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1.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 12, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a toll on health care systems worldwide, which has led to increased mortality of different diseases like myocardial infarction. This is most likely due to three factors. First, an increased workload per nurse ratio, a factor associated with mortality. Second, patients presenting with COVID-19-like symptoms are isolated, which also decreases survival in cases of emergency. And third, patients hesitate to see a doctor or present themselves at a hospital. To assess if this is also true for sepsis patients, we asked whether non-COVID-19 sepsis patients had an increased 30-day mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the SepsisDataNet.NRW study, a multicentric, prospective study that includes septic patients fulfilling the SEPSIS-3 criteria. Within this study, we compared the 30-day mortality and disease severity of patients recruited pre-pandemic (recruited from March 2018 until February 2020) with non-COVID-19 septic patients recruited during the pandemic (recruited from March 2020 till December 2020). RESULTS: Comparing septic patients recruited before the pandemic to those recruited during the pandemic, we found an increased raw 30-day mortality in sepsis-patients recruited during the pandemic (33% vs. 52%, p = 0.004). We also found a significant difference in the severity of disease at recruitment (SOFA score pre-pandemic: 8 (5 - 11) vs. pandemic: 10 (8 - 13); p < 0.001). When adjusted for this, the 30-day mortality rates were not significantly different between the two groups (52% vs. 52% pre-pandemic and pandemic, p = 0.798). CONCLUSIONS: This led us to believe that the higher mortality of non-COVID19 sepsis patients during the pandemic might be attributed to a more severe septic disease at the time of recruitment. We note that patients may experience a delayed admission, as indicated by elevated SOFA scores. This could explain the higher mortality during the pandemic and we found no evidence for a diminished quality of care for critically ill sepsis patients in German intensive care units.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Sepsis/mortality , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935379, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate outcomes and hospitalization rates in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of early COVID-19 treated at home with prescribed and non-prescribed treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS The medical records of a cohort of 158 Italian patients with early COVID-19 treated at home were analyzed. Treatments consisted of indomethacin, low-dose aspirin, omeprazole, and a flavonoid-based food supplement, plus azithromycin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and betamethasone as needed. The association of treatment timeliness and of clinical variables with the duration of symptoms and with the risk of hospitalization was evaluated by logistic regression. RESULTS Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n=85) was treated at the earliest possible time (<72 h from onset of symptoms), and group 2 (n=73) was treated >72 h after the onset of symptoms. Clinical severity at the beginning of treatment was similar in the 2 groups. In group 1, symptom duration was shorter than in group 2 (median 6.0 days vs 13.0 days, P<0.001) and no hospitalizations occurred, compared with 19.18% hospitalizations in group 2. One patient in group 1 developed chest X-ray alterations and 2 patients experienced an increase in D-dimer levels, compared with 30 and 22 patients, respectively, in group 2. The main factor determining the duration of symptoms and the risk of hospitalization was the delay in starting therapy (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS This real-world study of patients in the community showed that early diagnosis and early supportive patient management reduced the severity of COVID-19 and reduced the rate of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Betamethasone/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Dietary Supplements , Early Diagnosis , Female , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Indomethacin/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Time , Treatment Outcome
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e230, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537261

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective observational study in patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who received medical care in 688 COVID-19 ambulatory units and hospitals in Mexico City between 24 February 2020 and 24 December 2020, to study if the elderly seek medical care later than younger patients and their severity of symptoms at initial medical evaluation. Patients were categorised into eight groups (<20, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years). Symptoms at initial evaluation were classified according to a previously validated classification into respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms. Comparisons between time from symptom onset to medical care for every age category were performed through variance analyses. Logistic regression models were applied to determine the risk of presenting symptoms of severity according to age, and mortality risk according to delays in medical care. In total, 286 020 patients were included (mean age: 42.8, s.d.: 16.8 years; 50.4% were women). Mean time from symptom onset to medical care was 4.04 (s.d.: 3.6) days and increased with older age categories (P < 0.0001). Mortality risk increased by 6.4% for each day of delay in medical care from symptom onset. The risk of presenting with the symptoms of severity was greater with increasing age categories. In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with increasing ages tend to seek medical care later, with higher rates of symptoms of severity at initial presentation in both ambulatory units and hospitals.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 605-614.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early reports suggest that patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection carry a significant risk of altered coagulation with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events. This report investigates the relationship of significant COVID-19 infection and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as reflected in the patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. METHODS: We reviewed the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiologic evaluations, results of venous duplex imaging and mortality of COVID-19-positive patients (18-89 years) admitted to the Indiana University Academic Health Center. Using oxygen saturation, radiologic findings, and need for advanced respiratory therapies, patients were classified into mild, moderate, or severe categories of COVID-19 infection. A descriptive analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to examine the distribution of patient characteristics and compare the DVT outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of experiencing DVT and a receiver operating curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff for d-dimer to predict DVT in this COVID-19 cohort. Time to the diagnosis of DVT from admission was analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Our study included 71 unique COVID-19-positive patients (mean age, 61 years) categorized as having 3% mild, 14% moderate, and 83% severe infection and evaluated with 107 venous duplex studies. DVT was identified in 47.8% of patients (37% of examinations) at an average of 5.9 days after admission. Patients with DVT were predominantly male (67%; P = .032) with proximal venous involvement (29% upper and 39% in the lower extremities with 55% of the latter demonstrating bilateral involvement). Patients with DVT had a significantly higher mean d-dimer of 5447 ± 7032 ng/mL (P = .0101), and alkaline phosphatase of 110 IU/L (P = .0095) than those without DVT. On multivariable analysis, elevated d-dimer (P = .038) and alkaline phosphatase (P = .021) were associated with risk for DVT, whereas age, sex, elevated C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels were not. A receiver operating curve analysis suggests an optimal d-dimer value of 2450 ng/mL cutoff with 70% sensitivity, 59.5% specificity, and 61% positive predictive value, and 68.8% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that males with severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization are at highest risk for developing DVT. Elevated d-dimers and alkaline phosphatase along with our multivariable model can alert the clinician to the increased risk of DVT requiring early evaluation and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , COVID-19 , Extremities , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Extremities/blood supply , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
7.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(6): 627-634, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with delivery room respiratory support in at-risk infants who are initially vigorous and received delayed cord clamping (DCC). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Two perinatal centres in Melbourne, Australia. PATIENTS: At-risk infants born at ≥35+0 weeks gestation with a paediatric doctor in attendance who were initially vigorous and received DCC for >60 s. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Delivery room respiratory support defined as facemask positive pressure ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure and/or supplemental oxygen within 10 min of birth. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-eight infants born at a median (IQR) gestational age of 39+3 (38+2-40+2) weeks were included. Cord clamping occurred at a median (IQR) of 128 (123-145) s. Forty-four (15%) infants received respiratory support at a median of 214 (IQR 156-326) s after birth. Neonatal unit admission for respiratory distress occurred in 32% of infants receiving delivery room respiratory support vs 1% of infants who did not receive delivery room respiratory support (p<0.001). Risk factors independently associated with delivery room respiratory support were average heart rate (HR) at 90-120 s after birth (determined using three-lead ECG), mode of birth and time to establish regular cries. Decision tree analysis identified that infants at highest risk had an average HR of <165 beats per minute at 90-120 s after birth following caesarean section (risk of 39%). Infants with an average HR of ≥165 beats per minute at 90-120 s after birth were at low risk (5%). CONCLUSIONS: We present a clinical decision pathway for at-risk infants who may benefit from close observation following DCC. Our findings provide a novel perspective of HR beyond the traditional threshold of 100 beats per minute.


Subject(s)
Critical Pathways/standards , Delivery, Obstetric , Electrocardiography/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Umbilical Cord , Australia/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Clinical Decision-Making , Constriction , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Heart Rate , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
8.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(8): 314-315, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483687

ABSTRACT

The interaction of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and chemotherapy may result in worse outcomes. However, there may be more indirect effects of COVID. We report 3 cases in which treatment was delayed because of COVID-related inability or reluctance to travel. Oncology programs should consider such indirect effects when devising treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Osteosarcoma/drug therapy , Retinoblastoma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Bone Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Osteosarcoma/virology , Prognosis , Retinal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retinal Neoplasms/virology , Retinoblastoma/virology
10.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(9): 825-828, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This case series, conducted during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, investigates the impact of leaving aural foreign bodies in situ for a prolonged period of time, including the risk of complications and success rates of subsequent removal attempts. METHOD: A retrospective study of aural foreign body referrals over a six-month period was carried out. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients with 35 foreign bodies were identified (6 organic and 29 inorganic). The duration of foreign bodies left in situ ranged from 1 to 78 days. Four patients suffered from traumatic removal upon initial attempts. First attempts made by non-ENT specialists (68.8 per cent) all failed and were associated with a high risk of trauma (36.4 per cent). CONCLUSION: Because of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, this is the first case series to specifically investigate the relationship between the duration of aural foreign bodies left in situ and the risk of complications. Our data suggest that prolonged duration does not increase the incidence of complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Ear Canal , Foreign Bodies/therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Foreign Bodies/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(9): 1450-1459, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) worldwide. In this review we examine the global effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of STEMI admissions, and relationship between the pandemic and door to balloon time (D2B), all-cause mortality, and other secondary STEMI outcomes. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to primarily compare D2B time and in-hospital mortality of STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI during and before the pandemic. Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the influence of geographical region and income status of a country on STEMI care. An online database search included studies that compared the aforementioned outcomes of STEMI patients during and before the pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 32 articles were analyzed. Overall, 19,140 and 68,662 STEMI patients underwent primary PCI during and before the pandemic, respectively. Significant delay in D2B was observed during the pandemic (weighted mean difference, 8.10 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.90-12.30 minutes; P = 0.0002; I2 = 90%). In-hospital mortality was higher during the pandemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.49; P = 0.002; I2 = 36%), however this varied with factors such as geographical location and income status of a country. Subgroup analysis showed that low-middle-income countries observed a higher rate of mortality during the pandemic (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.13-2.05; P = 0.006), with a similar but insignificant trend seen among the high income countries (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.95-1.44; P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with worse STEMI performance metrics and clinical outcome, particularly in the Eastern low-middle-income status countries. Better strategies are needed to address these global trends in STEMI care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241149, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388891

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early reports described decreased admissions for acute cardiovascular events during the SarsCoV-2 pandemic. We aimed to explore whether the lockdown enforced during the SARSCoV-2 pandemic in Israel impacted the characteristics of presentation, reperfusion times, and early outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort comprising all STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention admitted to four high-volume cardiac centers in Israel during lockdown (20/3/2020-30/4/2020). STEMI patients treated during the same period in 2019 served as controls. RESULTS: The study comprised 243 patients, 107 during the lockdown period of 2020 and 136 during the same period in 2019, with no difference in demographics and clinical characteristics. Patients admitted in 2020 had higher admission and peak troponin levels, had a 2.4 fold greater likelihood of Door-to-balloon times> 90 min (95%CI: 1.2-4.9, p = 0.01) and 3.3 fold greater likelihood of pain-to-balloon times> 12 hours (OR 3.3, 95%CI: 1.3-8.1, p<0.01). They experienced higher rates hemodynamic instability (25.2% vs 14.7%, p = 0.04), longer hospital stay (median, IQR [4, 3-6 Vs 5, 4-6, p = 0.03]), and fewer early (<72 hours) discharge (12.4% Vs 32.4%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown imposed during the SARSCoV-2 pandemic was associated with a significant lag in the time to reperfusion of STEMI patients. Measures to improves this metric should be implemented during future lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Admission/standards , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 918-925, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and postponement of elective surgical procedures for profoundly deaf patients awaiting cochlear implantation. METHOD: Open-ended questionnaires were sent to all adult patients awaiting cochlear implantation surgery. Qualitative analysis was performed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: Participants described a primarily negative impact on wellbeing from the surgery delay, expressing feelings of isolation or loneliness. Low mood, depression or hopelessness were commonly expressed by elderly participants; frustration and anxiety were described by young adults. Participants described a negative impact on their general daily life, describing difficulties communicating with facemasks and struggles with reliance on telephone communication because of social distancing. Despite these significant psychosocial challenges, only a minority described adaptive coping strategies. DISCUSSION: Profoundly deaf patients may be at greater psychosocial risk because of unique challenges from their hearing disability. Our findings can be used to develop evidence-driven strategies to improve communication, wellbeing and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cochlear Implantation/methods , Cochlear Implants/statistics & numerical data , Deafness/surgery , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cochlear Implants/supply & distribution , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Elective Surgical Procedures/standards , Female , Frustration , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 35(8): 459, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359547

ABSTRACT

ONCOLOGY® co-editor-in-chief Howard S. Hochster, MD, reviews research on delays in oncology care as a results of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis/trends , Early Detection of Cancer/trends , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Humans , Medical Oncology/standards , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
15.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 33(3): 268-272, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a major challenge for health care systems around the world. For a time-sensitive emergency such as acute ischemic stroke (AIS), streamlined workflow times are essential to ensure good clinical outcomes. METHODS: The aim of this single-center, retrospective, observational study was to describe changes in stroke workflow patterns and clinical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from AIS patients undergoing emergent endovascular treatment (EVT) between 23 January and 8 April 2020 were retrospectively collected and compared with data from patients admitted during a similar period in 2019. The primary outcome was difference in time from symptom onset to recanalization. Secondary outcomes included workflow times, clinical management, discharge outcomes, and health-economic data. RESULTS: In all, 21 AIS patients were admitted for emergent EVT during the 77-day study period, compared with 42 cases in 2019. Median time from symptom onset to recanalization was 132 minutes longer during the pandemic compared with the previous year (672 vs. 540 min, P=0.049). Patients admitted during the pandemic had a higher likelihood of endotracheal intubation (84.6% vs. 42.4%, P<0.05) and a higher incidence of delayed extubation after EVT (69.2% vs. 45.5%, P<0.05). National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at hospital discharge was similar in the 2 cohorts, whereas neurointensive care unit stay was longer in patients admitted during the pandemic (10 vs. 7 days, P=0.013) and hospitalization costs were higher (123.9 vs. 95.2 thousand Chinese Yuan, P=0.052). CONCLUSION: Disruptions to medical services during the COVID-19 pandemic has particularly impacted AIS patients undergoing emergent EVT, resulting in increased workflow times. A structured and multidisciplinary protocol should be implemented to minimize treatment delays and maximize patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Acute Disease , Aged , Beijing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
Rev Neurol ; 73(3): 89-95, 2021 08 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320651

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) impacted emergency services worldwide. AIM: We aimed to evaluate COVID-19 effect on the number of stroke code activations and timings during the first two months of the pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the stroke code database of a single comprehensive stroke centre in Portugal for the number of activations through 2019-2020. We compared the pathway timings between March and April 2020 (COVID-19 period) and the homologous months of the previous four years (pre-COVID-19 period), whilst using February as a control. RESULTS: Monthly stroke code activation rates decreased up to 34.2% during COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, we observed an increase in the time from symptom onset to emergency call, with a significant number of patients waiting more than four hours (March 20.8% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.034; April 23.8% vs. 6%, p = 0.01); as well as an increase in the time from symptom onset to hospital arrival (March: median 136 minutes [IQR 106-410] vs. 100 [IQR 64-175], p = 0.001; April: median 188 [IQR 96-394] vs. 98 [IQR 66-168], p = 0.007). No difference between both periods was found concerning in-hospital times, patient characteristics, stroke/mimic diagnosis, stroke severity, and mortality. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 related factors probably reduced healthcare services utilization, and delayed emergency calls and hospital arrival after stroke onset. These highlight the importance of health education to improve the effectiveness of medical assistance. The preservation of in-hospital times validates the feasibility of the protected stroke code protocol.


El impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la activación del Código Ictus y en el tiempo desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta la llegada al hospital en un centro de ictus portugués.Introducción. La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) provocó un considerable impacto mundial en los servicios de emergencia. Objetivo. Se pretende evaluar el efecto de la COVID-19 sobre el número y los tiempos de activaciones del Código Ictus en el comienzo de la pandemia. Material y métodos. Se revisó la base de datos del Código Ictus de un centro de ictus de Portugal entre 2016 y 2020. Se compararon los tiempos de activación entre marzo y abril de 2020 (período COVID-19) y los meses homólogos de los cuatro años anteriores, mientras que se utilizó febrero como control. Resultados. Las tasas mensuales de activación disminuyeron hasta el 34,2% durante la pandemia. En comparación con el período previo, se observó un aumento del tiempo desde los síntomas hasta la llamada de emergencia, con un aumento de pacientes que esperaron más de cuatro horas (marzo: 20,8 frente a 6,8%, p = 0,034; abril: 23,8 frente a 6%, p = 0,01) y del tiempo desde los síntomas hasta la llegada al hospital ­marzo: mediana de 136 minutos (rango intercuartílico [RIC]: 106-410) frente a 100 (RIC: 64-175), p = 0,001; abril: mediana de 188 (RIC: 96-394) frente a 98 (RIC: 66-168), p = 0,007­. No hubo diferencias en los tiempos de internamiento, las características de los pacientes, el diagnóstico de ictus/stroke mimics, la gravedad del ictus o la mortalidad. Conclusión. Los factores relacionados con la COVID-19 redujeron la utilización de los servicios sanitarios y retrasaron las llamadas de emergencia y el tiempo de llegada al hospital. Esto demuestra la importancia de la educación sanitaria para mejorar la eficacia de la asistencia médica.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
17.
Emerg Med J ; 38(9): 679-684, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel have high COVID-19 risk during resuscitation. The resuscitation protocol for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) was modified in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how the adjustments in the EMS system affected patients with OHCA remains unclear. METHODS: We analysed data from the Taichung OHCA registry system. We compared OHCA outcomes and rescue records for 622 cases during the COVID-19 outbreak period (1 February to 30 April 2020) with those recorded for 570 cases during the same period in 2019. RESULTS: The two periods did not differ significantly with respect to patient age, patient sex, the presence of witnesses or OHCA location. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation with automated external defibrillators were more common in 2020 (52.81% vs 65.76%, p<0.001%, and 23.51% vs 31.67%, p=0.001, respectively). The EMS response time was longer during the COVID-19 pandemic (445.8±210.2 s in 2020 vs 389.7±201.8 s in 2019, p<0.001). The rate of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation was lower in 2020 (6.49% vs 2.57%, p=0.001); 2019 and 2020 had similar rates of survival discharge (5.96% vs 4.98%). However, significantly fewer cases had favourable neurological function in 2020 (4.21% vs 2.09%, p=0.035). CONCLUSION: EMS response time for patients with OHCA was prolonged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early advanced life support by EMS personnel remains crucial for patients with OHCA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Emergency Medical Technicians/standards , Emergency Medical Technicians/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Taiwan/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the current study we investigated the causes of pre-hospital delay as this can compromise the patient's chance to receive thrombolytic therapy and thus impact stroke outcome. METHODS: We surveyed 254 patients regarding reasons for delayed and early arrival to hospital after acute ischemic stroke. The survey was performed over five months, spanning a period pre- and during COVID-19 (between December 7, 2019 and May 10, 2020). RESULTS: A total of 71.2% of patients arrived beyond four hours of onset of ischemic stroke. The commonest cause for delay pre-Covid-19 was receiving treatment in a non-stroke hospital, while that during COVID-19 was fear of infection and lock down issues. Not realizing the urgency of the condition and stroke during sleep were common in both periods. Early arrival because of the patient's previous experience with stroke accounted for approximately 25% of cases in both periods. The effect of media was more evident during COVID-19, accounting for 47.7% of cases. CONCLUSION: Pre-hospital delay secondary to misperception of the urgency of stroke and management in a non-stroke hospital reflect the lack of awareness among the public and medical staff. This concept is emphasized by early arrival secondary to previous experience with stroke and the pronounced effect of media in the time of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Ischemic Stroke/psychology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
19.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 37, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective comparative study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 and delayed emergency department access on emergency surgery outcomes, by comparing the main clinical outcomes in the period March-May 2019 (group 1) with the same period during the national COVID-19 lockdown in Italy (March-May 2020, group 2). METHODS: A comparison (groups 1 versus 2) and subgroup analysis were performed between patients' demographic, medical history, surgical, clinical and management characteristics. RESULTS: Two-hundred forty-six patients were included, 137 in group 1 and 109 in group 2 (p = 0.03). No significant differences were observed in the peri-operative characteristics of the two groups. A declared delay in access to hospital and preoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were 15.5% and 5.8%, respectively in group 2. The overall morbidity (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.08-4.55, p = 0.03) and 30-day mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.33-5.50, =0.68) were significantly higher in group 2. The delayed access cohort showed a close correlation with increased morbidity (OR = 3.19, 95% CI 0.89-11.44, p = 0.07), blood transfusion (OR = 5.13, 95% CI 1.05-25.15, p = 0.04) and 30-day mortality risk (OR = 8.00, 95% CI 1.01-63.23, p = 0.05). SARS-CoV-2-positive patients had higher risk of blood transfusion (20% vs 7.8%, p = 0.37) and ICU admissions (20% vs 2.6%, p = 0.17) and a longer median LOS (9 days vs 4 days, p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: This article provides enhanced understanding of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient access to emergency surgical care. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 changed the quality of surgical care with poorer prognosis and higher morbidity rates. Delayed emergency department access and a "filter effect" induced by a fear of COVID-19 infection in the population resulted in only the most severe cases reaching the emergency department in time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(11): 1484-1494, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted breast cancer control through short-term declines in screening and delays in diagnosis and treatments. We projected the impact of COVID-19 on future breast cancer mortality between 2020 and 2030. METHODS: Three established Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network breast cancer models modeled reductions in mammography screening use, delays in symptomatic cancer diagnosis, and reduced use of chemotherapy for women with early-stage disease for the first 6 months of the pandemic with return to prepandemic patterns after that time. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the effect of key model parameters, including the duration of the pandemic impact. RESULTS: By 2030, the models project 950 (model range = 860-1297) cumulative excess breast cancer deaths related to reduced screening, 1314 (model range = 266-1325) associated with delayed diagnosis of symptomatic cases, and 151 (model range = 146-207) associated with reduced chemotherapy use in women with hormone positive, early-stage cancer. Jointly, 2487 (model range = 1713-2575) excess breast cancer deaths were estimated, representing a 0.52% (model range = 0.36%-0.56%) cumulative increase over breast cancer deaths expected by 2030 in the absence of the pandemic's disruptions. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the breast cancer mortality impact would be approximately double if the modeled pandemic effects on screening, symptomatic diagnosis, and chemotherapy extended for 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Initial pandemic-related disruptions in breast cancer care will have a small long-term cumulative impact on breast cancer mortality. Continued efforts to ensure prompt return to screening and minimize delays in evaluation of symptomatic women can largely mitigate the effects of the initial pandemic-associated disruptions.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/mortality , COVID-19/complications , Computer Simulation , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Survival Rate
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