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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 840668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793031

ABSTRACT

Background: This is the first study, that aimed: a) to compare immune response, namely the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls, and b) to investigate changes in thyroid function in healthy subjects with no history of thyroid dysfunction before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech). Methods: The entire study consisted of two sub-studies. In the first sub-study, NAbs levels after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination were compared between 56 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and 56 age and gender-matched healthy controls from the day of the first dose until a period of up to three months after the second dose. In the second sub-study, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH) and thyroid auto-antibodies levels (anti-TG, anti-TPO) of 72 healthy subjects with no history of thyroid disease were examined before (D1) and one month after completion of the second dose (D50). Results: Among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, the median neutralizing inhibition on D22, immediately before second dose, was 62.5%. One month later (D50), values increased to 96.7%, while three months after the second dose NAbs titers remained almost the same (94.5%). In the healthy group, median NAbs levels at D22 were 53.6%. On D50 the median inhibition values increased to 95.1%, while after three months they were 89.2%. The statistical analysis did not show significant differences between two groups (p-values 0.164, 0.390, 0.105 for D22, D50 and three months). Regarding changes in thyroid function, the mean value for T4 before vaccination was 89.797 nmol/L and one month after the second dose was 89.11 nmol/L (p-value=0.649). On D1 the mean T3 value was 1.464 nmol/L, which dropped to 1.389 nmol/L on D50 (p-value = 0.004). For TSH, mean levels were 2.064 mIU/ml on D1 and fell to 1.840 mIU/ml one month after the second dose (p-value=0.037). Despite decrease, all thyroid hormone levels remained within the normal range. No changes were found for anti-TPO or anti-TG. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that patients with autoimmune thyroiditis present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) with healthy subjects, while vaccination may affect thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , /genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/metabolism , Vaccination
2.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551614

ABSTRACT

Selenium (Se), a microelement essential for life, is critical for homeostasis of several critical functions, such as those related to immune-endocrine function and signaling transduction pathways. In particular, Se is critical for the function of the thyroid, and it is particularly abundant in this gland. Unfortunately, Se deficiency is a very common condition worldwide. Supplementation is possible, but as Se has a narrow safety level, toxic levels are close to those normally required for a correct need. Thus, whether the obtaining of optimal selenium concentration is desirable, the risk of dangerous concentrations must be equally excluded. This review addressed the contribution by environment and food intake on Se circulating levels (e.g., geographical factors, such as soil concentration and climate, and different quantities in food, such as nuts, cereals, eggs, meat and fish) and effects related to its deficiency or excess, together with the role of selenium and selenoproteins in the thyroid pathophysiology (e.g., Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease).


Subject(s)
Selenium/metabolism , Selenoproteins/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Animals , Humans
3.
Thyroid ; 31(12): 1766-1775, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429167

ABSTRACT

Background: Thyroid dysfunctions have been reported after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, the biological mechanisms behind these conditions remain unexplored. Herein, we report on changes of the immune transcriptome in autoptic thyroid tissues of people who have died from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Twenty-five autoptic thyroid specimens of subjects dying from COVID-19 were investigated. Eleven autoptic thyroid specimens of subjects dying from causes other than infectious conditions served as controls. RNA transcripts of 770 immune-related genes together with RNA genomes of multiple coronavirus types were measured by the nCounter system. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for two SARS-CoV-2 genes was used to assess virus positivity. Results were validated by immunohistochemistry. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 genome and antigens were detected in 9 of 25 (36%) thyroid specimens from the COVID-19 cohort. Virus-negative thyroid tissues from COVID-19 subject did not show changes of gene transcription nor significant numbers of infiltrating immune cells. Conversely, SARS-CoV-2-positive thyroid specimens showed marked upregulation of immune genes, especially those proper of the type I and type II interferon (IFN) pathways. In infected tissues, infiltrates of innate immune cells (macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils) were prevalent. Conclusions: The thyroid gland can be directly infected by the SARS-CoV-2. Infection strongly activates IFN pathways. The direct viral insult combined with an intense immune response may trigger or worsen thyroid conditions in predisposed individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/virology , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Death , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Macrophages/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Thyroid Gland/immunology
4.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 16(5): 251-257, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is an increasing body of literature on the impact of COVID-19 on the pituitary-thyroid axis. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to assess the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using LitCOVID for study selection in PubMed and MEDLINE till May 2021. All relevant original articles evaluating thyroid dysfunction were included and information regarding the prevalence of hypothyroid disease in COVID-19 was retrieved from the eligible articles. RESULTS: Out of 32 articles, six articles qualified for the final analysis which included 1160 patients. There was significant heterogeneity among the included articles. Most of the patients had lower mean triiodothyronine (T3) and normal or low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Increased TSH ranged from 5.1% to 8% while low T3 was present in up to 28% of the patients. In these studies, the prevalence of altered thyroid hormones was significantly more in COVID-19 patients as compared to control groups. A positive correlation between low mean T3 and clinical severity of COVID-19 was reported. CONCLUSION: This systematic review reveals a significant proportion of hypothyroidism associated with COVID-19. Therefore, routine assessment of thyroid function is warranted in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/blood , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Thyroid Hormones/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/virology
5.
Elife ; 102021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298242

ABSTRACT

Background: To understand a causal role of modifiable lifestyle factors in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression (a putative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] receptor) across 44 human tissues/organs, and in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity, we conducted a phenome-wide two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study. Methods: More than 500 genetic variants were used as instrumental variables to predict smoking and alcohol consumption. Inverse-variance weighted approach was adopted as the primary method to estimate a causal association, while MR-Egger regression, weighted median, and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) were performed to identify potential horizontal pleiotropy. Results: We found that genetically predicted smoking intensity significantly increased ACE2 expression in thyroid (ß=1.468, p=1.8×10-8), and increased ACE2 expression in adipose, brain, colon, and liver with nominal significance. Additionally, genetically predicted smoking initiation significantly increased the risk of COVID-19 onset (odds ratio=1.14, p=8.7×10-5). No statistically significant result was observed for alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Our work demonstrates an important role of smoking, measured by both status and intensity, in the susceptibility to COVID-19. Funding: XJ is supported by research grants from the Swedish Research Council (VR-2018-02247) and Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE-2020-00884).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Alcohol Drinking/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Causality , Colon/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Thyroid Gland/metabolism
6.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(12): 2447-2455, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622381

ABSTRACT

This study compared the laboratory indexes in 40 non-severe COVID-19 patients with those in 57 healthy controls. In the peripheral blood system of non-severe symptom COVID-19 patients, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin N-terminal, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 significantly decreased, and total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, fibrinogen degradation products, human epididymal protein 4, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein were elevated. SARS-CoV-2 infection can affect hematopoiesis, hemostasis, coagulation, fibrinolysis, bone metabolism, thyroid, parathyroid glands, the liver, and the reproductive system.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/virology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinolysis , Hematopoiesis , Hemostasis , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Ovary/metabolism , Ovary/pathology , Ovary/virology , Parathyroid Glands/metabolism , Parathyroid Glands/pathology , Parathyroid Glands/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology , Testis/virology , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Gland/virology
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