed for 50 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 without a history of thyroid disease who underwent thyroid function testing during their course of COVID-19 infection and after recovery. They were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, between January and March 2020. Healthy participants who underwent routine physical checkups and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients with a similar degree of severity during the same period were included in the study as the control group. Thyroid hormone and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were analyzed and compared between the COVID-19 and control groups. Results: TSH lower than the normal range was present in 56% (28/50) of the patients with COVID-19. The levels of TSH and serum total triiodothyronine (TT3) of the patients with COVID-19 were significantly lower than those of the healthy control group and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients. The more severe the COVID-19, the lower the TSH and TT3 levels were, with statistical significance (p < 0.001). The degree of the decreases in TSH and TT3 levels was positively correlated with the severity of the disease. The total thyroxine (TT4) level of the patients with COVID-19 was not significantly different from the control group. All the patients did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy. After recovery, no significant differences in TSH, TT3, TT4, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were found between the COVID-19 and control groups. Conclusions: The changes in serum TSH and TT3 levels may be important manifestations of the courses of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/virology
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 606723, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000076

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) was first reported in December 2019 and quickly swept across China and around the world. Levels of anxiety and depression were increased among pregnant women during this infectious pandemic. Thyroid function is altered during stressful experiences, and any abnormality during early pregnancy may significantly affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic induces thyroid hormone changes in early pregnant women. Methods: This study comprised two groups of pregnant women in Shanghai in their first trimester - those pregnant women before the COVID-19 outbreak from January 20, 2019, to March 31, 2019 (Group 1) and those pregnant during the COVID-19 outbreak from January 20, 2020, to March 31, 2020 (Group 2). All women were included if they had early pregnancy thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), and total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody or thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) available and did not have a history of thyroid diseases or received thyroid treatment before or during pregnancy. We used propensity score matching to form a cohort in which patients had similar baseline characteristics. Results: Among 3338 eligible pregnant women, 727 women in Group 1 and 727 in Group 2 had similar propensity scores and were included in the analyses. Pregnant women in Group 2 had significantly higher FT3 (5.7 vs. 5.2 pmol/L, P<0.001) and lower FT4 (12.8 vs. 13.2 pmol/L, P<0.001) concentrations compared with those in Group 1. Pregnant women in Group 2 were more likely to develop isolated hypothyroxinemia (11.6% vs. 6.9%, OR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.20-2.53], P=0.003) than those in Group 1 but had a significantly lower risk of TgAb positivity (12.0% vs. 19.0%, OR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.43-0.78], P<0.001). Conclusion: Pregnant women in their first trimester in Shanghai during the COVID-19 outbreak were at an increased risk of having higher FT3 concentrations, lower FT4 concentrations, and isolated hypothyroxinemia. The association between thyroid hormones, pregnancy outcomes, and the COVID-19 outbreak should be explored further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy/blood , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Propensity Score , Socioeconomic Factors , Thyroid Function Tests , Young Adult
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(12): 1201-1205, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, few studies have examined the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine patient care and follow-up. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 response on biochemical test requests received from outpatient departments (OPDs) and peripheral clinics serviced by the National Health Laboratory Service Chemical Pathology Laboratory at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa (SA). Request volumes were used as a measure of the routine care of patients, as clinical information was not readily available. METHODS: A retrospective audit was conducted. The numbers of requests received from OPDs and peripheral clinics for creatinine, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, free tri-iodothyronine (fT3), serum and urine protein electrophoresis, serum free light chains and neonatal total serum bilirubin were obtained from 1 March to 30 June for 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The biggest impact was seen on lipids, creatinine, HbA1c, TSH and fT3. The percentage reduction between 1 March and 30 June 2019 and between 1 March and 30 June 2020 was 59% for lipids, 64% for creatinine and HbA1c, 80% for TSH and 81% for fT3. There was a noteworthy decrease in overall analyte testing from March to April 2020, coinciding with initiation of level 5 lockdown. Although an increase in testing was observed during June 2020, the number of requests was still lower than in June 2019. CONCLUSIONS: This study, focusing on the short-term consequences of the SA response to the COVID-19 pandemic, found that routine follow-up of patients with communicable and non-communicable diseases was affected. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term consequences of the pandemic for these patient groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Services/trends , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Delivery of Health Care , Ambulatory Care , Bilirubin/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis/trends , Blood Protein Electrophoresis , Creatinine/blood , Electrophoresis/trends , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Lipids/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , Urinalysis/trends
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991779

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 has wreaked havoc globally and has claimed innumerable lives all over the world. The symptoms of this disease may range from mild influenza-like symptoms to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome with high morbidity and mortality. With improved diagnostic techniques and better disease understanding, an increased number of cases are being reported with extrapulmonary manifestations of this disease ranging from renal and gastrointestinal to cardiac, hepatic, neurological and haematological dysfunction. Subacute thyroiditis is a self-limiting and painful thyroid gland inflammation most often secondary to viral infections. We report a case of subacute thyroiditis in a 58-year-old gentleman presenting with a painful swelling in the neck who was subsequently detected to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. We seek to highlight the broad clinical spectrum of the COVID-19 by reporting probably the first case of subacute thyroiditis possibly induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection from India.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroiditis, Subacute , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Thyroid Function Tests/methods , Thyroiditis, Subacute/diagnosis , Thyroiditis, Subacute/physiopathology , Thyroiditis, Subacute/therapy , Thyroiditis, Subacute/virology , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods
18.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 521: 111097, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thyroid hormones play a key role in modulating metabolism and the immune system. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction (TD) and its association with the prognosis of COVID-19 have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to address this gap and understand the link between TD and COVID-19. METHODS: Herein, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 and had normal or abnormal thyroid function test results at the West Court of Union Hospital in Wuhan, China, between 29 January and February 26, 2020. We carried out follow up examinations until April 26, 2020. Data on clinical features, treatment strategies, and prognosis were collected and analyzed. TD was defined as an abnormal thyroid function test result, including overt thyrotoxicosis, overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid sick syndrome. RESULTS: A total of 25 and 46 COVID-19 patients with and without TD, respectively, were included in the study. COVID-19 patients with TD had significantly higher neutrophil counts and higher levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and high-sensitive troponin I and a longer activated partial thromboplastin time but lower lymphocyte, platelet, and eosinophil counts. A longitudinal analysis of serum biomarkers showed that patients with TD presented persistently high levels of biomarkers for inflammatory response and cardiac injury. COVID-19 patients with TD were more likely to develop a critical subtype of the disease. Patients with TD had a significantly higher fatality rate than did those without TD during hospitalization (20% vs 0%, P = 0.002). Patients with TD were more likely to stay in the hospital for more than 28 days than were those without TD (80% vs 56.52%, P = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary findings suggest that TD is associated with poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Function Tests
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): e803-e811, 2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922690

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The effects of COVID-19 on the thyroid axis remain uncertain. Recent evidence has been conflicting, with both thyrotoxicosis and suppression of thyroid function reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to detail the acute effects of COVID-19 on thyroid function and determine if these effects persisted on recovery from COVID-19. DESIGN: A cohort observational study was conducted. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Adult patients admitted to Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, UK, with suspected COVID-19 between March 9 to April 22, 2020, were included, excluding those with preexisting thyroid disease and those missing either free thyroxine (FT4) or thyrotropin (TSH) measurements. Of 456 patients, 334 had COVID-19 and 122 did not. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: TSH and FT4 measurements were recorded at admission, and where available, in 2019 and at COVID-19 follow-up. RESULTS: Most patients (86.6%) presenting with COVID-19 were euthyroid, with none presenting with overt thyrotoxicosis. Patients with COVID-19 had a lower admission TSH and FT4 compared to those without COVID-19. In the COVID-19 patients with matching baseline thyroid function tests from 2019 (n = 185 for TSH and 104 for FT4), TSH and FT4 both were reduced at admission compared to baseline. In a complete case analysis of COVID-19 patients with TSH measurements at follow-up, admission, and baseline (n = 55), TSH was seen to recover to baseline at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with COVID-19 present with euthyroidism. We observed mild reductions in TSH and FT4 in keeping with a nonthyroidal illness syndrome. Furthermore, in survivors of COVID-19, thyroid function tests at follow-up returned to baseline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Time Factors , Triiodothyronine/blood
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): e926-e935, 2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related thyroiditis is increasingly recognized. The role of thyroid autoimmunity and SARS-CoV-2 viral load in SARS-CoV-2-related thyroid dysfunction is unclear. We evaluated the thyroid function of a cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, in relation to their clinical features, and biochemical, immunological, and inflammatory markers. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients, without known thyroid disorders, admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for COVID-19 from July 21 to August 21, 2020, were included. Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and antithyroid antibodies were measured on admission. RESULTS: Among 191 patients with COVID-19 (mean age 53.5 ±â€…17.2 years; 51.8% male), 84.3% were mild, 12.6% were moderate, and 3.1% were severe. Abnormal thyroid function was seen in 13.1%. Ten patients had isolated low TSH, suggestive of subclinical thyrotoxicosis due to thyroiditis, although the contribution of autoimmunity was likely in 2 of them. Autoimmune thyroiditis probably also contributed to subclinical hypothyroidism in another patient. Ten patients had isolated low fT3, likely representing nonthyroidal illness syndrome. Lower SARS-Cov-2 polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold values and elevated C-reactive protein were independently associated with occurrence of low TSH (P = .030) and low fT3 (P = .007), respectively. A decreasing trend of fT3 with increasing COVID-19 severity (P = .032) was found. Patients with low fT3 had more adverse COVID-19-related outcomes. CONCLUSION: Around 15% of patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 had thyroid dysfunction. There may be a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on thyroid function, potentially leading to exacerbation of pre-existing autoimmune thyroid disease. Low fT3, associated with systemic inflammation, may have a prognostic significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immune System/physiology , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/complications , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/diagnosis , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/epidemiology , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immune System/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/complications , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Thyrotoxicosis/complications , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnosis , Thyrotoxicosis/epidemiology , Thyrotoxicosis/immunology
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