Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 33
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12623, 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956418

ABSTRACT

Despite severe economic damage, full-service restaurants and bars have been closed in hopes of suppressing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 worldwide. This paper explores whether the early closure of restaurants and bars in February 2021 reduced symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 in Japan. Using a large-scale nationally representative longitudinal survey, we found that the early closure of restaurants and bars decreased the utilization rate among young persons (OR 0.688; CI95 0.515-0.918) and those who visited these places before the pandemic (OR 0.754; CI95 0.594-0.957). However, symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 did not decrease in these active and high-risk subpopulations. Among the more inactive and low-risk subpopulations, such as elderly persons, no discernible impacts are observed in both the utilization of restaurants and bars and the symptoms of SARS-CoV-2. These results suggest that the early closure of restaurants and bars without any other concurrent measures does not contribute to the suppression of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Restaurants , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1168, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People remain exposed to secondhand smoke, a serious health hazard, inside their home as households face challenges in setting no-smoking rules or are exposed to secondhand smoke drifting in from neighbouring homes. This study explores the psychosocial impacts, views, and experiences with residential secondhand smoke in a densely populated urban setting.  METHODS: In-depth online or face to face interviews with 18 key informants who had been involved in public discourse, policy, advocacy or handling complaints related to residential secondhand smoke, 14 smokers, and 16 non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke inside their home. All participants were residents of Singapore, a densely populated, multi-ethnic city-state. Interview transcripts were coded in NVivo using a deductive and inductive coding process. FINDINGS: Secondhand smoke has wide-reaching impacts on physical and psychosocial wellbeing, even if smokers tried to minimise secondhand smoke. Feelings of anxiety and stress are generally tied to feeling discomfort in one's personal space, a perceived lack of control over the situation, resentment towards smokers, and concerns over the health effects. Family, community, and cultural dynamics add complexities to tackling the issue, especially in patriarchal households. Secondhand smoke exposure from neighbours is considered a widespread issue, exacerbated by structural factors such as building layout and the COVID-19 pandemic. Resolving the issue amicably is considered challenging due to the absence of regulations and a reluctance to stir up conflict with neighbours. While smokers took measures to reduce secondhand smoke, these were described as ineffective by other participants. Smokers appeared to have contrasting views from other participants on what it means to smoke in a socially responsible manner. CONCLUSION: Given the wide-reaching psychosocial impacts of residential secondhand smoke, there is a case for stronger interventions, especially in densely populated urban settings where it is more difficult to avoid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics , Smokers
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 306: 115159, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907803

ABSTRACT

This study examines whether people smoked more under the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) closure policies which trapped them at home with their families. In such circumstances, the pleasure from smoking could be more tempting than usual, but at the same time smokers' families are more likely to be victims of passive smoking. This study uses temporal and regional variations in policy strengths with data from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker project (OxCGRT) to examine the impact of COVID-19 closure policies on smoking behaviors. With longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) in 2018 and 2020, we find diminished smoking behaviors among Chinese male adults when the government implemented strict public health policies for the COVID-19 pandemic. People with more conscientiousness personality traits or stronger pro-family attitudes tend to smoke less as policy stringency increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Adult , Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy
4.
Gac Sanit ; 36(2): 160-165, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific epidemiologic evidence on the role of hospitality venues in the incidence or mortality from COVID-19. METHOD: We included studies conducted in any population, describing either the impact of the closure or reopening of hospitality venues, or exposure to these venues, on the incidence or mortality from COVID-19. We used a snowball sampling approach with backward and forward citation search along with co-citations. RESULTS: We found 20 articles examining the role of hospitality venues in the epidemiology of COVID-19. Modeling studies showed that interventions reducing social contacts in indoor venues can reduce COVID-19 transmission. Studies using statistical models showed similar results, including that the closure of hospitality venues is amongst the most effective measures in reducing incidence or mortality. Case studies highlighted the role of hospitality venues in generating super-spreading events, along with the importance of airflow and ventilation inside these venues. CONCLUSIONS: We found consistent results across studies showing that the closure of hospitality venues is amongst the most effective measures to reduce the impact of COVID-19. We also found support for measures limiting capacity and improving ventilation to consider during the re-opening of these venues.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Restaurants
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785631

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we examine efforts by health organizations seeking comprehensive smokefree ordinances over Louisiana casinos and bars between 2010 and 2020 to determine best practices for increasing coverage. Bars and casinos remain less protected from secondhand smoke compared to other workplaces in the United States. Casino behavior is compared to the Policy Dystopia Model (PDM), a tobacco industry strategy framework. We performed a historical case study using snowball searches for news on the Access World News Database and the internet. We performed web searches using the names of key actors, organizations, and locations and interviewed nine participants. Starting in 2010, the Louisiana Campaign for Tobacco-Free Living ran ordinance campaigns supplemented by an ongoing statewide smokefree media initiative. Utilizing consistent strategies, including promoting performers as cultural emblems deserving protection, health organizations coalesced in New Orleans during 2014 and Baton Rouge in 2016 and 2017 to pursue ordinances. The coalitions secured ordinances in Louisiana's population and tourism centers despite business resistance. Organizations obtained 30 smokefree laws across Louisiana by 2021. Casinos used PDM strategies to resist ordinances, indicating the framework may predict strategies by non-tobacco entities resisting tobacco control. Louisiana shows that ongoing local campaigns, social justice themes and cultural messaging with coalitions in cities can secure smokefree laws covering casinos and bars and that local ordinance campaigns are a viable method for advancing smokefree protections over those venues in states where the state legislatures are resistant to action.


Subject(s)
Smoke-Free Policy , Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Humans , Louisiana , Restaurants , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , United States
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741083, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775896

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association between passive smoking and physical and psychological health in Chinese nurses. Participants of this cross-sectional study comprised 2,484 non-smoking nurses. Passive smoking and demographic information were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical, psychological, and overall health status of nurses were measured using the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) health questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for nurses' health were estimated by exposure to passive smoking using unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 1,219 nurses (49.07%) were exposed to passive smoking. Of these, 609 (24.52%), 160 (6.44%), and 587 (23.63%) nurses had poorer physical, mental, and overall health, respectively. After adjusting for other confounding factors, compared with the non-passive smoking group, passive smoking was associated with poor physical (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25-1.83), mental (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.07-2.07), and overall (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.30-1.93) health of nurses, respectively. We also carried out subgroup analyses stratified by age, department, and professional title, which showed that most findings supported the main results. This study demonstrated that exposure to passive smoking was a risk factor for overall decreased physical and mental health status among Chinese nurses.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Nurses , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735699, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775876

ABSTRACT

Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the most common outdoor air pollutants, and secondhand smoking (SHS) is an important source of inhalable indoor air pollution. Previous studies were controversial and inconsistent about PM2.5 and SHS air pollutants on neonatal birth weight outcomes, and no studies assessed the potential interactive effects between PM2.5 and SHS on birth weight outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the interaction between gestational PM2.5 and SHS air pollution exposure on the risk of macrosomia among pregnant women and examine the modifying effect of SHS exposure on the association of PM2.5 air pollution and birth weight outcomes during pregnancy. Methods: Research data were derived from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP), which lasted 3 years from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012. At least 240,000 Chinese women from 220 counties were enrolled in this project. PM2.5 exposure concentration was obtained using a hindcast model specific for historical PM2.5 estimation from satellite-retrieved aerosol optic depth. Different interaction models about air pollution exposure on birth weight outcomes were established, according to the adjustment of different confounding factors and different pregnancy stages. The establishment of interaction models was based on multivariable logistic regression, and the main confounding factors were maternal age at delivery and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) of participants. SHS subgroups analysis was conducted to further confirm the results of interaction models. Results: In total, 197,877 participants were included in our study. In the full-adjusted interaction model, maternal exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of macrosomia in whole, the first-, second-, and third trimesters of pregnancy (p < 0.001). The interactive effect was statistically significant between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and SHS on the risk of macrosomia in the whole (interaction p < 0.050) and the first-trimester pregnancy (interaction p < 0.050), not in the second (interaction p > 0.050) or third trimester (interaction p > 0.050) of pregnancy. The higher frequency of SHS exposure prompted the stronger interaction between the two air pollutants in the whole pregnancy and the first-trimester pregnancy. Conclusions: In the whole and first-trimester pregnancy, maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy enhanced the risk of macrosomia among pregnant women exposed to PM2.5 air pollutants, and the interaction became stronger with the higher frequency of SHS exposure.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Fetal Macrosomia , Particulate Matter , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Female , Fetal Macrosomia/chemically induced , Fetal Macrosomia/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 733667, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775871

ABSTRACT

Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children ranks one of the major public health problems in our time. Poor parental knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on ETS often contribute to worse exposure of the kids. Thus, we aimed to document parental KAP regarding tobacco use, smoking cessation and children's ETS exposure, and to analyse how knowledge and attitude relate to practice. Methods: Self-administered KAP questionnaires were distributed to smoking parents recruited from the pediatric unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital, which provides pediatric service to a population of 1.2 million in Hong Kong. The 60-item questionnaire had a range of 0-38 for knowledge, 0-44 for attitude, and 0-40 for practice. Descriptive analyses were performed for KAP response, regression analyses were performed for the exploration of associations and identification of predictive indicators. Results: 145 smoking parents (mean age: 38.0 ± 6.7 yrs.; male: 85.5%) were included. Less than half (39.3%) of them reported a smoke-free policy at home. Among those parents who had private cars, less than half (45.2%) of them had smoke-free policy in their car that they never smoked in the car. Only 25.5% of the participants correctly answered ≥70% of the knowledge questions, and 11.8 % of the participants gave favorable responses to ≥70% of the attitude questions. The total knowledge and the total attitudes score were positively associated (r = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35-0.79, p < 0.001), yet they were only modestly correlated with parental practice on children's ETS exposure. By multivariate regressions, potential predictive factors for more favorable parental KAP included higher household income, lower parental nicotine dependence level and breastfeeding practice. Conclusions: Parental KAP related to tobacco use and children's ETS exposure needs improvement to address the significant gap between recommended and actual practice. The weak association between knowledge and practice suggested that parental education alone is not adequate to combat ETS exposure in children.


Subject(s)
Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Adult , Child , Environmental Exposure , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Parents , Tobacco Use
10.
Am J Public Health ; 112(4): 595-597, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760050
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056891, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752882

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Promoting smoke-free policies is a key intervention for reducing secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. During the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, many indoor smoking spaces in workplaces were closed. This study aimed to reveal the association between a workplace smoke-free policy and SHS exposure among non-smoking employees, distinguishing between SHS exposure from cigarettes and exposure to secondhand heated tobacco product (HTP) aerosol, which have recently become popular in Japan. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used data from the Japan COVID-19 and Society Internet Survey conducted in August-September 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Among the 25 482 eligible respondents, 8196 non-smoking employees were analysed. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the impact of smoke-free policies in the workplace. RESULTS: Compared with complete smoking bans, the ORs and 95% CIs for workplace SHS exposure at least once a week from cigarettes were 2.06 (95% CI: 1.60 to 2.65) for partial bans with no longer available smoking spaces, 1.92 (95% CI: 1.63 to 2.25) for partial smoking bans with still available smoking spaces and 5.33 (95% CI: 4.10 to 6.93) for no smoking bans. The corresponding ORs and 95% CIs for exposure to secondhand HTP aerosol were 4.15 (95% CI: 3.22 to 5.34), 2.24 (95% CI: 1.86 to 2.71) and 3.88 (95% CI: 2.86 to 5.26), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of partial bans was limited, and temporary closure of smoking spaces might contribute to increased exposure to secondhand HTP aerosol. Complete smoking bans in the workplace were reaffirmed to be the best way to reduce SHS exposure from cigarettes and exposure to secondhand HTP aerosol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoke-Free Policy , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Aerosols , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Workplace
13.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(3): 248-257, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Once the COVID-19 pandemic arrived in New York City (NYC), stay-at-home orders led to more time spent indoors, potentially increasing exposure to secondhand marijuana and tobacco smoke via incursions from common areas or neighbors. The objective of this study was to characterize housing-based disparities in marijuana and tobacco incursions in NYC housing during the pandemic. DESIGN: We surveyed a random sample of families from May to July 2020 and collected sociodemographic data, housing characteristics, and the presence, frequency, and pandemic-related change in incursions. SETTING: Five pediatric practices affiliated with a large NYC health care system. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 230 caregivers of children attending the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and change in tobacco and marijuana smoke incursions. RESULTS: Tobacco and marijuana smoke incursions were reported by 22.9% and 30.7%, respectively. Twenty-two percent of families received financial housing support (public housing, Section-8). Compared with families in private housing, families with financial housing support had 3.8 times the odds of tobacco incursions (95% CI, 1.4-10.1) and 3.7 times the odds of worsening incursions during pandemic (95% CI, 1.1-12.5). Families with financially supported housing had 6.9 times the odds of marijuana incursions (95% CI, 2.4-19.5) and 5 times the odds of worsening incursions during pandemic (95% CI, 1.9-12.8). Children in financially supported housing spent more time inside the home during pandemic (median 24 hours vs 21.6 hours, P = .02) and were more likely to have asthma (37% vs 12.9%, P = .001) than children in private housing. CONCLUSIONS: Incursions were higher among families with financially supported housing. Better enforcement of existing regulations (eg, Smoke-Free Public Housing Rule) and implementation of additional policies to limit secondhand tobacco and marijuana exposure in children are needed. Such actions should prioritize equitable access to cessation and mental health services and consider structural systems leading to poverty and health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Smoke-Free Policy , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Housing , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Housing
14.
Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 76(0)2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to clarify the transition to the implementation of smoking prohibition at eating and drinking establishments one year before and after April 2020, the time when they became "nonsmoking" in principle following the implementation of the amendment bill for the Health Promotion Act of Japan. METHODS: The total number of nonsmoking/smoking eating and drinking establishments by industry were obtained using the data from "Tabelog®." The number of people who tested positive for COVID-19 by the polymerase chain reaction test on the day of the survey nationwide and the bankruptcy status of the companies (eating and drinking establishments, etc.) for each month were ascertained. RESULTS: In 2020, a state of emergency was declared owing to the increase in the number of people positive for COVID-19, and many eating and drinking establishments went bankrupt. Despite these circumstances, the number of nonsmoking eating and drinking establishments exceeded that of smoking establishments in March 2020 and continued to increase thereafter. Additionally, the number of nonsmoking "restaurants" increased and exceeded that of smoking restaurants in June 2020. The number of nonsmoking "cafes" already exceeded that of smoking "cafes" at the beginning of this survey and continued to increase. The number of nonsmoking "bars" increased, but that of smoking "bars" remained high. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to promote measures against passive smoking while paying attention to the trends for different types of eating and drinking establishments, rather than considering all establishments together.


Subject(s)
Public Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Humans , Japan , Public Policy/trends , Restaurants/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking Prevention/statistics & numerical data
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047817, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503935

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) in childhood is linked with increased morbidity and mortality. Hospital or secondary care contact may present a 'teachable moment' to provide parents with support to change their home smoking behaviours to reduce children's SHSe. There is a lack of robust qualitative evidence around parents and healthcare professionals (HCPs) views on using this teachable moment to successfully initiate behavioural change. We aim to identify and understand what is important to stakeholders with a view to informing the development of a support package to help parents change their home smoking behaviours. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This qualitative study will be theoretically underpinned by the Capability, Opportunity and Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) model of behavioural change. It will involve semistructured interviews and/or discussion groups with up to 20 parents who smoke and up to 25 HCPs. Stakeholders will be recruited from a single National Health Service children's hospital in England. Interviews and/or discussion groups will be audio recorded, transcribed and anonymised. The transcripts and any field notes will be analysed using the framework method. Initially, we will apply COM-B to the data deductively and will then code inductively within each domain. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol for this study received a favourable outcome from the East Midlands Leicester Central Research Ethics Committee (19/EM/0171). Results will be written up as part of a PhD thesis, submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentation at conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN40084089.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Child , Hospitals , Humans , Qualitative Research , Secondary Care , State Medicine
16.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 98 Suppl 1: S32-S37, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to verify indoor and outdoor pollution, host and environmental microbiome, and the impact on the health of the pediatric population. SOURCES: A review of the literature, non-systematic, with the search for articles since 2001 in PubMed with the terms "pollution" AND "microbiome" AND "children's health" AND "COVID-19". SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Prevention of allergic diseases includes the following aspects: avoid cesarean delivery, the unnecessary overuse of antibiotics, air pollution, smoking in pregnancy and second-hand tobacco smoke, stimulate breastfeeding, soil connection, consume fresh fruits and vegetables, exercise and outdoor activities and animal contact. The children's microbiota richness and diversity decrease the risk of immune disbalance and allergic disease development. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle and exposure to pollutants, both biological and non-biological, modify the host and the environment microbiome provoking an immune disbalance with inflammatory consequences and development of allergic diseases.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Microbiota , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1972, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of human society, including education, culture, and the economy, and has also introduced changes in people's health behaviors such as drinking alcohol, nutrition intake, and practicing healthy living. This study conducted qualitative research in the Korean context to examine the changes in the smoking behavior of smokers and secondhand smoke exposure of non-smokers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted with 36 Korean participants (18 men and 18 women). The groups were composed of cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, heated tobacco product users, and non-smokers. RESULTS: During the pandemic, it was found that there was an increase in the frequency of use, irrespective of the tobacco product, in users who refrained from social interaction and worked or studied from home. Users who continued to be socially active increased the amount used with each usage. Smokers showed a tendency to avoid smoking rooms and to smoke alone in places unoccupied by people. In addition, non-smokers' exposure to secondhand smoke did not decrease, but since non-smokers used masks, they reported more relief from the risk of exposure to secondhand smoke than before. CONCLUSIONS: Despite smokers being a high-risk group for COVID-19, the risk did not result in smoking cessation among smokers. Therefore, policies and educational campaigns to raise awareness about the dangers of smoking and to encourage smoking cessation are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Attitude , Female , Humans , Male , Non-Smokers , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(supl.1): 22-25, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1362152

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial evidence on the negative effect of active smoking to Covid-19, the impact of passive smoking in the course of disease remains largely unclear. Our aim was to reflect passive smoking as a risk factor in the current pandemic. Studies are needed to increase our knowledge on passive smoking and Covid-19 implications. The reflections current findings strongly support interventions and policies to curb the tobacco epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Products , COVID-19 , Smoking/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288870

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on smoking and smoking cessation behaviours and support for smoke-free zones in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested structured survey was distributed by email in October-November 2020 to students and staff at the University of Jeddah. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics with summative content analysis of open text. Participants providing open text comments (n = 374/666; 56.4%) were non-smokers (n = 293; 78.3%), former smokers (n = 26; 7.0%) and current smokers (n = 55; 14.7%). Some had household members (n = 220; 58.8%) and friends who smoke (n = 198; 52.9%) plus daily exposure to secondhand smoke at home (n = 125; 33.4%). There was an awareness during COVID-19 of: smoking inside cafes/restaurants and other indoor and outdoor public places; exposure to warnings in the media both against and promoting smoking; widespread support for smoke-free zones. Smokers plans for accessing smoking cessation support are inconsistent with retrospective reports. Many express positivity highlighting reductions in smoking but there were also negative reports of increased smoking. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of society worldwide. People have been at home more with restricted freedom of movement and limitations on social liberty. These individual accounts can help to focus evidence-based smoking prevention and cessation programmes during and post-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Smoking , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282463

ABSTRACT

Bushfires substantially increase the environmental health risks for people living in affected areas, especially the disadvantaged (e.g., those experiencing health inequities due to their socio-economic status, racial/ethnic backgrounds, geographic location and/or sexual orientation) and those with pre-existing health conditions. Pregnant women exposed to bushfire smoke are at a greater risk of adverse pregnancy and foetal outcomes, especially if they smoke tobacco, which may compound the toxic impacts. Bushfires may also exacerbate mental stress, leading to an increase in smoking. There are gaps in the evidence and more research is required on the combined effect of bushfire smoke and tobacco smoke on pregnant populations.


Subject(s)
Smoke , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Environmental Health , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Smoke/adverse effects , Smoking , Tobacco
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL