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2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20335, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133614

ABSTRACT

Empirical evidence, primarily based on hospital-based or voluntary samples, suggests that current smokers have a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than never smokers. In this study, we used nationally representative data to examine the association between tobacco use and the risk of having a confirmed COVID-19 case. We explored several forms of tobacco use, contributing to separate the role of nicotine from smoking. We used data from 44,199 participants from three pooled national health surveys in Finland (FinSote 2018-2020). The primary outcome was a confirmed COVID-19 case. We examined current smoking, moist smokeless tobacco (snus), e-cigarettes with and without nicotine and nicotine replacement therapy products. Current daily smokers had a relative risk of 1.12 of a confirmed COVID-19 case (95% CI 0.65; 1.94) in fully adjusted models compared with never smokers. Current snus use was associated with a 68% higher risk of a confirmed COVID-19 case (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02; 2.75) than never users. We did not find conclusive evidence of associations between e-cigarettes with and without nicotine and nicotine replacement therapy products and the risk of confirmed COVID-19 cases. Our findings suggest that nicotine might not have a protective role in the risk of COVID-19 as previously hypothesized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Finland/epidemiology , Nicotine , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40346-40354, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115893

ABSTRACT

There is mixed evidence surrounding the relationship between tobacco use and COVID-19 infection/progression. The current study investigates beliefs and tobacco use behaviors and COVID-19 infection among a sample of smokers and never-smokers. Data were collected using an online survey distributed through Telegram, a cloud-based social media networking application in Iran from April 1 to May 31, 2020. The study participants included never-smokers (n = 511), current (past-month) waterpipe smokers (n = 89), current cigarette smokers (n = 158), and ex-smokers (n = 172). Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare tobacco use groups with never- smokers on beliefs, controlling for potential confounders. The study participants (n = 944) was mostly male (64%), had > high school education (76%), and lived in an urban area (91%), with mean ± SD age of 35.3 ± 10.8. Key findings of this study are that compared with never-smokers: (1) cigarette smokers were less likely to believe that smoking cigarette can lead to spreading COVID-19; (2) waterpipe smokers were more likely to believe that smoking waterpipe at home was a safe practice, that waterpipe protects against COVID-19, and smoking waterpipe may lead to a more rapid recovery from COVID-19; (3) both waterpipe and cigarette smokers believed that using e-cigarettes in public places was a safe practice during the COVID-19 pandemic; and (4) more than half of the ex-smokers stopped smoking due to COVID-19 and most of them planned to continue abstaining from smoking after the pandemic. Our findings underscore the need to raise awareness about the unsupported claims of a lower hazard of using tobacco products or possible protective effects against COVID-19 and to promote cessation programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and alcohol, tobacco, or nicotine use are frequently associated conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a stressful situation globally and has worsened mental health conditions and addictions in the population. Our systematic review explores the links between PTSSs and (1) alcohol use and (2) tobacco or nicotine use during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases for studies published between January 2020 and 16 December 2021. We included studies published in English concerning adults or adolescents. Included articles dealt simultaneously with the COVID-19 pandemic, PTSSs, and alcohol, tobacco, or nicotine use. The reports included were cross-sectional, longitudinal, or cohort studies. We categorized the reports according to the population explored. Our main outcomes are the impacts of PTSSs on (1) alcohol use and (2) tobacco and nicotine use and their relation to COVID-19-related stressors (worries, exposure, lockdown, and infection, either of self or relatives). RESULTS: Of the 503 reports identified, 44 were assessed for eligibility, and 16 were included in our review, encompassing 34,408 participants. The populations explored were the general population, healthcare workers, war veterans, patients with substance use disorders, and other vulnerable populations. Most studies were online surveys (14) with cross-sectional designs (11). Every study explored alcohol use, while only two assessed tobacco use. In most populations explored, a high level of PTSSs was associated with alcohol use increase. COVID-19-related stress was frequently correlated with either high PTSSs or alcohol use. In healthcare workers, PTSSs and alcohol use were not associated, while COVID-19 worries were related to both PTSSs and alcohol use. DISCUSSION: 1. PTSSs and increased alcohol use are frequently associated, while COVID-19 worries might trigger both conditions and worsen their association. Alcohol use increase may represent either an inadequate way of coping with PTSSs or a vulnerability amid the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to PTSSs. As most studies were cross-sectional online surveys, longitudinal prospective studies are needed to ascertain the direction of the associations between these conditions. These studies need to be sufficiently powered and control for potential bias and confounders. 2. Our review highlighted that research about PTSSs and tobacco or nicotine use is scarce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tobacco , Nicotine , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
5.
Tuberk Toraks ; 70(3): 252-262, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056111

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has become an important health issue with consequences for special populations since 2019. Tobacco use is an important public health issue and tobacco users are a risk group for lung infections. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study is to obtain information about disease prevalence and severity, laboratory parameters, and changes in radiological findings between smokers and non-smokers who were hospitalized, followed up, and treated for COVID-19, and to find answers to critical questions regarding the response to antiviral and supportive therapy. Two hundred eighty-six patients who were hospitalized and treated between March 2020-February 2021 in the COVID-19 Isolation Ward of Baskent University Hospital were included in the study. The patients were grouped as current smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers. The groups were compared in terms of symptoms, laboratory findings, radiological findings, and treatment response. Result: The median age of the patients included in the study was 59 (IQR= 32). Of the patients, 40.6% were female and 59.4% were male. In our study, we discovered that there were fewer female smokers (p<0.001). When the current smokers (n= 56), non-smokers (n= 159), and ex-smokers (n= 71) were compared based on their findings, it was found that dyspnea was more common in current smokers (p= 0.009). Lung involvement was found to be more common (p= 0.002) and multifocal in the current smokers group (p= 0.038). The levels of oxygen saturation at the times of admission and discharge were lower in current smokers (p= 0.002 and p= 0.038). The need for nasal oxygen and noninvasive mechanical ventilation was also found to be higher in current smokers (p= 0.008 and p= 0.039). Systemic steroid requirement was higher in current smokers (p= 0.013). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of mortality between current smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers (p= 0.662). Conclusions: The analysis of the findings of the patients hospitalized in the COVID-19 isolation ward indicated that COVID-19 leads to a more serious course in patients with a history of smoking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Oxygen , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco , Tobacco Use
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032975

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of smoking and e-cigarette use among primary care patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the frequency of minimal anti-tobacco interventions by family doctors. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2020 to December 2021 encompassing 896 patients over 18 years of age who used primary health care in the city of Lodz, Poland. In total, 21.2% of the respondents were smokers, 11.6% were e-cigarette users, and 7.3% dual users. In addition, 68.4% of smokers had been asked about smoking, while 62.9% of non-smokers and 33.7% of smokers were advised to quit smoking; furthermore, 71.1% of e-cigarette users and 72.3% of dual users were asked about tobacco use, and 17.3% and 21.5%, respectively, had been advised to quit smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found men and alcohol users to receive more minimal anti-tobacco advice than women and non-alcohol users (OR = 1.46; p < 0.05 and OR = 1.45; p < 0.05), socio-demographic and health correlates did not increase the chances of obtaining minimal anti-tobacco interventions among smokers. People with a medium level of education had a higher chance of receiving minimal anti-tobacco intervention from their family doctor when using e-cigarettes and when they were dual users (OR = 2.06; p < 0.05 and OR = 2.51; p < 0.05). Smokers were less likely to receive minimal anti-tobacco interventions than reported in previous studies. Measures should be implemented to increase the minimum interventions provided by GPs in their daily work among all patients, not only those who use tobacco. Non-smokers should be encouraged to abstain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Use
7.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(8): 2551-2552, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026526

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected many health services including Tobacco cessation measures. To continue with the strategies used for the de-addiction of tobacco, we need to adapt to the changing times. The use of Artificial Intelligence will help dental health care professionals to reach a larger population, effectively implement measures for tobacco cessation, and meticulous follow-up of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hotlines , Humans , Tobacco Use
8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 24(8): 1273-1280, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004997

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Heated tobacco products (HTP) heat-processed tobacco leaf into an aerosol inhaled by the user. This study assessed prevalence and correlates of HTP awareness, ever use, and current use among US middle and high school students. METHODS: Data came from the 2019 and 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a cross-sectional survey of US public and private, middle and high school students. HTP awareness, ever use, and current (past 30-day) use were assessed. Weighted prevalence estimates and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were assessed overall and by sex, school level, race/ethnicity, and current other tobacco product use. RESULTS: In 2019, 12.8% (3.44 million) of all students reported HTP awareness, increasing to 19.3% (5.29 million) in 2020 (p < .01). Ever [2019: 2.6% (630 000); 2020: 2.4% (620 000)] and current [2019: 1.6% (420 000); 2020: 1.4% (370 000)] HTP use did not significantly change from 2019 to 2020. Current e-cigarette users were more likely to report ever (2020 aPR = 1.79, 95% CI:1.23, 2.62) or current HTP use (2019 aPR = 5.16, 95% CI: 3.48, 7.67; 2020 aPR = 3.39, 95% CI: 2.10, 5.47) than nonusers. In both years, ever and current HTP use was more likely among current combustible (aPR range = 3.59-8.17) and smokeless tobacco product (aPR range = 2.99-4.09) users than nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: HTP awareness increased 51% among US students during 2019-2020; however, HTP use did not significantly change during this period. Students who used other tobacco products were more likely to currently use HTPs. Estimates of HTP awareness and use provided serve as a baseline as future monitoring of these products is warranted. IMPLICATIONS: Awareness of heated tobacco products (HTPs) increased among US youth from 2019 to 2020; however, HTP use did not change. These estimates of HTP awareness and use serve as a baseline for future surveillance of these products as their availability in the US increases.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prevalence , Students , Tobacco Use , United States/epidemiology
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27(0): 15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997312

ABSTRACT

Tobacco intersects with the COVID-19 pandemic not only in terms of health consequences, but also environmental change and planetary health. Tobacco use exacerbates inequalities, causes catastrophic environmental degradation and climate change and adds burdens to COVID-19-related mortality, which are major challenges to recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic has provided a chance to combat tobacco use and accelerate efforts to alleviate these challenges in response. The MPOWER measures introduced by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) can play a crucial role in COVID-19 recovery to fight tobacco use and contribute to sustainable and equitable development. To accelerate recovery, it is critical to call for actions for governments and policy-makers to strengthen synergies and coordinate policy actions emphasising tobacco control and cessation across equity, public health, and climate actions as global authorities pledge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and net zero emissions targets as part of the Climate Change Conference 2021 (COP26).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Products , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tobacco , Tobacco Use
10.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(7): 310-312, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994988

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 hospitalizations among unvaccinated individuals cost billions of dollars. More employers are considering imposing a premium surcharge on employees participating in the company's health plan who are not vaccinated against COVID-19. These employers see this approach as similar to health premium surcharges for tobacco use, justifying the higher premiums on the basis that unvaccinated individuals could cause the plan to experience higher hospitalization and related costs. However, imposing a surcharge on unvaccinated employees will require employers to think through legal and policy implications and the interests of their employees and their businesses. Employers should weigh their vaccination goals against these interests and consider whether a legally compliant surcharge would further their goals. Employers should carefully consider the prevailing culture among their employees and assess whether the policy would be effective and noncoercive. Premium surcharges may be effective for some but not all employers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Benefit Plans, Employee , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Tobacco Use , United States
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(4): 1073-1075, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992192

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Tobacco , Tobacco Use
12.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(9): 900-915, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984284

ABSTRACT

Heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 progression underscores the urgent need to identify individual-level susceptibility factors that affect infection vulnerability and disease severity. Tobacco product use is a potential susceptibility factor. In this Personal View, we provide an overview of the findings of peer-reviewed, published studies relating tobacco product use to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcomes, with most studies focusing on cigarette smoking in adults. Findings pertaining to the effects of tobacco product use on the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection are inconsistent. However, evidence supports a role for cigarette smoking in increasing the risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes, including hospital admission, progression in disease severity, and COVID-19-related mortality. We discuss the potential effects of tobacco use behaviour on SARS-CoV-2 transmission and infection, and highlight the pathophysiological changes associated with cigarette smoking that could promote SARS-CoV-2 infection and increased disease severity. We consider the biological mechanisms by which nicotine and other tobacco product constituents might affect immune and inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we identify current knowledge gaps and suggest priorities for research to address acute and post-acute health outcomes of COVID-19 during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Products , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Products/adverse effects , Tobacco Use
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953347

ABSTRACT

Warning about the dangers of tobacco use is a key element of tobacco control policy. The COVID-19 pandemic may impact public perception of the health risks of tobacco use. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of tobacco-related diseases among adults in Poland, as well as to identify sociodemographic factors associated with awareness of tobacco-related diseases. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in March 2022 on a representative nationwide sample of 1090 adults in Poland using the computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) technique. Lung cancer was the most recognized tobacco-related disease (92.7%), followed by COPD (89.7%) and myocardial infarction (84%). Three-quarters of the respondents (76.8%) were aware that smoking causes stroke and 51% were aware that smoking increases the risk for type 2 diabetes. Out of 9 factors analyzed in this study, female gender, an age of 50 years and over, and being a non-smoker were significantly associated with a higher awareness of tobacco-related diseases. This study showed an increase in public awareness of smoking-related diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. While awareness of lung cancer and COPD was very high, there are still significant gaps in the awareness of the non-respiratory effects of tobacco use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Lung Neoplasms , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Awareness , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , Tobacco , Tobacco Use
15.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221107984, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The shift from in-person care to telemedicine made it challenging to provide guideline-recommended tobacco cessation care during the COVID-19 pandemic. We described quality improvement (QI) initiatives for tobacco cessation during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on African American/Black patients with high smoking rates. METHODS: The QI initiatives took place in the San Francisco Health Network, a network of 13 safety-net clinics in San Francisco, California between February 2020 and February 2022. We conducted direct patient outreach by telephone and increased staff capacity to increase cessation care delivery. We examined trends in tobacco screening, provider counseling, and best practice for cessation care (ie, the proportion of patients receiving at least 1 smoking cessation service during a clinical encounter). RESULTS: In-person visits at the onset of the pandemic was 20% in April 2020 and increased to 67% by February 2022. During this time, tobacco screening increased from 29% to 74%. From March 2020 to March 2021, 34% more patients received provider counseling by telephone than in-person. The trend reversed from April 2021 to February 2022, where 23% more patients received counseling in-person than by telehealth. Best practice care increased by 23% from June 2020 to February 2022: 24% for African American/Black patients and 23% for other patients. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth adaptations to the EHR, targeted outreach to patients, and a multi-disciplinary medical team may be associated with increases in cessation care delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Cessation , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quality Improvement , Tobacco Use
16.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(2): 137-147, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904072

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Examinar los cambios en la prevalencia de con-sumo de alcohol y tabaco antes y durante la pandemia de Covid-19 en México. Material y métodos. Se utilizaron datos de las Ensanut 2018 y 2020 para adolescentes y adultos y se obtuvieron prevalencias de consumo actual y excesivo de alcohol y de fumadores actuales y exfumadores. Resul-tados. El consumo de alcohol en mujeres incrementó de 33.5% en 2018 a 42.5% en 2020, mientras que en los hom-bres no hubo cambios significativos. En el mismo periodo, la prevalencia de consumo excesivo de alcohol disminuyó de 11.1 a 5.5% en mujeres y de 36.7 a 18.3% en hombres. La prevalencia de mujeres fumadoras disminuyó de 9.5 a 7.2%. En adolescentes, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la prevalencia de consumo de alcohol y tabaco. Conclusión. El consumo de alcohol y tabaco continúa siendo elevado en adolescentes y adultos mexicanos. Urge la implementación de las medidas SAFER y MPOWER para abatir sinérgicamente estas epidemias.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , COVID-19 , Tobacco Use , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
17.
Glob Health Promot ; 29(2): 97-101, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902323

ABSTRACT

Tobacco use still represents a major threat to global public health and this calls for extensive efforts to control tobacco products and advocate harm-reduction policies. Recent global trends of prevalence rates in smoking are promising, as trajectories show a decline in all World Health Organization regions. Yet, this decline varies significantly at the national level. Jordan, as a country in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, has been in a long battle against tobacco. Despite that, the country is found to have one of the highest prevalence rates of tobacco use in the region and the world. Many challenges slow down effective and successful anti-tobacco policy implementation in Jordan, most notably cultural influences on smoking and the interference of the tobacco industry in tobacco policy making. Decision makers in Jordan should consider strengthening of anti-tobacco measures to avoid a public health catastrophe if tobacco use keeps rising at the current pace.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Products , Health Policy , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Smoking Prevention , Tobacco , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , World Health Organization
18.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 148(8): 719-723, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898512

ABSTRACT

Importance: The workload of many residents and fellows in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery has particularly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, outcomes associated with mental health status and sleep remain unclear. Objective: To assess the sleep, mental status, and alcohol and tobacco consumption habits of residents and fellows before the COVID-19 pandemic (before March 10, 2020) and during the pandemic period (after March 10, 2020). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included residents and fellows of 6 university hospitals of European regions with a high prevalence of COVID-19 cases. Survey development, data collection, and analyses were performed from March 10, 2020, to June 30, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Residents and fellows were invited to respond to a survey assessing management of treatment in patients with COVID-19 and related work features; stress and mental health status (Beck Depression Inventory); sleep features (Insomnia Severity Index); and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results: Of 220 potential participants, 128 residents and fellows (58.2%) completed the evaluations. No demographic data on mean (SD) age and sex or gender were collected. The prepandemic mean (SD) score of the Beck Depression Inventory (3.1 [2.8]) significantly increased after the start of the pandemic (mean [SD] score, 4.2 [4.1]; difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -1.96 to -0.24; d = 0.31), and the prepandemic mean (SD) score of the Insomnia Severity Index (4.9 [4.1) significantly increased after the start of the pandemic (mean [SD] score, 6.0 [4.9]; difference, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.00-2.2; d = 0.25). Insomnia concerned 46% of participants (51 of 112), and depression concerned 47% of participants (55 of 116) during the pandemic. The mean (SD) prepandemic alcohol consumption (1.7 [2.3] IU per week) significantly increased after the start of the pandemic (mean [SD], 2.9 [4.0] IU per week; difference, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.40-2.00; d = 0.37). Residents and fellows who were mobilized in COVID-19 units reported significant increases of workload (r = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.3), stress level (r = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.3), and alcohol consumption (for 5-10 IU per week: mean [SD] prepandemic, 11 [8] IU per week vs postpandemic, 20 [16] IU per week; d = 0.37) and a worsening of sleep status (for moderate insomnia: mean [SD] prepandemic Insomnia Severity Index, 4 [3] vs postpandemic, 15 [12]; d = 0.25). There was a significant association between alcohol consumption and the Beck Depression Inventory score (r = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6). The mean (SD) consumption of tobacco decreased from 2.1 (1.3) to 0.9 (1.5) (difference, -1.20; 95% CI, -1.50 to -0.85; d = 0.85). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this cohort study suggest that the workload of residents and fellows increased during the pandemic, which may be associated with a worsening of mental health and sleep status and an increase of alcohol consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Otolaryngology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use
19.
Tob Control ; 31(2): 384, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891906
20.
Tob Control ; 31(2): 241-242, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891904
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