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1.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101156, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671315

ABSTRACT

Here we present an optimized protocol for transcriptome profiling of COVID-19 patient samples, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from the lung, liver, heart, kidney, and spleen, with the matched controls. We describe RNA extraction and subsequent transcriptome analysis using NanoString technology of the patient samples. The protocol provides information about sample preparation, RNA extraction, and NanoString profiling and analysis. It can be also applied to differentiated Th17 and Treg subsets or formalin-fixed colon tissue samples. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Wang et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tissue Fixation/methods , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
2.
J Anat ; 239(5): 1221-1225, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462840

ABSTRACT

Teaching and learning anatomy by using human cadaveric specimens has been a foundation of medical and biomedical teaching for hundreds of years. Therefore, the majority of institutions that teach topographical anatomy rely on body donation programmes to provide specimens for both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching of gross anatomy. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to anatomy teaching because of the suspension of donor acceptance at most institutions. This was largely due to concerns about the potential transmissibility of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the absence of data about the ability of embalming solutions to neutralise the virus. Twenty embalming solutions commonly used in institutions in the United Kingdom and Ireland were tested for their ability to neutralise SARS-CoV-2, using an established cytotoxicity assay. All embalming solutions tested neutralised SARS-CoV-2, with the majority of solutions being effective at high-working dilutions. These results suggest that successful embalming with the tested solutions can neutralise the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thereby facilitating the safe resumption of body donation programmes and cadaveric anatomy teaching.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Embalming/methods , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Fixation/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Cadaver , Cells, Cultured , Fixatives/pharmacology , Humans
3.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100696, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322393

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key cellular entry factor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Hence, identifying cell types that express ACE2 is important for understanding the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019. We performed extensive testing of multiple primary antibodies across various human tissue types. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for immunostaining of ACE2 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human pancreas, small intestine, and kidney tissue sections obtained from organ donors and autopsies. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Kusmartseva et al. (2020).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Paraffin Embedding/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Fixation/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans
4.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(9): 1065-1077, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318904

ABSTRACT

Implementation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing in the daily practice of pathology laboratories requires procedure adaptation to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. So far, one study reported the feasibility of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing on FFPE tissues with only one contributory case of two. This study optimized SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing using the Ion AmpliSeq SARS-CoV-2 Panel on 22 FFPE lung tissues from 16 deceased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in all FFPE blocks using a real-time RT-qPCR targeting the E gene with crossing point (Cp) values ranging from 16.02 to 34.16. Sequencing was considered as contributory (i.e. with a uniformity >55%) for 17 FFPE blocks. Adapting the number of target amplification PCR cycles according to the RT-qPCR Cp values allowed optimization of the sequencing quality for the contributory blocks (i.e. 20 PCR cycles for blocks with a Cp value <28 and 25 PCR cycles for blocks with a Cp value between 28 and 30). Most blocks with a Cp value >30 were non-contributory. Comparison of matched frozen and FFPE tissues revealed discordance for only three FFPE blocks, all with a Cp value >28. Variant identification and clade classification was possible for 13 patients. This study validates SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing on FFPE blocks and opens the possibility to explore correlation between virus genotype and histopathologic lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Lung/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Autopsy , COVID-19/pathology , Formaldehyde , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Lung/pathology , Paraffin Embedding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Fixation/methods
5.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(6): 802-814, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global health threat and a significant source of human morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily induces lung injury, it also has been reported to cause hepatic sequelae. METHODS: We aimed to detect the virus in formalin-fixed tissue blocks and document the liver injury patterns in patients with COVID-19 compared with a control group. RESULTS: We were able to detect viral RNA in the bronchioalveolar cell blocks (12/12, 100%) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the lung (8/8, 100%) and liver (4/9, 44%) of patients with COVID-19. Although the peak values of the main liver enzymes and bilirubin were higher in the patients with COVID-19 compared with the control group, the differences were not significant. The main histologic findings were minimal to focal mild portal tract chronic inflammation (7/8, 88%, P < .05) and mild focal lobular activity (6/8, 75%, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: We found that most patients who died of COVID-19 had evidence of mild focal hepatitis clinically and histologically; however, the virus was detected in less than half of the cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Formaldehyde , Liver/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tissue Fixation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Tissue Fixation/methods
6.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(6): 802-814, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global health threat and a significant source of human morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily induces lung injury, it also has been reported to cause hepatic sequelae. METHODS: We aimed to detect the virus in formalin-fixed tissue blocks and document the liver injury patterns in patients with COVID-19 compared with a control group. RESULTS: We were able to detect viral RNA in the bronchioalveolar cell blocks (12/12, 100%) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the lung (8/8, 100%) and liver (4/9, 44%) of patients with COVID-19. Although the peak values of the main liver enzymes and bilirubin were higher in the patients with COVID-19 compared with the control group, the differences were not significant. The main histologic findings were minimal to focal mild portal tract chronic inflammation (7/8, 88%, P < .05) and mild focal lobular activity (6/8, 75%, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: We found that most patients who died of COVID-19 had evidence of mild focal hepatitis clinically and histologically; however, the virus was detected in less than half of the cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Formaldehyde , Liver/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tissue Fixation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Tissue Fixation/methods
7.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 154(2): 190-200, 2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-377954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report methods and findings of 2 autopsies with molecular evaluation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive individuals. METHODS: Postmortem examination was completed following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention public guidelines. Numerous formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue types from each case were surveyed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). SARS-CoV-2 viral genome was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) from FFPE lung tissue blocks. RESULTS: Postmortem examinations revealed diffuse alveolar damage, while no viral-associated hepatic, cardiac, or renal damage was observed. Viral RNA was detected in lungs, bronchi, lymph nodes, and spleen in both cases using qRT-PCR method. RNA sequencing using NGS in case 1 revealed mutations most consistent with Western European Clade A2a with ORF1a L3606F mutation. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 testing and viral sequencing can be performed from FFPE tissue. Detection and sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in combination with morphological findings from postmortem tissue examination can aid in gaining a better understanding of the virus's pathophysiologic effects on human health.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/pathology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatal Outcome , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Tissue Fixation/methods
8.
JCI Insight ; 5(12)2020 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215032

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The virus rapidly spread globally, resulting in a public health crisis including almost 5 million cases and 323,256 deaths as of May 21, 2020. Here, we describe the identification and evaluation of commercially available reagents and assays for the molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in infected FFPE cell pellets. We identified a suitable rabbit polyclonal anti-SARS-CoV spike protein antibody and a mouse monoclonal anti-SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein (NP) antibody for cross-detection of the respective SARS-CoV-2 proteins by IHC and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Next, we established RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH) to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Furthermore, we established a multiplex FISH (mFISH) to detect positive-sense SARS-CoV-2 RNA and negative-sense SARS-CoV-2 RNA (a replicative intermediate indicating viral replication). Finally, we developed a dual staining assay using IHC and ISH to detect SARS-CoV-2 antigen and RNA in the same FFPE section. It is hoped that these reagents and assays will accelerate COVID-19 pathogenesis studies in humans and in COVID-19 animal models.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Formaldehyde , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Mice , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Paraffin Embedding/methods , Pathology, Molecular/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Fixation/methods
9.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(11): 754-757, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-188172

ABSTRACT

In the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, pathologists can be exposed to infection handling surgical specimens. Guidelines related to safety procedures in the laboratory have been released. However, there is a lack of studies performed on biopsy and surgical resection specimens. Here we report the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from surgical resection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma of a patient who developed COVID-19 postsurgery. RNA of SARS-CoV-2 strain was detected in the tumour and the normal submandibular gland samples using real-time PCR-based assay. No viral RNA was found in metastatic and reactive lymph nodes. We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in routine histopathological samples even before COVID-19 disease development. These findings may give important information on the possible sites of infection or virus reservoir, and highlight the necessity of proper handling and fixation before sample processing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Tissue Preservation/methods , Tongue Neoplasms/surgery , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fixatives , Formaldehyde , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Paraffin Embedding , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Postoperative Complications/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Fixation/methods , Tongue Neoplasms/complications , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , Tongue Neoplasms/virology
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