Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 59
Filter
2.
J Control Release ; 346: 260-274, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804436

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence indicates that hyperinflammatory syndrome and cytokine storm observed in COVID-19 severe cases are narrowly associated with the disease's poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting the inflammatory pathways seems to be a rational therapeutic strategy against COVID-19. Many anti-inflammatory agents have been proposed; however, most of them suffer from poor bioavailability, instability, short half-life, and undesirable biodistribution resulting in off-target effects. From a pharmaceutical standpoint, the implication of COVID-19 inflammation can be exploited as a therapeutic target and/or a targeting strategy against the pandemic. First, the drug delivery systems can be harnessed to improve the properties of anti-inflammatory agents and deliver them safely and efficiently to their therapeutic targets. Second, the drug carriers can be tailored to develop smart delivery systems able to respond to the microenvironmental stimuli to release the anti-COVID-19 therapeutics in a selective and specific manner. More interestingly, some biosystems can simultaneously repress the hyperinflammation due to their inherent anti-inflammatory potency and endow their drug cargo with a selective delivery to the injured sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Distribution
3.
J Vis Exp ; (181)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786125

ABSTRACT

The development of functional lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) is one of the major challenges in the field of drug delivery systems (DDS). Recently, LNP-based RNA delivery systems, namely, RNA-loaded LNPs have attracted attention for RNA therapy. In particular, mRNA-loaded LNP vaccines were approved to prevent COVID-19, thereby leading to the paradigm shift toward the development of next-generation nanomedicines. For the LNP-based nanomedicines, the LNP size is a significant factor in controlling the LNP biodistribution and LNP performance. Therefore, a precise LNP size control technique is indispensable for the LNP production process. Here, we report a protocol for size controlled LNP production using a microfluidic device, named iLiNP. siRNA loaded LNPs are also produced using the iLiNP device and evaluated by in vitro experiment. Representative results are shown for the LNP size, including siRNA-loaded LNPs, Z-potential, siRNA encapsulation efficiency, cytotoxicity, and target gene silencing activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Lipids , Liposomes , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
4.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 184: 114236, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757033

ABSTRACT

The success of the messenger RNA-based COVID-19 vaccines of Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech marks the beginning of a new chapter in modern medicine. However, the rapid rise of mRNA therapeutics has resulted in a regulatory framework that is somewhat lagging. The current guidelines either do not apply, do not mention RNA therapeutics, or do not have widely accepted definitions. This review describes the guidelines for preclinical biodistribution studies of mRNA/siRNA therapeutics and highlights the relevant differences for mRNA vaccines. We also discuss the role of in vivo RNA imaging techniques and other assays to fulfill and/or complement the regulatory requirements. Specifically, quantitative whole-body autoradiography, microautoradiography, mass spectrometry-based assays, hybridization techniques (FISH, bDNA), PCR-based methods, in vivo fluorescence imaging, and in vivo bioluminescence imaging, are discussed. We conclude that this new and rapidly evolving class of medicines demands a multi-layered approach to fully understand its biodistribution and in vivo characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Tissue Distribution
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715400

ABSTRACT

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), discovered in 2004, are thin, long protrusions between cells utilized for intercellular transfer and communication. These newly discovered structures have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in homeostasis, but also in the spreading of diseases, infections, and metastases. Gaining much interest in the medical research field, TNTs have been shown to transport nanomedicines (NMeds) between cells. NMeds have been studied thanks to their advantageous features in terms of reduced toxicity of drugs, enhanced solubility, protection of the payload, prolonged release, and more interestingly, cell-targeted delivery. Nevertheless, their transfer between cells via TNTs makes their true fate unknown. If better understood, TNTs could help control NMed delivery. In fact, TNTs can represent the possibility both to improve the biodistribution of NMeds throughout a diseased tissue by increasing their formation, or to minimize their formation to block the transfer of dangerous material. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction between NMeds and TNTs. In this work, we will explain what TNTs are and how they form and then review what has been published regarding their potential use in nanomedicine research. We will highlight possible future approaches to better exploit TNT intercellular communication in the field of nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane Structures/metabolism , Animals , Biological Transport/physiology , Humans , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanotubes , Tissue Distribution/physiology
6.
Arch Toxicol ; 96(5): 1437-1453, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712224

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in 2019 has rapidly expanded into a serious global pandemic. Due to the high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, there is an urgent need to develop safe and effective vaccines. AdC68-19S is an investigational chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 68 (AdC68) vector-based vaccine which encodes the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity, biodistribution and safety profiles of the candidate vaccine AdC68-19S in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat and rhesus macaque under GLP conditions. To characterize the biodistribution profile of AdC68-19S, SD rats were given a single intramuscular injection of AdC68-19S 2 × 1011 VP/dose. Designated organs were collected on day 1, day 2, day 4, day 8 and day 15. Genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and was further quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). To characterize the toxicology and immunogenicity profiles of AdC68-19S, the rats and rhesus macaques were injected intramuscularly with AdC68-19S up to 2 × 1011vp/dose or 4 × 1011vp/dose (2 and fourfold the proposed clinical dose of 1 × 1011vp/dose) on two or three occasions with a 14-day interval period, respectively. In addition to the conventional toxicological evaluation indexes, the antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses were evaluated. We proved that multiple intramuscular injections could elicit effective and long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses and Th1 T cell responses. AdC68-19S was mainly distributed in injection sites and no AdC68-19S related toxicological reaction was observed. In conclusion, these results have shown that AdC68-19S could induce an effective immune response with a good safety profile, and is a promising candidate vaccine against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Pan troglodytes , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Distribution
7.
Curr Drug Metab ; 23(2): 150-163, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Xuanfei Baidu granules (XFBD granules) are based on the prescription of Xuanfei Baidu, which showed promise as a first-line treatment against Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, Hubei. On March 2, 2021, XFBD granules were marketed as a novel drug for epidemic diseases. However, there is little information about the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the main constituents in XFBD granules. METHODS: A sensitive analytical method was developed for detecting the marker components of XFBD granules by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOFMS/ MS), and for studying its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution by UPLC-QDa. RESULTS: Following an oral administration of a single granule in experimental rats at a dose of 14 g/kg for pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies, 42 compounds and nine analytes were identified in XFBD granules. Nine compounds were detected in the lungs and the liver of the rats. Six compounds were detected in the kidneys. Five compounds were detected in the spleen and three were detected in the heart. As it went undetected in the brain, XFBD granules are considered unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. CONCLUSION: A sensitive UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method was established and validated for the quantification of nine components in rat plasma and tissue samples. This method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of XFBD granules after their oral administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Administration, Oral , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Tissue Distribution
8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(3): e0212521, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636300

ABSTRACT

Severe illness caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by an overexuberant inflammatory response resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and progressive respiratory failure (A. Gupta, M. V. Madhavan, K. Sehgal, N. Nair, et al., Nat Med 26:1017-1032, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0968-3). Rhesus theta (θ) defensin-1 (RTD-1) is a macrocyclic host defense peptide exhibiting antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. RTD-1 treatment significantly improved survival in murine models of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI) (C. L. Wohlford-Lenane, D. K. Meyerholz, S. Perlman, H. Zhou, et al., J Virol 83:11385-11390, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01363-09; J. G. Jayne, T. J. Bensman, J. B. Schaal, A. Y. J. Park, et al., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 58:310-319, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2016-0428OC). This investigation aimed to characterize the preclinical pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of intravenous (i.v.) RTD-1. Based on the lack of adverse findings, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was established at 10 mg/kg/day in rats and 15 mg/kg/day in monkeys. Analysis of single ascending dose studies in both species revealed greater-than-dose-proportional increases in the area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) (e.g., 8-fold increase from 5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg in rats) suggestive of nonlinear PK. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) ranged between 550 and 1,461 mL/kg, indicating extensive tissue distribution, which was validated in a biodistribution study of [14C]RTD-1 in rats. Based on interspecies allometric scaling, the predicted human clearance and Vss are 6.48 L/h and 28.0 L, respectively, for an adult (70 kg). To achieve plasma exposures associated with therapeutic efficacy established in a murine model of ALI, the estimated human equivalent dose (HED) is between 0.36 and 0.83 mg/kg/day. The excellent safety profile demonstrated in these studies and the efficacy observed in the murine models support the clinical investigation of RTD-1 for treatment of COVID-19 or other pulmonary inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Defensins/pharmacology , Mice , Rats , Tissue Distribution
9.
Mol Ther ; 30(5): 1897-1912, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586240

ABSTRACT

RNA vaccines have demonstrated efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in humans, and the technology is being leveraged for rapid emergency response. In this report, we assessed immunogenicity and, for the first time, toxicity, biodistribution, and protective efficacy in preclinical models of a two-dose self-amplifying messenger RNA (SAM) vaccine, encoding a prefusion-stabilized spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 strain and delivered by lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). In mice, one immunization with the SAM vaccine elicited a robust spike-specific antibody response, which was further boosted by a second immunization, and effectively neutralized the matched SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain as well as B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta) and B.1.617.2 (Delta) variants. High frequencies of spike-specific germinal center B, Th0/Th1 CD4, and CD8 T cell responses were observed in mice. Local tolerance, potential systemic toxicity, and biodistribution of the vaccine were characterized in rats. In hamsters, the vaccine candidate was well-tolerated, markedly reduced viral load in the upper and lower airways, and protected animals against disease in a dose-dependent manner, with no evidence of disease enhancement following SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Therefore, the SARS-CoV-2 SAM (LNP) vaccine candidate has a favorable safety profile, elicits robust protective immune responses against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants, and has been advanced to phase 1 clinical evaluation (NCT04758962).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tissue Distribution
10.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 192-195, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550127

ABSTRACT

Biodistribution studies of adenovirus-based vaccines support their clinical development by evaluating their spread and persistence following in vivo administration. AZD1222 (ChAdox1 nCov-19) is a replication-deficient non-human adenovirus-vectored vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019. In this nonclinical study, the biodistribution of AZD1222 was assessed in mice for 29 days following intramuscular injection. Results show that AZD1222 was safe and well tolerated, with a spread that was largely confined to administration sites and the proximal sciatic nerve, with low levels observed in sites that are involved in rapid clearance of particulates by the reticuloendothelial system. Accordingly, levels of AZD1222 decreased from Day 2 to Day 29, indicating clearance. There were no quantifiable levels of AZD1222 in the blood, brain, spinal cord, and reproductive tissue, suggesting a lack of widespread or long-term distribution of AZD1222 vector DNA throughout the body following its administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Distribution
11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1318, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528033

ABSTRACT

While there is SARS-CoV-2 multiorgan tropism in severely infected COVID-19 patients, it's unclear if this occurs in healthy young individuals. In addition, for antibodies that target the spike protein (SP), it's unclear if these reduce SARS-CoV-2/SP multiorgan tropism equally. We used fluorescently labeled SP-NIRF to study viral behavior, using an in vivo dynamic imaging system and ex in vivo tissue analysis, in young mice. We found a SP body-wide biodistribution followed by a slow regional elimination, except for the liver, which showed an accumulation. SP uptake was highest for the lungs, and this was followed by kidney, heart and liver, but, unlike the choroid plexus, it was not detected in the brain parenchyma or CSF. Thus, the brain vascular barriers were effective in restricting the entry of SP into brain parenchyma in young healthy mice. While both anti-ACE2 and anti-SP antibodies suppressed SP biodistribution and organ uptake, anti-SP antibody was more effective. By extension, our data support the efficacy of these antibodies on SARS-CoV-2 multiorgan tropism, which could determine COVID-19 organ-specific outcomes.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization , Animals , COVID-19 , Female , Mice , Tissue Distribution
12.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 434: 115796, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510333

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has required the urgent development of new therapies, among which passive immunotherapy is contemplated. CoviFab (INM005) is a RBD-specific F(ab')2 fragment derived from equine polyclonal antibodies. We investigate their preclinical security and biodistribution by in vivo and ex vivo NIR imaging after intravenous administration of a dose of 4 mg/kg at time 0 and 48 h. Images were taken at 1, 12, 24, 36, 48, 49, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132 and 144 h after the first intravenous injection. At 96 and 144 h, mice were sacrificed for haematology, serum chemistry, clinical pathology, histopathology and ex vivo imaging. The biodistribution profile was similar in all organs studied, with the highest fluorescence at 1 h after each injection, gradually decreasing after that each one and until the end of the study (144 h). The toxicology study revealed no significant changes in the haematology and serum chemistry parameters. Further, there were no changes in the gross and histological examination of organs. Nonclinical data of the current study confirm that CoviFab is safe, without observable adverse effects in mice. Furthermore, we confirm that bioimaging studies are a useful approach in preclinical trials to determine biodistribution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/adverse effects , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , HEK293 Cells , Horses , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Receptors, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/methods , Tissue Distribution/drug effects , Tissue Distribution/physiology
13.
J Nucl Med ; 62(11): 1631-1637, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496930

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-specific, peptide-derived 68Ga-labeled radiotracers, motivated by the hypotheses that ACE2 is an important determinant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility and that modulation of ACE2 in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) drives severe organ injury. Methods: A series of NOTA-conjugated peptides derived from the known ACE2 inhibitor DX600 were synthesized, with variable linker identity. Since DX600 bears 2 cystine residues, both linear and cyclic peptides were studied. An ACE2 inhibition assay was used to identify lead compounds, which were labeled with 68Ga to generate peptide radiotracers (68Ga-NOTA-PEP). The aminocaproate-derived radiotracer 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 was subsequently studied in a humanized ACE2 (hACE2) transgenic model. Results: Cyclic DX-600-derived peptides had markedly lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations than their linear counterparts. The 3 cyclic peptides with triglycine, aminocaproate, and polyethylene glycol linkers had calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations similar to or lower than the parent DX600 molecule. Peptides were readily labeled with 68Ga, and the biodistribution of 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 was determined in an hACE2 transgenic murine cohort. Pharmacologic concentrations of coadministered NOTA-PEP (blocking) showed a significant reduction of 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 signals in the heart, liver, lungs, and small intestine. Ex vivo hACE2 activity in these organs was confirmed as a correlate to in vivo results. Conclusion: NOTA-conjugated cyclic peptides derived from the known ACE2 inhibitor DX600 retain their activity when N-conjugated for 68Ga chelation. In vivo studies in a transgenic hACE2 murine model using the lead tracer, 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4, showed specific binding in the heart, liver, lungs and intestine-organs known to be affected in SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that 68Ga-NOTA-PEP4 could be used to detect organ-specific suppression of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-infected murine models and COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Gallium Radioisotopes/chemistry , Peptides, Cyclic , Animals , Male , Mice , Positron-Emission Tomography , Tissue Distribution
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21308, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493219

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to present and evaluate novel oral vaccines, based on self-amplifying RNA lipid nanparticles (saRNA LNPs), saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum, to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) variants alpha and delta. After invitro evaluation of the oral vaccines on HEK293T/17 cells, we found that saRNA LNPs, saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum could express S-protein at both mRNA and protein levels. In the next step, BALB/c mice were orally vaccinated with saRNA LNPs, saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum at weeks 1 and 3. Importantly, a high titer of IgG and IgA was observed by all of them, sharply in week 6 (P < 0.05). In all study groups, their ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 was upper 1, indicating Th1-biased responses. Wild-type viral neutralization assay showed that the secreted antibodies in vaccinated mice and recovered COVID-19 patients could neutralize SARS-COV-2 variants alpha and delta. After oral administration of oral vaccines, biodistribution assay was done. It was found that all of them had the same biodistribution pattern. The highest concentration of S-protein was seen in the small intestine, followed by the large intestine and liver.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transfection/methods , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
15.
Science ; 371(6536): 1379-1382, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476374

ABSTRACT

Containment of the COVID-19 pandemic requires reducing viral transmission. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is initiated by membrane fusion between the viral and host cell membranes, which is mediated by the viral spike protein. We have designed lipopeptide fusion inhibitors that block this critical first step of infection and, on the basis of in vitro efficacy and in vivo biodistribution, selected a dimeric form for evaluation in an animal model. Daily intranasal administration to ferrets completely prevented SARS-CoV-2 direct-contact transmission during 24-hour cohousing with infected animals, under stringent conditions that resulted in infection of 100% of untreated animals. These lipopeptides are highly stable and thus may readily translate into safe and effective intranasal prophylaxis to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Lipopeptides/administration & dosage , Membrane Fusion/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Fusion Protein Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Ferrets , Lipopeptides/chemistry , Lipopeptides/pharmacokinetics , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Mice , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tissue Distribution , Vero Cells , Viral Fusion Protein Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Fusion Protein Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Viral Fusion Protein Inhibitors/pharmacology
16.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 99(10): 1006-1010, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476252

ABSTRACT

We hypothesize that thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome recently described after administration of adenovirus-vectored vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurs as a result of the unique properties of the adenovirus vectors, which can have widespread biodistribution throughout the body. The antigen is delivered to megakaryocyte cells, which act as part of the primary immune system and distribute the antigen within progeny platelets, also a key component of the immune system. The interaction of the antigen induces preformed antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies to bind to PF4-heparan sulfate complexes in the absence of exogenous heparin, at sites where the heparan sulfate concentration in the vascular glycocalyx is optimal for complex formation, causing thrombosis and thrombocytopenia as observed clinically. This hypothesis is testable in cell culture and animal models, and potentially in vivo, and if proven correct has significant implications for vaccine development and our understanding of the links between the coagulation and immune systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Adenoviridae , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Distribution , Vaccination
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6097, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475295

ABSTRACT

Effective treatments against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed. Monoclonal antibodies have shown promising results in patients. Here, we evaluate the in vivo prophylactic and therapeutic effect of COVA1-18, a neutralizing antibody highly potent against the B.1.1.7 isolate. In both prophylactic and therapeutic settings, SARS-CoV-2 remains undetectable in the lungs of treated hACE2 mice. Therapeutic treatment also causes a reduction in viral loads in the lungs of Syrian hamsters. When administered at 10 mg kg-1 one day prior to a high dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in cynomolgus macaques, COVA1-18 shows very strong antiviral activity in the upper respiratory compartments. Using a mathematical model, we estimate that COVA1-18 reduces viral infectivity by more than 95% in these compartments, preventing lymphopenia and extensive lung lesions. Our findings demonstrate that COVA1-18 has a strong antiviral activity in three preclinical models and could be a valuable candidate for further clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Distribution , Viral Load
18.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 111(3): 624-634, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469444

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is the first drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in certain patients requiring hospitalization. As a nucleoside analogue prodrug, RDV undergoes intracellular multistep activation to form its pharmacologically active species, GS-443902, which is not detectable in the plasma. A question arises that whether the observed plasma exposure of RDV and its metabolites would correlate with or be informative about the exposure of GS-443902 in tissues. A whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation approach was utilized to elucidate the disposition mechanism of RDV and its metabolites in the lungs and liver and explore the relationship between plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics (PK) of RDV and its metabolites in healthy subjects. In addition, the potential alteration of plasma and tissue PK of RDV and its metabolites in patients with organ dysfunction was explored. Our simulation results indicated that intracellular exposure of GS-443902 was decreased in the liver and increased in the lungs in subjects with hepatic impairment relative to the subjects with normal liver function. In subjects with severe renal impairment, the exposure of GS-443902 in the liver was slightly increased, whereas the lung exposure of GS-443902 was not impacted. These predictions along with the organ impairment study results may be used to support decision making regarding the RDV dosage adjustment in these patient subgroups. The modeling exercise illustrated the potential of whole body PBPK modeling to aid in decision making for nucleotide analogue prodrugs, particularly when the active metabolite exposure in the target tissues is not available.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Liver/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Models, Biological , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/urine , Adult , Alanine/blood , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/urine , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Tissue Distribution
19.
J Control Release ; 339: 361-380, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454255

ABSTRACT

Fungal infections affect millions of people globally and are often unreceptive to conventional topical or oral preparations because of low drug bioavailability at the infection site, lack of sustained therapeutic effect, and the development of drug resistance. Amphotericin B (AmB) is one of the most potent antifungal agents. It is increasingly important since fungal co-infections associated with COVID-19 are frequently reported. AmB is only administered via injections (IV) and restricted to life-threatening infections due to its nephrotoxicity and administration-related side effects. In this work, we introduce, for the first time, dissolving microneedle patches (DMP) loaded with micronised particles of AmB to achieve localised and long-acting intradermal delivery of AmB for treatment of cutaneous fungal infections. AmB was pulverised with poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) to form micronised particles-loaded gels, which were then cast into DMP moulds to form the tips. The mean particle size of AmB in AmB DMP tips after pulverisation was 1.67 ± 0.01 µm. This is an easy way to fabricate and load microparticles into DMP, as few steps are required, and no organic solvents are needed. AmB had no covalent chemical interaction with the excipients, but the crystallinity of AmB was reduced in the tips. AmB was completely released from the tips within 4 days in vitro. AmB DMP presented inhibition of Candida albicans (CA) and the killing rate of AmB DMP against CA biofilm inside porcine skin reached 100% within 24 h. AmB DMP were able to pierce excised neonatal porcine skin at an insertion depth of 301.34 ± 46.86 µm. Ex vivo dermatokinetic and drug deposition studies showed that AmB was mainly deposited in the dermis. An in vivo dermatokinetic study revealed that the area under curve (AUC0-inf) values of AmB DMP and IV (Fungizone® bolus injection 1 mg/kg) groups were 8823.0 d∙µg/g and 33.4 d∙µg/g, respectively (264-fold higher). AmB remained at high levels (219.07 ± 102.81 µg/g or more) in the skin until 7 days after the application of AmB DMP. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies showed that AmB concentration in plasma, kidney, liver, and spleen in the AmB DMP group was significantly lower than that in the IV group. Accordingly, this system addressed the systemic side effects of intravenous injection of AmB and localised the drug inside the skin for a week. This work establishes a novel, easy and effective method for long-acting and localised intradermal drug delivery.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B , COVID-19 , Animals , Antifungal Agents , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Tissue Distribution
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389395

ABSTRACT

As an essential modulator of IgG disposition, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) governs the pharmacokinetics and functions many therapeutic modalities. In this review, we thoroughly reexamine the hitherto elucidated biological and thermodynamic properties of FcRn to provide context for our assessment of more recent advances, which covers antigen-binding fragment (Fab) determinants of FcRn affinity, transgenic preclinical models, and FcRn targeting as an immune-complex (IC)-clearing strategy. We further comment on therapeutic antibodies authorized for treating SARS-CoV-2 (bamlanivimab, casirivimab, and imdevimab) and evaluate their potential to saturate FcRn-mediated recycling. Finally, we discuss modeling and simulation studies that probe the quantitative relationship between in vivo IgG persistence and in vitro FcRn binding, emphasizing the importance of endosomal transit parameters.


Subject(s)
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/chemistry , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Receptors, Fc/chemistry , Receptors, Fc/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Tissue Distribution/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL