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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066123

ABSTRACT

Hygiene is essential to avoid diseases, and this is thanks to daily cleaning and disinfection habits. Currently, there are numerous commercial products containing antimicrobial agents, and although they are efficient in disinfecting, it is still not known the effect of the constant use of these products on human health. In fact, a massive use of disinfectants has been observed due to COVID-19, but the possible adverse effects are not yet known. Triclosan is one of the antimicrobial agents used in cosmetic products, toothpaste, and disinfectants. This compound is an endocrine disruptor, which means it can interfere with hormonal function, with its estrogenic and androgenic activity having already been stated. Even if the use of triclosan is well-regulated, with the maximum allowed concentration in the European Union of 0.3% (m/m), its effects on human health are still uncertain. Studies in animals and humans suggest the possibility of harmful health outcomes, particularly for the reproductive system, and in a less extent for the cardiovascular and thyroid functions. Thus, the purpose of this review was to analyse the possible implications of the massive use of triclosan, mainly on the reproductive and cardiovascular systems and on the thyroid function, both in animals and humans.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Disinfectants , Endocrine Disruptors , Triclosan , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/adverse effects , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Humans , Thyroid Gland , Toothpastes , Triclosan/adverse effects
2.
Endocrinology ; 163(11)2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021399

ABSTRACT

Several observational studies have confirmed the relationship between thyroid hormones and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but this correlation remains controversial. We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis based on the largest publicly available summary datasets. Summary statistics with 49 269 individuals for free thyroxine (FT4) and 54 288 for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were used as exposure instruments. Genome-wide association studies of susceptibility (cases = 38 984; controls = 1 644 784), hospitalization (cases: 9986 = controls = 1 877 672), and very severe disease (cases = 5101; controls = 1 383 241) of COVID-19 were used as the outcome. We used the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method as the primary analysis, and utilized MR-Egger regression, weighted median, and robust adjusted profile score (RAPS) for sensitivity analysis. Genetic predisposition to higher serum levels of FT4 within the normal range was negatively associated with the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 0.818; 95% CI, 0.718-0.932; P = 2.6 × 10-3) and very severe disease (OR = 0.758; 95% CI, 0.626-0.923; P = 5.8 × 10-3), but not susceptibility. There is no evidence that genetically predicted circulating TSH levels are associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity risk. Neither apparent pleiotropy nor heterogeneity were detected in the sensitivity analysis. In summary, we found that higher FT4 levels may reduce the risk of COVID-19 severity, suggesting that thyroid function testing may be required for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Gland , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Susceptibility , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
3.
Thyroid ; 32(9): 1051-1058, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956555

ABSTRACT

Background: The safety of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines is widely appreciated. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on the thyroid. Methods: We performed two prospective clinical trials between April and June, 2021, enrolling recipients of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac). Thyroid function, antithyroid antibody levels, and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody levels were detected for each participant before receiving the first vaccine dose and 28 days after receiving the second vaccine dose. Results: A total of 657 recipients participated in the study. The overall median thyroid function and levels of antithyroid antibodies before and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were within the normal range. Among the 564 participants with normal thyroid function at baseline, 36 (6.38% [confidence interval; CI 4.51-8.73]) developed thyroid dysfunction. Of the 545 recipients with negative antithyroid antibodies at baseline, none developed abnormal antibodies after vaccination. Notably, 75.27% (70/93 [CI 65.24-83.63]) of the 93 recipients with thyroid dysfunction returned to normal function after vaccination. The levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibody (96.20% [CI 89.30-99.21]) and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb; 88.31% [CI 78.97-94.51]) remained positive after vaccination in most patients with abnormal values at baseline. However, the TgAb levels in more than half of the patients (48/77) decreased. All of 11 abnormal thyrotropin receptor antibody levels at baseline decreased postvaccination. Conclusions: Vaccination with an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine had no significant adverse impact on thyroid function or antithyroid antibodies within the first 28 days after the second dose. Clinical Trial Registration: ChiCTR2100045109 and ChiCTR2100042222.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Peroxidases , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Thyrotropin , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
4.
Endocrine ; 78(3): 436-440, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956006

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) produced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious infectious disease. In addition to typical flu-like symptoms, COVID-19 can also cause extrapulmonary spread and systemic inflammation, potentially causing multiorgan dysfunction, including thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid function changes in patients with COVID-19 have been widely reported, but the results are inconsistent. Based on available data, SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to changes in thyroid function, and the degree of thyroid function changes was positively correlated with the severity of COVID-19, which involved multiple potential mechanisms. In contrast, current evidence was insufficient to prove that thyroid function changes could induce the progression of COVID-19 clinical deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Chickens , Thyroid Gland , Inflammation
5.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(9): 22, 2022 05.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943448
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 875325, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933630

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about mental health in patients after thyroid surgery during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. This study aimed to assess the mental health of postoperative thyroid patients and to explore potential factors associated with psychological symptoms. Methods: In this study, we surveyed 241 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Insomnia, anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were measured using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), respectively. Results: A significant proportion of postoperative patients reported experiencing insomnia, anxiety, depression, and PTSS. Patients that were older, single/divorced/widowed, and less educated; had lower income and poor general health; had undergone surgery within the past six months; had disrupted follow-up, and; searched social media for COVID-19-related information were associated with worse mental health. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, postoperative thyroid patients tended to develop mental health problems and have less psychological support, emphasizing the importance of patient education and psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland/surgery
7.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(11): 2157-2163, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A more severe course of COVID-19 was associated with low levels of Vitamin D (VitD). Moreover in vitro data showed that VitD up-regulates the mRNA of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2), the SARS-COV-2 receptor in different type of cells. ACE-2 is expressed in several type of tissues including thyroid cells, on which its mRNA was shown to be up-regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The aim of the present study was to investigate if treatment with VitD alone or in combination with IFN-γ would increase ACE-2 both at mRNA and protein levels in primary cultures of human thyrocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary thyroid cell cultures were treated with VitD and IFN-γ alone or in combination for 24 h. ACE-2 mRNA levels were measured by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of ACE-2 on thyroid cell membrane was assessed by immunocytochemistry basally and after the previous mentioned treatments. RESULTS: ACE-2 mRNA levels increased after treatment with VitD and IFN-γ alone. The combination treatment (VitD + IFN-γ) showed an additive increase of ACE-2-mRNA. Immunocytochemistry experiments showed ACE-2 protein on thyroid cells membrane. ACE-2 expression increased after treatment with VitD and IFN-γ alone and further increased by the combination treatment with VitD + IFN-γ. CONCLUSIONS: VitD would defend the body by SARS-COV2 both by regulating the host immune defense and by up-regulating of the expression of the ACE-2 receptor. The existence of a co-operation between VitD and IFN-γ demonstrated in other systems is supported also for ACE-2 up-regulation. These observations lead to an increased interest for the potential therapeutic benefits of VitD supplementation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/metabolism
8.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(11): 2149-2156, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930621

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thyroid dysfunction in COVID-19 carries clinical and prognostic implications. In this study, we developed a prediction score (ThyroCOVID) for abnormal thyroid function (TFT) on admission amongst COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to Queen Mary Hospital were prospectively recruited during July 2020-May 2021. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) were measured on admission. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent determinants of abnormal TFTs. ThyroCOVID was developed based on a clinical model with the lowest Akaike information criteria. RESULTS: Five hundred and forty six COVID-19 patients were recruited (median age 50 years, 45.4% men, 72.9% mild disease on admission). 84 patients (15.4%) had abnormal TFTs on admission. Patients with abnormal TFTs were more likely to be older, have more comorbidities, symptomatic, have worse COVID-19 severity, higher SARS-CoV-2 viral loads and more adverse profile of acute-phase reactants, haematological and biochemical parameters. ThyroCOVID consisted of five parameters: symptoms (malaise), comorbidities (ischaemic heart disease/congestive heart failure) and laboratory parameters (lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, and SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold values). It was able to identify abnormal TFT on admission with an AUROC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.67-0.79). The optimal cut-off of 0.15 had a sensitivity of 75.0%, specificity of 65.2%, negative predictive value of 93.5% and positive predictive value of 28.1% in identifying abnormal TFTs on admission amongst COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: ThyroCOVID, a prediction score to identify COVID-19 patients at risk of having abnormal TFT on admission, was developed based on a cohort of predominantly non-severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triiodothyronine , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
9.
Endocr J ; 69(6): 643-648, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910715

ABSTRACT

Thyroid dysfunction that is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming increasingly recognized. However, only a few reports in Japan have addressed this issue to date. In this study, we sought to clarify whether infection with SARS-CoV-2 affected thyroid hormone levels and whether these hormones could be better predictors of prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Accordingly, we retrospectively examined 147 cases wherein thyroid hormones were measured at the time of admission among 848 Japanese patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Hyogo Prefectural Kakogawa Medical Center. All patients underwent thyroid function testing upon hospital admission. More than half (59.1%) of the patients were euthyroid. Twenty-four percent of patients had serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels lower than the reference range with normal serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels, and 3.4% of the patients had low TSH with high fT4 levels. Over 70% of the patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 had low serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. Serum TSH and fT3 levels were inversely correlated with disease severity. The mortality rate in patients with low serum fT3 levels was significantly higher than that in those with normal serum fT3 levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Gland , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
10.
Endocrine ; 76(3): 635-641, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872731

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Data about the effects of COVID-19 on the endocrine system are increasing over time. In the present study, we investigated the effects of COVID-19 on the thyroid gland among COVID-19 survivors by comparing them with healthy subjects. METHODS: Adult COVID-19 survivors who were managed and followed up in the Infectious Disease clinic were asked to participate in this study. COVID-19 survivors were recruited via a convenience sampling and those who agreed to participate in this study were seen by endocrinologists for assessments. The blood tests were obtained for thyroid antibodies and thyroid function tests. Thyroid ultrasonography (USG) was done by the same physician. The ellipsoid formula was used for the calculation of thyroid gland volume. RESULTS: 64 adult COVID-19 survivors and 70 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The COVID-19 survivors were evaluated at median 5.7 months (IQR: 4-6.5) (range: 2-7 months) after acute infection. The mean thyroid gland volume was significantly lower in COVID-19 survivors (10.3 ± 3.4 mL) than in the controls (14 ± 5.3 mL) (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels between the groups. Among the twelve patients who had thyroid function evaluated in acute COVID-19, fT3 values were lower in acute COVID-19 than at the time of USG evaluation (3.04 ± 0.41 vs 3.47 ± 0.31 pg/mL), (p = 0.02). Among COVID-19 survivors, mild TSH elevation was detected in 4 (6.2%) patients and all of the other COVID-19 survivors (93.7%) were euthyroid. CONCLUSIONS: At 6 months after acute COVID, COVID-19 survivors had smaller thyroid gland volume than healthy controls, and only a few of the COVID-19 survivors had abnormal thyroid function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 840668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793031

ABSTRACT

Background: This is the first study, that aimed: a) to compare immune response, namely the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls, and b) to investigate changes in thyroid function in healthy subjects with no history of thyroid dysfunction before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech). Methods: The entire study consisted of two sub-studies. In the first sub-study, NAbs levels after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination were compared between 56 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and 56 age and gender-matched healthy controls from the day of the first dose until a period of up to three months after the second dose. In the second sub-study, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH) and thyroid auto-antibodies levels (anti-TG, anti-TPO) of 72 healthy subjects with no history of thyroid disease were examined before (D1) and one month after completion of the second dose (D50). Results: Among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, the median neutralizing inhibition on D22, immediately before second dose, was 62.5%. One month later (D50), values increased to 96.7%, while three months after the second dose NAbs titers remained almost the same (94.5%). In the healthy group, median NAbs levels at D22 were 53.6%. On D50 the median inhibition values increased to 95.1%, while after three months they were 89.2%. The statistical analysis did not show significant differences between two groups (p-values 0.164, 0.390, 0.105 for D22, D50 and three months). Regarding changes in thyroid function, the mean value for T4 before vaccination was 89.797 nmol/L and one month after the second dose was 89.11 nmol/L (p-value=0.649). On D1 the mean T3 value was 1.464 nmol/L, which dropped to 1.389 nmol/L on D50 (p-value = 0.004). For TSH, mean levels were 2.064 mIU/ml on D1 and fell to 1.840 mIU/ml one month after the second dose (p-value=0.037). Despite decrease, all thyroid hormone levels remained within the normal range. No changes were found for anti-TPO or anti-TG. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that patients with autoimmune thyroiditis present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) with healthy subjects, while vaccination may affect thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , /genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/metabolism , Vaccination
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 1-4, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767995

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and some other members of Coronaviridae family have recently forced a great deal of health, social, and economic issues globally. To that end, investigations have been oriented towards finding ways for reducing the burden of COVID-19. One of the occurrences which stands in the way of making the treatment of this disease less complicated is the way coronaviruses involve a variety of cells, tissues, organs, and even systems. This action is possible as a result of viral attachment to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 or ACE2. Thus, any kind of cell expressing ACE2 is prone to be affected by both SARS-COV and SARS-COV-2. Endocrine system is one of these at-risk systems. In this review, we have considered the relation between coronaviruses and one of the most essential organs of endocrine system: thyroid gland. This relation can be probed from two aspects: how underlying thyroid dysfunction can increase the risk of being infected by these viruses and how these viruses can alter the function of thyroid gland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland
13.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(2): 103393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly expanded the use of telemedicine in healthcare. Surgical thyroid and parathyroid diseases are uniquely suited for comprehensive telemedicine. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of telemedicine with in-person preoperative visits in patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery at a tertiary care center in a COVID-19 hotspot from March 2020 to October 2020. Patients were divided into a telemedicine cohort, with preoperative consultation and surgical decision-making conducted via telemedicine, and a conventional in-person cohort. RESULTS: Of 94 patients, 28 were enrolled in the telemedicine cohort and 66 were enrolled in the conventional cohort. Telemedicine patients were more likely to have parathyroid disease (50% versus 24%, p = 0.02) compared with the conventional cohort, but there was no significant difference in surgery for malignancy (43% versus 56%, p = 0.27). There were no significant differences in surgical outcomes or postoperative complications between cohorts, including intraoperative blood loss (19.4 mL versus 35.5 mL, p = 0.06), postoperative length of stay (1.3 days versus 1.2 days, p = 0.93), persistent hypocalcemia (3.6% versus 0%, p = 0.30), and true vocal fold paresis (0% versus 4.5%, p = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: With careful selection, many patients undergoing thyroid and parathyroid surgery may be safely treated using comprehensive telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parathyroidectomy , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy
14.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(3): 385-389, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical voice assessment prior to thyroid and parathyroid surgery is essential, but the paradigm of indirect laryngoscopy (IDL), when indicated, has been challenged by the risk of aerosolised SARS-Cov-2 during endoscopy of the aerodigestive tract. Translaryngeal ultrasound (TLUS) to assess the vocal cords has been proposed as a safe, non-invasive and sensitive alternative. The aim of this review was to verify TLUS as a viable tool for perioperative laryngeal assessment. METHOD: A literature review was performed using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Scopus with the following search strategy: (vocal cord OR vocal fold OR glottic OR glottis OR vocal ligaments OR rima glottidis) AND (ultras* OR sonograph* OR echography OR echotomography). RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included in this review. All studies compared TLUS to IDL in visualizing the vocal cords in adults. Ten studies compared pre-operative TLUS to IDL where 50.6-100% of vocal cords were successfully visualized. Nine studies compared post-operative TLUS to IDL and reported visualization between 39.6% and 100%. Pre- and post-operative negative predictive values ranged from 60% to 100%. CONCLUSION: Whilst promising, successful visualization of the cords is limited by inter-user variability, older age and male gender. Thus, we see the role of TLUS as an alternative to IDL in the post-operative setting in the young patient following uncomplicated surgery with a normal voice on clinical examination, to confirm recurrent laryngeal nerve integrity while minimizing the risk of aerosolization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vocal Cord Paralysis , Adult , Humans , Laryngoscopy/methods , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Ultrasonography/methods , Vocal Cord Paralysis/diagnostic imaging , Vocal Cord Paralysis/etiology , Vocal Cords/diagnostic imaging
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 791654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637681

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, emerging evidence has shown adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, preeclampsia, cesarean, and perinatal death, occurring in pregnant women after getting infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Thyroid hormone disturbance has been unveiled consistently in various studies. As commonly known, thyroid hormone is vital for promoting pregnancy and optimal fetal growth and development. Even mild thyroid dysfunction can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. We explored and summarized possible mechanisms of thyroid hormone abnormality in pregnant women after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and made a scientific thypothesis that adverse pregnancy outcomes can be the result of thyroid hormone disorder during COVID-19. In which case, we accentuate the importance of thyroid hormone surveillance for COVID-19-infected pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Criminals , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935075, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Thyroiditis is an important extrahepatic association in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. There have been reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the onset or re-activation of autoimmune hypothyroidism. Therefore, we performed this prospective observational study of 42 patients with COVID-19 infection and a history of hepatitis C virus infection and thyroid disease with follow-up thyroid function and autoantibody testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS From April 2020 to October 2020, we performed a prospective observational study of patients with cured hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and documented thyroid disease who became infected with SARS-CoV-2 (confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection via reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCT] from the upper respiratory tract, both nasal and pharyngeal swabs). Evaluation at 1 and 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection included serum determination of antithyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin [anti-Tg] and antithyroid peroxidase [ATPO]), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and evaluation of thyroid medication, with dose adjustment if required. RESULTS One-month follow-up showed that both patients with autoimmune thyroiditis as well as patients without antibodies had increased ATPO levels. Also, levels of TSH, fT3, and fT4 were significantly decreased. At 3-month follow-up, levels of ATPO were decreased in all patient groups and the levels of thyroid hormones increased to normal values. CONCLUSIONS This study supports previous reports of an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and thyroid dysfunction associated with thyroid autoantibodies. Thyroid function tests may be considered as part of the laboratory work-up in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis C/complications , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C/virology , Humans , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Hypothyroidism/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/blood , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
18.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551614

ABSTRACT

Selenium (Se), a microelement essential for life, is critical for homeostasis of several critical functions, such as those related to immune-endocrine function and signaling transduction pathways. In particular, Se is critical for the function of the thyroid, and it is particularly abundant in this gland. Unfortunately, Se deficiency is a very common condition worldwide. Supplementation is possible, but as Se has a narrow safety level, toxic levels are close to those normally required for a correct need. Thus, whether the obtaining of optimal selenium concentration is desirable, the risk of dangerous concentrations must be equally excluded. This review addressed the contribution by environment and food intake on Se circulating levels (e.g., geographical factors, such as soil concentration and climate, and different quantities in food, such as nuts, cereals, eggs, meat and fish) and effects related to its deficiency or excess, together with the role of selenium and selenoproteins in the thyroid pathophysiology (e.g., Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease).


Subject(s)
Selenium/metabolism , Selenoproteins/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Animals , Humans
19.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(4): 875-882, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 became a pandemic, the urgent need to find an effective treatment vaccine has been a major objective. Vaccines contain adjuvants which are not exempt from adverse effects and can trigger the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). There is very little information about autoimmune endocrine disease and the ASIA after the use of mRNA-based SARS-CoV2 vaccination. CASE SERIES: We report three cases and also review the literature showing that the thyroid gland can be involved in the ASIA induced by the mRNA-based SARS-CoV2 vaccination. We present the first case to date of silent thyroiditis described in the context of SARS-CoV2 vaccination with Pfizer/BioNTech. Also, we discuss the first subacute thyroiditis in the context of SARS-CoV2 vaccination with the Moderna's vaccine. Finally, we provide another case to be added to existing evidence on Graves' disease occurring post-vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. DISCUSSION: Adjuvants play an important role in vaccines. Their ability to increase the immunogenicity of the active ingredient is necessary to achieve the desired immune response. Both the Moderna and the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines use mRNA coding for the SARS-CoV2 S protein enhanced by adjuvants. In addition, the cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV2 and thyroid antigens has been reported. This would explain, at least, some of the autoimmune/inflammatory reactions produced during and after SARS-CoV2 infection and vaccination. CONCLUSION: The autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants involving the thyroid could be an adverse effect of SARS-CoV2 vaccination and could be underdiagnosed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Graves Disease/etiology , Thyroid Gland/immunology , Thyroiditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Graves Disease/immunology , Humans , Male , Thyroiditis/immunology
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 746602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477814

ABSTRACT

Background: Some studies have indicated that interferon (IFN) may be valuable in COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the impact of short-term IFN on incident thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity among COVID-19 survivors. Methods: We included consecutive adults without known thyroid disorder admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for COVID-19 from July 2020 to January 2021 who had thyroid function tests (TFTs) and anti-thyroid antibodies measured both on admission and at three months. Results: 226 patients were included (median age 55.0 years; 49.6% men): 135 were IFN-treated. There tended to be more abnormal TFTs upon reassessment in IFN-treated patients (8.1% vs 2.2%, p=0.080). 179 patients (65.4% IFN-treated) had a complete reassessment of anti-thyroid antibodies. There were significant increases in titres of both anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO: baseline 29.21 units [IQR: 14.97 - 67.14] vs reassessment 34.30 units [IQR: 18.82 - 94.65], p<0.001) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg: baseline 8.23 units [IQR: 5.40 - 18.44] vs reassessment 9.14 units [IQR: 6.83 - 17.17], p=0.001) in the IFN-treated group but not IFN-naïve group. IFN treatment (standardised beta 0.245, p=0.001) was independently associated with changes in anti-TPO titre. Of the 143 patients negative for anti-TPO at baseline, 8 became anti-TPO positive upon reassessment (seven IFN-treated; one IFN-naïve). Incident anti-TPO positivity was more likely to be associated with abnormal TFTs upon reassessment (phi 0.188, p=0.025). Conclusion: IFN for COVID-19 was associated with modest increases in anti-thyroid antibody titres, and a trend of more incident anti-TPO positivity and abnormal TFTs during convalescence. Our findings suggest that clinicians monitor the thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies among IFN-treated COVID-19 survivors, and call for further follow-up studies regarding the clinical significance of these changes.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon beta-1b/adverse effects , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Thyroid Diseases/chemically induced , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Adult , Antibodies/analysis , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Thyroid Diseases/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
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