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1.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 68(4): 218-224, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with tobacco use during the period of confinement in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Through an analytical and cross-sectional study, the data of 2, 372 participants were analyzed. The information was collected through a self-administered questionnaire that was built with the Google Forms tool, which was distributed and applied via email and WhatsApp; the private messaging platform. The relationship between the independent variables and the outcome was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Out of the total population, 69.3 % were women, the median age was 20.11±2.01 years, the prevalence of asthma was 12.2 %, and the active tobacco use was 13.3 %. There was a higher number of patients with asthma who smoked (14.2 vs. 13.2 %) than of those who didn't have asthma. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors like considering that COVID-19 does not exist and not being confined were related to tobacco use in patients with asthma during the implementation of the contingency plan that the COVID-19 pandemic represents. CONCLUSIONS: During confinement to home for COVID-19, the prevalence of tobacco use is higher in patients with asthma than in individuals without this ailment; the factors that favor the aforementioned are present in the family environment.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502429

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the research was to examine the associations between problematic alcohol use, tobacco use and cannabis use among Czech and Slovak university students during the early COVID-19 pandemic. The research sample consisted of 1422 participants from the Czech Republic (CZ) and 1677 from the Slovak Republic (SK). The analyses included university students who drank alcohol in the past year (CZ: 1323 (93%); SK: 1526 (91%)). Regarding the analysed measures, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and its subscales, the Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire (GN-SBQ) and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) were selected to identify substance-related behaviour. Age, gender and residence were included in the analyses as socio-demographic variables. Correlation and regression analyses were used to achieve the main objective of the research. The main results revealed that the use of tobacco and cannabis were positively associated with alcohol use disorders among Czech and Slovak university students. Additionally, males were more likely to report alcohol use disorders. In the Czech Republic, it was found that students living in dormitories were characterized by a lower AUDIT score. The opposite situation was found in the Slovak Republic. Czech and Slovak policy-makers are encouraged to develop alcohol use prevention programs for university students in line with these findings.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcohol Drinking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Demography , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use , Universities
3.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485449

ABSTRACT

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Water Pipes , Students, Medical , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Habits , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E957-E965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the harms associated with tobacco use, continuing the provision of smoking cessation treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical. The aim of this study was to examine pandemic-related changes in enrolment, total treatment use and participant characteristics in a large, publicly funded smoking cessation program in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of patients who enrolled in the program between Jan. 1, 2018, and Dec. 7, 2020. We used descriptive statistics to examine changes in treatment use. To test for differences in sociodemographic and health variables, we used segmented mixed-effects regression with a break point on Mar. 17, 2020, when Ontario declared a state of emergency. We tested 25 variables, using Holm's correction for multiplicity. RESULTS: We analyzed 60 373 enrolments. In the month after the break point, enrolments fell 69% and total visits fell 42% relative to previous years. After Mar. 17, 2020, those who enrolled were less likely to report employment in the previous week (absolute expected difference -12.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -15.0% to -9.8%); were more likely to be occasional (1.3%, 95% CI 0.6% to 1.9%) or noncurrent smokers (1.7%, 95% CI 0.8% to 2.6%); were less likely to have set a target quit date (-4.8%, 95% CI -7.0% to -2.6%); and were more likely to have a physical health (6.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 9.2%), mental health (4.6%, 95% CI 1.9% to 7.2%) or substance use diagnosis (3.5%, 95% CI 1.3% to 5.6%). INTERPRETATION: Sharp decreases in new enrolments and subsequent visits to smoking cessation programs were seen when pandemic restrictions were implemented in Ontario, but the characteristics of the people who accessed the programs did not change markedly. Incorporating an equity perspective is essential when new models of care for smoking cessation are developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Prevention/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/prevention & control
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403583

ABSTRACT

There is evidence of higher tobacco use among lesbian or gay and bisexual (LGB) populations. However, a limited number of studies have examined whether there are differences in potential indicators of future tobacco cessation behaviors between LGB and non-LGB populations. This study examined whether sexual identity is associated with craving, nicotine dependence, and quit intentions among high school students. Data were drawn from the 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 1642). A propensity score matching (PSM) technique was used to address covariate imbalance among sexual identity groups. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed for both males and females. The PSM results showed higher odds of craving among students who were gay or lesbian (aOR, 1.70; 95% CI = 1.13-2.55) and bisexual (aOR, 1.89; 95% CI = 1.23-2.92) compared to heterosexual (straight) students. In the sex-based subgroup analyses, we found that gay or lesbian (aOR, 1.92; 95% CI = 1.10-3.34) and bisexual (aOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.46-6.66) male students had significantly higher odds of craving when compared to heterosexual/straight male adolescents. However, the association was not significant in female students. Additionally, female bisexuals had significantly lower odds for quit intention (aOR, 0.48; 95% CI = 0.29-0.81) when compared to heterosexual/straight female adolescents. Results also showed no significant differences between LGB and non-LGB students for nicotine dependence. Sexual minority adolescents, especially male adolescents, were more likely to have tobacco cravings and bisexual females had lower odds of quit intention than heterosexual peers. Prevention efforts targeting this subpopulation may be beneficial.


Subject(s)
Sexual and Gender Minorities , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Bisexuality , Craving , Humans , Intention , Schools , Students , Tobacco , Tobacco Use , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323243

ABSTRACT

Tobacco use is disproportionately elevated among patients with substance use disorders relative to the general U.S. population. Tobacco interventions are lacking within substance use treatment centers (SUTCs) due to lack of knowledge and training. This study examined knowledge gain and the organizational factors that might moderate knowledge gains following tobacco education training provided to employees (N = 580) within 15 SUTCs that were participating in a tobacco-free workplace program. The number of total annual patient visits, unique annual patient visits, number of full-time employees, and organizational readiness for implementing change (ORIC) as assessed prior to implementation were examined as potential moderators. Results demonstrated significant knowledge gain (p < 0.001) after training overall; individually, 13 SUTCs had significant knowledge gain (p's < 0.014). SUTCs with fewer total annual patient visits and fewer full-time employees showed greater knowledge gains. The ORIC total score and all but one of its subscales (Resource Availability) moderated knowledge gain. SUTCs with greater initial Change Efficacy (p = 0.029), Valence (p = 0.027), and Commitment (p < 0.001) had greater knowledge gain than SUTCs with lower scores on these constructs; SUTCs with greater Task Knowledge (p < 0.001) regarding requirements for change exhibited less knowledge gain. Understanding the organizational-level factors impacting training effectiveness can inform efforts in organizational change and tobacco control program implementation.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Tobacco Products , Humans , Organizational Innovation , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Tobacco , Tobacco Use
8.
Addict Behav ; 121: 107003, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263201

ABSTRACT

AIM: To provide a population-based characterization of sociodemographic and clinical risk and protective factors associated with consumption of alcohol, tobacco, or both as a coping strategy in a sample of the Spanish general population during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on an online snowball recruiting questionnaire. The survey consisted of an ad hoc questionnaire comprising clinical and sociodemographic information and the Spanish versions of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). RESULTS: The final sample included 21,207 individuals [mean age (SD) = 39.7 (14.0); females: 14,768 (69.6%)]. Up to 2867 (13.5%) of participants reported using alcohol, 2545 (12%) tobacco and 1384 (6.5%) both substances as a strategy to cope with the pandemic. Sex-related factors were associated with alcohol consumption as a coping strategy [female, OR = 0.600, p < 0.001]. However, education level, work status, and income played different roles depending on the substance used to cope. Having a current mental disorder was associated only with tobacco consumption as a coping strategy [OR = 1.391, p < 0.001]. Finally, sex differences were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors were associated with consumption of alcohol, tobacco, or both as a coping method for the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Our findings may help develop specific intervention programs reflecting sex differences, which could minimize negative long-term outcomes of substance use after this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113031, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261749

ABSTRACT

Importance: The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) offers programs that reduce barriers to care for veterans and those with housing instability, poverty, and substance use disorder. In this setting, however, the role that social and behavioral risk factors play in COVID-19 outcomes is unclear. Objective: To examine whether social and behavioral risk factors were associated with mortality among US veterans with COVID-19 and whether this association might be modified by race/ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained data from the VA Corporate Data Warehouse to form a cohort of veterans who received a positive COVID-19 test result between March 2 and September 30, 2020, in a VA health care facility. All veterans who met the inclusion criteria were eligible to participate in the study, and participants were followed up for 30 days after the first SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 diagnosis. The final follow-up date was October 31, 2020. Exposures: Social risk factors included housing problems and financial hardship. Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol use, and substance use. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality in the 30-day period after the SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 diagnosis date. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, clustering for health care facilities and adjusting for age, sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, clinical factors, and month of COVID-19 diagnosis. Results: Among 27 640 veterans with COVID-19 who were included in the analysis, 24 496 were men (88.6%) and the mean (SD) age was 57.2 (16.6) years. A total of 3090 veterans (11.2%) had housing problems, 4450 (16.1%) had financial hardship, 5358 (19.4%) used alcohol, and 3569 (12.9%) reported substance use. Hospitalization occurred in 7663 veterans (27.7%), and 1230 veterans (4.5%) died. Housing problems (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.77-1.19; P = .70), financial hardship (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.97-1.31; P = .11), alcohol use (AOR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-1.01; P = .06), current tobacco use (AOR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.68-1.06; P = .14), and substance use (AOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.71-1.15; P = .41) were not associated with higher mortality. Interaction analyses by race/ethnicity did not find associations between mortality and social and behavioral risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study showed that, in an integrated health system such as the VA, social and behavioral risk factors were not associated with mortality from COVID-19. Further research is needed to substantiate the potential of an integrated health system to be a model of support services for households with COVID-19 and populations who are at risk for the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Housing , Pandemics , Poverty , Substance-Related Disorders , Veterans , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , COVID-19/ethnology , Cohort Studies , Female , Homeless Persons , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use , United States/epidemiology , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: South Africa temporarily banned alcohol and tobacco sales for about 20 weeks during the COVID-19 lockdown. We described changes in alcohol and tobacco consumption after implementation of these restrictions among a small number of participants in a tuberculosis treatment cohort. METHOD: The timeline follow-back procedure and Fägerstrom test for nicotine dependence was used to collect monthly alcohol and tobacco use information. We report changes in heavy drinking days (HDD), average amount of absolute alcohol (AA) consumed per drinking day, and cigarettes smoked daily during the alcohol and tobacco ban compared to use prior to the ban. RESULTS: Of the 61 participants for whom we have pre-ban and within-ban alcohol use information, 17 (27.9%) reported within-ban alcohol use. On average, participants reported one less HDD per fortnight (interquartile range (IQR): -4, 1), but their amount of AA consumed increased by 37.4 g per drinking occasion (IQR: -65.9 g, 71.0 g). Of 53 participants who reported pre-ban tobacco use, 17 (32.1%) stopped smoking during the ban. The number of participants smoking >10 cigarettes per day decreased from 8 to 1. CONCLUSIONS: From these observations, we hypothesize that policies restricting alcohol and tobacco availability seem to enable some individuals to reduce their consumption. However, these appear to have little effect on the volume of AA consumed among individuals with more harmful patterns of drinking in the absence of additional behavior change interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Products , Tuberculosis , Communicable Disease Control , Ethanol , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Tobacco Use , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
11.
Eur Respir J ; 57(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226861
12.
Eur Addict Res ; 27(4): 242-256, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Similar to other countries, the government of Germany has implemented various restrictions of social life in March 2020 to slow the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. This results in millions of people being isolated for long periods, which may increase feelings of worry and anxiety. As the consumption of alcohol and tobacco is an often used dysfunctional strategy to cope with such feelings, these restrictions might cause an increase of consumption. Already at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) warned that increased alcohol consumption during the lockdown can increase the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in the future. However, up to now little is known about the changes in alcohol-drinking behavior and tobacco smoking in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: To address this theme, we investigated the changes in alcohol and tobacco consumption in the German population aged between 18 and 80 years via an online survey. RESULTS: In total, 3,245 persons participated in the survey; 35.5% of them reported an increase in drinking during the lockdown (42.9% did not change their drinking behavior, 21.3% drank less, and 0.3% started drinking). The odds of consuming more alcohol during lockdown were associated with middle age, higher subjective stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a lower agreement with the importance of the restrictions, and consuming alcohol more than once per week before the lockdown. Also, 45.8% of the participants increased their smoking during the lockdown. The odds of smoking more during lockdown were associated with higher subjective stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that it is important to start campaigns to inform the general population about potential long-term effects of increased alcohol and tobacco consumption and to raise the health-care professionals' awareness of this topic.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Risk Assessment , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use/psychology , Young Adult
13.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(9): 1617-1622, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158011

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health crisis, but its effects on tobacco users remain ill-defined. This report aimed to assess the relationship between tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 and changes in tobacco use since the start of the pandemic. METHODS: A sample (n = 776) of past-30 day exclusive smokers (n = 238), exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 143), and dual users (n = 395) residing in the US and aged 18 or older were collected using Mechanical Turk from April 27 to June 8, 2020. Adjusted associations between tobacco product-specific COVID-19 risk perceptions (ie risk that smokers/vapers are at for COVID-19 relative to non-smokers/non-vapers) and changes in tobacco use since the pandemic began were assessed using partial proportional odds models. RESULTS: A majority of those who used cigarettes (63.7%) and e-cigarettes (56.1%) felt that the risk of COVID-19 was greater for users of their tobacco product than for non-users. Twenty-four percent of smokers had increased their cigarette use since the start of the pandemic and 28.0% had decreased. Similarly, 27.3% of e-cigarette users had increased their e-cigarette use since the start of the pandemic and 23.8% had decreased. Higher risk perceptions for COVID-19 were associated with reductions in tobacco use since the pandemic began for exclusive e-cigarette users and dual users. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the support that tobacco product-specific COVID-19 risk perceptions may be an important correlate of changes in tobacco use during the pandemic. Targeted information to inform tobacco users regarding their risks for COVID-19 is needed during this public health crisis. IMPLICATIONS: Few published studies have investigated the relationship between tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 and changes in tobacco product use since the pandemic began. This study enhances the current literature by providing evidence that higher tobacco product-specific risk perceptions for COVID-19 are associated with reductions in tobacco use since the pandemic began for exclusive e-cigarette users and dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Additionally, daily tobacco users may be more likely to have increased their tobacco use than non-daily users. These findings emphasize the importance of disseminating targeted health information to tobacco users regarding COVID-19 risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers , Tobacco Use , Vaping/adverse effects
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 634396, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145598

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a need for prospective studies investigating substance use variations in mild COVID-19 patients. These individuals represent the majority of patients affected by the disease and are routinely treated at home, facing periods of quarantine. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. All people who tested positive for COVID-19 and classified as mild cases (i.e., no alarm sign/symptom, no need for in-person consultation) during the treatment in the public health system of a Brazilian city with around 160,000 inhabitants were monitored by phone for all the COVID-19 symptoms listed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the active phase of the disease (i.e., no longer experiencing symptoms, up to 14 days in mild cases). After this phase (median = 108 days after intake, IQR = 76-137), we asked these patients who were classified as experiencing mild COVID-19 (n = 993) about last-month substance use in three time-points: pre-COVID, just after COVID-19 acute phase (post-COVID acute phase) and in the period before survey (post-COVID follow-up phase). Results: The number of COVID-19 symptoms was not associated with pre- or post-infection substance use. Pre-COVID alcohol and non-medical benzodiazepine use were associated with specific COVID-19 symptoms. However, sensitivity analyses showed that such associations could be explained by previous psychiatric and medical profiles. Alcohol and tobacco use decreased and non-medical analgesics increased in the post-COVID acute phase. However, just alcohol use remained lower in the post-COVID follow-up period. Higher pre-COVID levels of tobacco and alcohol were associated with post-COVID follow-up cannabis and non-medical analgesic use, respectively. Non-medical benzodiazepine use had positive and negative bi-directional associations with cannabis and non-medical analgesic use, respectively. Conclusion: We were not able to find specific associations between substance use and COVID-19 symptomatology in the present study. Patients with mild COVID-19 should be monitored for substance use in the post-COVID-19 period, and preventive interventions for non-medical analgesic use should be implemented. Focused preventive interventions increasing the perceived risks of cannabis and non-medical benzodiazepine and analgesic use among people experiencing mild COVID-19 that reported previous substance use could be useful.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use , Adult , Benzodiazepines , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
17.
Int J Drug Policy ; 94: 103175, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health prevention measures (e.g., "stay at home" orders) may impact tobacco supply and demand among consumers. This qualitative study identified multi-level drivers of shifts in inhaled tobacco product use and access patterns during the initial COVID-19 "lockdown" period in the United States. METHODS: Between April and May 2020, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews (n = 44) with adults who use cigarettes and/or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Transcripts were thematically analyzed using a socioecological framework. RESULTS: Nearly all participants reported changes in their product use during lockdown, though patterns varied. Increased use was most common and was predominantly driven by individual-level factors: pandemic-related anxiety, boredom, and irregular routines. Decreased use was common among social users who cited fewer interpersonal interactions and fear of sharing products. At the community level, retail access impacted cigarette and ENDS use differently. While cigarettes were universally accessible, ENDS access was more limited, driving some to purchase products online. Delayed deliveries led some ENDS users to compensate with readily-available cigarettes. CONCLUSION: To mitigate ways that the COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate an existing public health crisis, multi-level policy strategies, such as expanded virtual cessation services and implementation and enforcement of smoke-free home rules, can better support population health during this critical period. Policies that facilitate access to lower risk products can help minimize harm among those who cannot or do not want to quit smoking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Use , United States/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085099

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the changes in tobacco use patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic and their correlates among older adults in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1032 older adults aged ≥60 years in Bangladesh through telephone interviews in October 2020. Participants' characteristics and COVID-19-related information were gathered using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were asked if they noted any change in their tobacco use patterns (smoking or smokeless tobacco) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic (6 months prior to the survey). Nearly half of the participants (45.6%) were current tobacco users, of whom 15.9% reported increased tobacco use during the COVID-19 pandemic and all others had no change in their tobacco use patterns. Tobacco use was significantly increased among the participants from rural areas, who had reduced communications during COVID-19 compared to pre-pandemic (OR = 2.76, 95%CI:1.51-5.03). Participants who were aged ≥70 years (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14-0.77), widowed (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.13-1.00), had pre-existing, non-communicable, and/or chronic conditions (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25-0.78), and felt themselves at the highest risk of COVID-19 (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62), had significantly lower odds of increased tobacco use. Policy makers and practitioners need to focus on strengthening awareness and raising initiatives to avoid tobacco use during such a crisis period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Use/trends , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Tobacco Use/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085095

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, with over 81 million cases worldwide. To assess changes in tobacco use as a result of the pandemic, we surveyed a convenience sample of current tobacco users between April and June 2020. The sample was taken from a tobacco user research registry (n = 3396) from the Penn State College of Medicine in Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants who responded to the survey and were eligible for this study (n = 291) were 25.6% male, 93% white, and had a mean age of 47.3 (SD = 11.6) years. There were no reports of participants testing positive for COVID-19, but 21.7% reported experiencing symptoms associated with the virus. Most participants (67%) believed that their risk of contracting COVID-19 was the same as non-tobacco users, but 57.7% believed that their risk of serious complications, if infected, was greater compared to non-tobacco users. A total of 28% reported increasing their cigarette use during the pandemic. The most common reasons for increased use were increased stress, more time at home, and boredom while quarantined. Nearly 15% reported decreasing their tobacco use. The most common reasons for reduced use were health concerns and more time around non-smokers (including children). A total of 71 (24.5%) users reported making a quit attempt. Characterizing these pandemic-related changes in tobacco use may be important to understanding the full scope of subsequent health outcomes resulting from the pandemic. Tobacco cessation resources should be tailored to allow for safe, appropriate access for those interested in quitting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Tobacco Use/trends , Adult , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data
20.
Can J Public Health ; 111(6): 995-999, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080466

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic, the world's media have publicized preliminary findings suggesting that tobacco use is protective against COVID-19. An ad hoc multidisciplinary group was created to address the major public health implications of this messaging. Key messages of this commentary are as follows: 1) The COVID-19 crisis may increase tobacco consumption and decrease access to healthcare. As a result, smoking-related morbidity and mortality could increase in the coming months and years; 2) Smoking and tobacco-related diseases are prognostic factors for severe COVID-19; and 3) In theory, smokers may be at lower risk of COVID-19 infection because of having fewer social contacts. In conclusion, tobacco control is a greater challenge than ever in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Public decision-makers must be vigilant in ensuring that public health practices are consistent and compliant with the principles of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In addition, researchers and the media have a responsibility to be cautious in communicating preliminary results that may promote non-evidence-based research, self-destructive individual behaviours, and commercial agendas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Humans , Morbidity , Pandemics , Smoking/mortality , Tobacco , Tobacco Use/mortality
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