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1.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E29, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On December 20, 2019, the minimum age for purchasing tobacco in the US was raised nationally to 21 years. We evaluated this law (Tobacco 21 [T21]) 1 year after implementation. We also compared states with versus without T21 policies during 2019 to explore potential equity impacts of T21 policies. METHODS: We examined shifts in tobacco access among 6th through 12th graders using the National Youth Tobacco Survey. To explore equity of state T21 policies among youths and young adults, the associations with tobacco use were explored separately for race and ethnicity by using data from the 2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (for persons aged 18 to 20 years) and the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (for high school students). RESULTS: The overall percentage of 6th to 12th graders perceiving that it was easy to buy tobacco products from a store decreased from 2019 (67.2%) to 2020 (58.9%). However, only 17.0% of students who attempted buying cigarettes in 2020 were unsuccessful because of their age. In the 2019 BRFSS, those aged 18 to 20 years living in a state with T21 policies had a lower likelihood of being a current cigarette smoker (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR], 0.58) or smoking cigarettes daily (APR, 0.41). Similar significant associations were seen when analyses were restricted to only non-Hispanic White participants but not for participants who were non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Asian, Hispanic, or of other races or ethnicities. Consistent findings were seen among high school students. CONCLUSION: Greater compliance with the federal T21 law is needed as most youth who attempted buying cigarettes in 2020 were successful. Comparative analysis of states with versus states without statewide T21 policies in 2019 suggest the policies were differentially more protective of non-Hispanic White participants than other participants. Equitable and intensified enforcement of T21 policies can benefit public health.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Tobacco , Adolescent , Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System , Humans , Smokers , Tobacco Use , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869580

ABSTRACT

The 2021 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was completed by youth online during class time, either in school or at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the role of NYTS data in tobacco regulatory science, it is vital to understand the effect of survey settings (home, school) on tobacco-use estimates. We used a series of multivariable logistic regressions to examine whether survey settings (home vs. school) predicted current e-cigarette use among high school students, controlling for other known predictors of e-cigarette use as well as the pandemic learning model that was dominant in students' counties (e.g., nearly all at-home, majority in school). We observed a significant survey setting effect. Those who completed the survey in school had higher odds of current e-cigarette use than those who completed the same survey at home (AOR = 1.74); this effect was attenuated when we controlled for the pandemic learning model (AOR = 1.38). Moreover, e-cigarette use was independently associated with students' learning model; students whose schools were nearly entirely in-person had the highest odds of e-cigarette use compared to students whose learning model was nearly all at-home (AOR = 1.65). Survey setting is a methodological artifact in the 2021 NYTS. Perceived privacy and peer effects can potentially explain this artifact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Smoking , Students , Tobacco , United States/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology
3.
Rev Mal Respir ; 39(5): 413-419, 2022 May.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860074

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the framework of a "tobacco-free hospital and campus" campaign, we conducted a study on the prevalence of smoking and vaping among a university hospital (CHRU) staff. The study took place in late 2020 (from 1 September to 15 December), and involved self-assessment of the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on smoking. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out using an online questionnaire, which was distributed by email and QR code posting and included socio-professional details as well as data on participants' smoking and vaping. RESULTS: There were 782 responses, representing a participation rate of 13.5%. The sample included 73.3% women and 22.7% men; 28.9% nurses, 24.9% medical staff, 3.6% nursing assistants and 42.6% other professional categories. The overall smoking rate was 13%. Sixty-two (7.9%) participants vaped; 37 (5%) vaped exclusively, 25 (3.2%) combined smoking and vaping. Men smoked more than women: 23.7% vs. 9.4% (P < 0.01). Medical staff smoked and vaped less than other categories; 6.2% vs 14.8% (P < 0.01) and 4.1% vs 9.1% respectively (P=0.02). Doctors were more often non-smokers: OR=2.71 (95% CI: 1.14-6.46). Among smokers, 25% said they had increased their cigarette consumption during the covid-19 pandemic, frequently as a means of combating stress or fatigue. CONCLUSION: This study showed a lower smoking rate than in the literature, possibly due to the high participation of physicians. Ours were the initial estimates of vaping among hospital staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco , Vaping/epidemiology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tobacco regulations and COVID-19 state orders have substantially impacted vape retail. This study assessed vape retailers' perspectives regarding regulations and future retail activities. METHODS: In March-June 2021, 60 owners or managers of vape or vape-and-smoke shops (n = 34 vs. n = 26) in six US metropolitan areas completed an online survey assessing: (1) current and future promotional strategies and product offerings; and (2) experiences with federal minimum legal sales age (T21) policies, the federal flavored e-cigarette ban, and COVID-19-related orders. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively; qualitative responses to open-ended questions were thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Most participants had websites (65.0%), used social media for promotion (71.7%), offered curbside pickup (51.7%), and sold CBD (e.g., 73.3% vape products, 80.0% other); many also sold other tobacco products. Knowledge varied regarding state/local policies in effect before federal policies. Participants perceived tobacco regulations and COVID-19 orders as somewhat easy to understand/implement and perceived noncompliance consequences as somewhat severe. Qualitative themes indicated concerns regarding regulations' negative impacts (e.g., sales/customer loss, customers switching to combustibles), insufficient evidence base, challenges explaining regulations to customers, and concerns about future regulatory actions. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of tobacco retail, consumer behavior, and regulatory compliance is warranted as policies regarding nicotine and cannabis continue evolving.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Humans , Smoke , Tobacco , Vaping/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822422

ABSTRACT

Tobacco use remains a leading cause of preventable death and disease worldwide [...].


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , Tobacco , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 836: 155697, 2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819601

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic spread rapidly worldwide in the year 2020, which was initially restrained by drastic mobility restrictions. In this work, we investigated the use of illicit drugs (amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, cocaine and cannabis), and licit substances of abuse (alcohol and tobacco) during the earlier months (March-July 2020) of the pandemic restrictions in four Spanish (Bilbao and its metropolitan area, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Castellón and Santiago de Compostela) and two Portuguese (Porto and Vila do Conde) locations by wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). The results show that no methamphetamine was detected in any of the locations monitored, while amphetamine use was only detectable in the two locations from the Basque Country (Bilbao and its metropolitan area and Vitoria-Gasteiz), with high estimated average usage rates (700-930 mg day-1 1000 inhabitant-1). The remaining substances were detected in all the investigated catchment areas. In general, no remarkable changes were found in population normalized loads compared to former years, except for cocaine (i.e. its main metabolite, benzoylecgonine). For this drug, a notable decrease in use was discernible in Castellón, while its usage in Porto and Santiago de Compostela seemed to continue in a rising trend, already initiated in former years. Furthermore, two events of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) dumping in the sewage network were confirmed by enantiomeric analysis, one in Santiago de Compostela just prior the lockdown and the second one in the Bilbao and its metropolitan area in July after relieving the more stringent measures. The latter could also be associated with a police intervention. The comparison of WBE with (web) survey data, which do not provide information at a local level, points towards contradictory conclusions for some of the substances, thereby highlighting the need for stable WBE networks capable of near real-time monitoring drug use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cocaine , Illicit Drugs , Methamphetamine , N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine , Substance-Related Disorders , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Amphetamine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cocaine/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine/analysis , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Substance Abuse Detection/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco , Waste Water/analysis , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
7.
Int J Drug Policy ; 103: 103648, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is continued scientific debate regarding the link between risk of COVID-19 infection and increased disease severity and tobacco and cannabis use. The way this topic is presented in news media coverage may influence public attitudes and behavior and is thus an important topic of investigation. This study examines (1) the extent to which Israeli news media reported a positive (i.e., protective/therapeutic), negative (i.e., harmful), or inconclusive association between three types of substance use (tobacco, medical cannabis, recreational cannabis) and risk of COVID-19 infection and/or increased disease severity, and (2) the extent that this media coverage refers to scientific research. METHODS: A quantitative content analysis of news articles related to tobacco and cannabis use and COVID-19 (N = 113) from eleven of the highest circulation newspapers in Israel. RESULTS: News items were significantly more likely to mention increased COVID-19 risk for tobacco use, compared to cannabis use. All medical cannabis news items reported that medical cannabis use was associated with reduced COVID-19 risk. In contrast, news items about recreational cannabis use were more likely to describe a balanced or inconclusive risk for COVID-19, or increased risk. The majority of articles referred to scientific research. CONCLUSION: While Israeli news media reported a relatively consistent message about the increased risk of COVID-19 in relation to tobacco use, messages about cannabis use were less consistent in communicating risk information. Research should examine effects of media coverage of tobacco and cannabis use and COVID-19 on public perceptions and behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Hallucinogens , Medical Marijuana , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannabis/adverse effects , Communication , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Mass Media , Tobacco , Tobacco Use
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809885

ABSTRACT

Monitoring tobacco use on a regular schedule is a basic tool of tobacco control policy. This study aimed (1) to assess the current prevalence and patterns of tobacco and e-cigarette use, as well as (2) to identify socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior among adults in Poland. This cross-sectional study was carried out in March 2022 on a nationwide, representative sample of 1090 adults in Poland. The computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) technique was used. Daily tobacco smoking was declared by 28.8% of respondents (27.1% of females and 30.8% of males; p = 0.2) and 4.2% were occasional smokers (4.2% of females and 4.3% of males; p = 0.8). Most of the current smokers (62.1%) smoked regular cigarettes and 25.2% smoked hand-rolled cigarettes. The prevalence of daily e-cigarette use was 4.8% (4.0% among females and 5.6% among males; p = 0.2). Daily heated tobacco use was declared by 4.0% of respondents (5.1% of females and 2.9% of males; p = 0.07). Age, having children, and educational level were significantly associated with current daily tobacco smoking. This study revealed a high prevalence of tobacco and e-cigarette use among adults in Poland. The presented data underscore the importance of further improvements in adopting a comprehensive tobacco control strategy in Poland.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Vaping , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 846605, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798935

ABSTRACT

Cigarette smoking is reported in about one third of adults worldwide. A strong relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as lung cancer has been proven. However, about 15% of lung cancer cases, and between one fourth and one third of COPD cases, occur in never-smokers. The effects of cigarette smoke on the innate as well as the adaptive immune system have been widely investigated. It is assumed that certain immunologic features contribute to lung cancer and COPD development in the absence of smoking as the major risk factor. In this article, we review different immunological aspects of lung cancer and COPD with a special focus on non-smoking related risk factors.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking , Lung Neoplasms , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Causality , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Risk Factors , Tobacco
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792671

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, combined with the Korean government's response to the pandemic on tobacco consumption and national smoking cessation services among the Korean population. We obtained tobacco sale data from the Ministry of Finance and analysed the data on smokers' visits to national smoking cessation clinics during the pandemic from a member of the National Assembly. We also conducted an online search to understand smokers' thoughts about their tobacco use during the pandemic. We found that after the emergence of COVID-19 in 2020, the sale of conventional cigarettes increased from 3063.70 to 3209.70 million packs (4.77%). The number of smokers who visited clinics sharply decreased in the first half of 2020. The six-month quit rate decreased from 38.5% in 2017 to 22.3% in early 2020. We also found that smokers increased their consumption and began to switch from conventional cigarettes to heated tobacco products. The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened tobacco control policies and programs in Korea in the last two years; however, based on our experience during this period and considering the WHO recommendation, we should sustain and reinforce tobacco control policies and national smoking cessation services today and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Tobacco
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785631

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we examine efforts by health organizations seeking comprehensive smokefree ordinances over Louisiana casinos and bars between 2010 and 2020 to determine best practices for increasing coverage. Bars and casinos remain less protected from secondhand smoke compared to other workplaces in the United States. Casino behavior is compared to the Policy Dystopia Model (PDM), a tobacco industry strategy framework. We performed a historical case study using snowball searches for news on the Access World News Database and the internet. We performed web searches using the names of key actors, organizations, and locations and interviewed nine participants. Starting in 2010, the Louisiana Campaign for Tobacco-Free Living ran ordinance campaigns supplemented by an ongoing statewide smokefree media initiative. Utilizing consistent strategies, including promoting performers as cultural emblems deserving protection, health organizations coalesced in New Orleans during 2014 and Baton Rouge in 2016 and 2017 to pursue ordinances. The coalitions secured ordinances in Louisiana's population and tourism centers despite business resistance. Organizations obtained 30 smokefree laws across Louisiana by 2021. Casinos used PDM strategies to resist ordinances, indicating the framework may predict strategies by non-tobacco entities resisting tobacco control. Louisiana shows that ongoing local campaigns, social justice themes and cultural messaging with coalitions in cities can secure smokefree laws covering casinos and bars and that local ordinance campaigns are a viable method for advancing smokefree protections over those venues in states where the state legislatures are resistant to action.


Subject(s)
Smoke-Free Policy , Tobacco Industry , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Humans , Louisiana , Restaurants , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , United States
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 700473, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775817

ABSTRACT

With the proliferation of tobacco products, there might be a need for more complex models than current two-product models. We have developed a three-product model able to represent interactions between three products in the marketplace. We also investigate if using several implementations of two-product models could provide sufficient information to assess 3 coexisting products. Italy is used as case-study with THPs and e-cigarettes as the products under investigation. We use transitions rates estimated for THPs in Japan and e-cigarettes in the USA to project what could happen if the Italian population were to behave as the Japanese for THP or USA for e-cigarettes. Results suggest that three-product models may be hindered by data availability while two product models could miss potential synergies between products. Both, THP and E-Cigarette scenarios, led to reduction in life-years lost although the Japanese THP scenario reductions were 3 times larger than the USA e-cigarette projections.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Heating/methods , Humans , Tobacco
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 738513, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775889

ABSTRACT

Background: Perceptions of tobacco, cannabis, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are continually evolving in the United States. Exploring these characteristics through user generated text sources may provide novel insights into product use behavior that are challenging to identify using survey-based methods. The objective of this study was to compare the topics frequently discussed among Reddit members in cannabis, tobacco, and ENDS-specific subreddits. Methods: We collected 643,070 posts on the social media site Reddit between January 2013 and December 2018. We developed and validated an annotation scheme, achieving a high level of agreement among annotators. We then manually coded a subset of 2,630 posts for their content with relation to experiences and use of the three products of interest, and further developed word cloud representations of the words contained in these posts. Finally, we applied Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling to the 643,070 posts to identify emerging themes related to cannabis, tobacco, and ENDS products being discussed on Reddit. Results: Our manual annotation process yielded 2,148 (81.6%) posts that contained a mention(s) of either cannabis, tobacco, or ENDS with 1,537 (71.5%) of these posts mentioning cannabis, 421 (19.5%) mentioning ENDS, and 264 (12.2%) mentioning tobacco. In cannabis-specific subreddits, personal experiences with cannabis, cannabis legislation, health effects of cannabis use, methods and forms of cannabis, and the cultivation of cannabis were commonly discussed topics. The discussion in tobacco-specific subreddits often focused on the discussion of brands and types of combustible tobacco, as well as smoking cessation experiences and advice. In ENDS-specific subreddits, topics often included ENDS accessories and parts, flavors and nicotine solutions, procurement of ENDS, and the use of ENDS for smoking cessation. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the posting and participation patterns of Reddit members in cannabis, tobacco, and ENDS-specific subreddits and provide novel insights into aspects of personal use regarding these products. These findings complement epidemiologic study designs and highlight the potential of using specific subreddits to explore personal experiences with cannabis, ENDS, and tobacco products.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Tobacco Products , Vaping , Humans , Natural Language Processing , Tobacco , United States
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e27894, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Puff Bars are e-cigarettes that continued marketing flavored products by exploiting the US Food and Drug Administration exemption for disposable devices. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine discussions related to Puff Bar on Twitter to identify tobacco regulation and policy themes as well as unanticipated outcomes of regulatory loopholes. METHODS: Of 8519 original tweets related to Puff Bar collected from July 13, 2020, to August 13, 2020, a random 20% subsample (n=2661) was selected for qualitative coding of topics related to nicotine dependence and tobacco policy. RESULTS: Of the human-coded tweets, 2123 (80.2%) were coded as relevant to Puff Bar as the main topic. Of those tweets, 698 (32.9%) discussed tobacco policy, including flavors (n=320, 45.9%), regulations (n=124, 17.8%), purchases (n=117, 16.8%), and other products (n=110, 15.8%). Approximately 22% (n=480) of the tweets referenced dependence, including lack of access (n=273, 56.9%), appetite suppression (n=59, 12.3%), frequent use (n=47, 9.8%), and self-reported dependence (n=110, 22.9%). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the growing evidence base that the US Food and Drug Administration ban of e-cigarette flavors did not reduce interest, but rather shifted the discussion to brands utilizing a loophole that allowed flavored products to continue to be sold in disposable devices. Until comprehensive tobacco policy legislation is developed, new products or loopholes will continue to supply nicotine demand.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Social Media , Tobacco Use Disorder , Humans , Public Policy , Tobacco
16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 27(0): 15, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770603

ABSTRACT

Tobacco intersects with the COVID-19 pandemic not only in terms of health consequences, but also environmental change and planetary health. Tobacco use exacerbates inequalities, causes catastrophic environmental degradation and climate change and adds burdens to COVID-19-related mortality, which are major challenges to recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic has provided a chance to combat tobacco use and accelerate efforts to alleviate these challenges in response. The MPOWER measures introduced by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) can play a crucial role in COVID-19 recovery to fight tobacco use and contribute to sustainable and equitable development. To accelerate recovery, it is critical to call for actions for governments and policy-makers to strengthen synergies and coordinate policy actions emphasising tobacco control and cessation across equity, public health, and climate actions as global authorities pledge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and net zero emissions targets as part of the Climate Change Conference 2021 (COP26).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tobacco Products , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tobacco , Tobacco Use
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765705

ABSTRACT

Sporadic evidence is available on the association of consuming multiple substances with the risk of hypertension among adults in India where there is a substantial rise in cases. This study assesses the mutually exclusive and mixed consumption patterns of alcohol, tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use and their association with hypertension among the adult population in India. Nationally representative samples of men and women drawn from the National Family and Health Survey (2015-2016) were analyzed. A clinical blood pressure measurement above 140 mmHg (systolic blood pressure) and 90 mmHg (diastolic blood pressure) was considered in the study as hypertension. Association between mutually exclusive categories of alcohol, tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco and hypertension were examined using multivariate binary logistic regression models. Daily consumption of alcohol among male smokeless tobacco users had the highest likelihood to be hypertensive (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.99-2.71) compared to the no-substance-users. Women who smoked, and those who used any smokeless tobacco with a daily intake of alcohol had 71% (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.14-2.56) and 51% (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25-1.82) higher probability of being hypertensive compared to the no-substance-users, respectively. In order to curb the burden of hypertension among the population, there is a need for an integrated and more focused intervention addressing the consumption behavior of alcohol and tobacco.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Tobacco, Smokeless , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethanol , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoking
18.
J Sch Health ; 92(7): 720-727, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite recent tobacco control efforts, adolescent vaping remains an epidemic in the United States. The purpose of our study was to understand high school student vaping behaviors using the perceptions of Massachusetts school personnel during the critical window from when the Massachusetts statewide flavor ban legislation was passed in November 2019 through the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: High school personnel throughout Massachusetts were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey. Analysis of survey responses was conducted in R. RESULTS: A total of 162 respondents completed the survey representing 137 schools that draw enrollments from 216 (61%) of the 352 cities and towns in Massachusetts. The most popular products that respondents believed their students were using were JUULs (95.7%), other e-cigarettes (85.3%), and disposable vapes (79.6%). Following the flavor ban, the majority (90.7%) did not report an increase in combusted tobacco product use. All participants (100%) reported wanting more access to prevention and treatment resources. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a comprehensive flavor ban may be an effective tobacco control policy that does not appear to promote student switching from vaping products to combusted tobacco products. These data also indicate that schools report needing additional resources to address the vaping epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Tobacco , United States
19.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 11(4): 525-528, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743213

ABSTRACT

Townsend and colleagues highlighted the myriad political forces which fostered attention to health issues during negotiations to establish a new trans-pacific trade deal in Australia (the CP-TPP [Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership], formerly known as TPP). Among the factors they identify, exporter interests and exogenous events helped to generate attention to trade-related concerns about tobacco and access medicines, and limited attention to nutrition and alcohol. These are important considerations as the United Kingdom negotiates a trade deal with the United States in haste, whilst at the same time attempting to manage the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this commentary, I reflect on changing attention to trade and nutrition during the COVID-19 pandemic in light of Townsend and colleagues' analysis. I explore scope for greater attention to nutrition in US-UK trade negotiations, and the challenges created by the vested interests of major UK and US processed food exporters. I further discuss the utility of the theoretical tools employed by Townsend and colleagues for wider debates in the political economy of health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , International Cooperation , Australia , COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Public Health , Tobacco , United States
20.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 71(5): 1-29, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737450

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Commercial tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease, disability, and death in the United States. Most tobacco product use begins during adolescence. In recent years, tobacco products have evolved to include various combusted, smokeless, and electronic products. PERIOD COVERED: 2021. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) is an annual, cross-sectional, school-based, self-administered survey of U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. A three-stage cluster sampling procedure is used to generate a nationally representative sample of U.S. students attending public and private schools. NYTS is the only nationally representative survey of U.S. middle and high school students that focuses exclusively on tobacco use patterns and associated factors. NYTS provides data to support the design, implementation, and evaluation of comprehensive youth tobacco use prevention and control programs and to guide tobacco regulatory activities. Since 2019, NYTS has been administered electronically via tablet computers. Because of emergency COVID-19 protocols that were in place across the United States during the 2021 NYTS fielding window (January 18-May 21, 2021), the 2021 survey was administered using a web URL to allow participation by eligible students learning under varying instructional models (in-person, distance/virtual, and hybrid). In total, 50.8% of student respondents reported completing the survey in a school building or classroom and 49.2% at home or some other place. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2021 NYTS to assess tobacco product use patterns and associated factors among U.S. middle and high school students. Overall, 20,413 students (out of 25,149 sampled students; student response rate: 81.2%) completed the questionnaire from 279 schools (out of 508 sampled schools; school response rate: 54.9%). The overall response rate, defined as the product of the student and school response rates, was 44.6%. The sample was weighted to represent approximately 11.97 million middle school students and 15.44 million high school students. Students with missing information about grade level were excluded from the school-level analyses (n = 135). RESULTS: In 2021, an estimated 34.0% of high school students (5.22 million) and 11.3% of middle school students (1.34 million) reported ever using a tobacco product (i.e., electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookahs, pipe tobacco, heated tobacco products, nicotine pouches, and bidis [small brown cigarettes wrapped in a leaf]). Current (past 30-day) use of a tobacco product was 13.4% for high school students (2.06 million) and 4.0% for middle school students (470,000). E-cigarettes were the most commonly currently used tobacco product, cited by 11.3% of high school students (1.72 million) and 2.8% of middle school students (320,000), followed by cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookahs, nicotine pouches, heated tobacco products, and pipe tobacco. Current use of any tobacco product was reported by 14.2% of students identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) (versus 7.9% of heterosexual); 18.9% of students identifying as transgender (versus 8.2% of not transgender); and 14.2% of students reporting severe psychological distress (versus 5.5% with no distress). Among students who currently used each respective tobacco product, frequent use (on ≥20 days of the past 30 days) ranged from 17.2% for nicotine pouches to 39.4% for e-cigarettes. Among current users of any tobacco product, 79.1% reported using a flavored tobacco product; by product, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used flavored tobacco product. Among current users of any tobacco product, the most commonly reported source of access was from a friend (32.8%). Among students who currently used e-cigarettes, 53.7% used a disposable device, 28.7% used a prefilled/refillable pod or cartridge device, 9.0% used a tank or mod system (a system that can be customized by the user), and 8.6% did not know the device type. Among students who had ever used e-cigarettes, the most common reason for first trying them was "a friend used them" (57.8%); among current e-cigarette users, the most commonly cited reason for current use was "I am feeling anxious, stressed, or depressed" (43.4%). Among all middle and high school students, 75.2% reported past-year recognition of any antitobacco public education campaign ads. Exposure to marketing or advertising for any tobacco product was reported by 75.7% of students who had contact with an assessed potential source of tobacco product advertisements or promotions (going to a convenience store, supermarket, or gas station; using the Internet; watching television or streaming services or going to the movies; or reading newspapers or magazines). Among students who reported using social media, 73.5% had ever seen e-cigarette-related content. Among all students, perceiving "no" or "little" harm from intermittent tobacco product use was highest for e-cigarettes (16.6%) and lowest for cigarettes (9.6%). Among students who currently used any tobacco product, 27.2% had experienced cravings during the past 30 days; 19.5% reported wanting to use a tobacco product within 30 minutes of waking. Moreover, 65.3% of students who currently used tobacco products were seriously thinking about quitting the use of all products, and 60.2% had stopped using all products for ≥1 day because they were trying to quit during the past 12 months. INTERPRETATION: In 2021, approximately one in 10 U.S. middle and high school students (9.3%) had used a tobacco product during the preceding 30 days. By school level, this represented more than one in eight high school students (13.4%) and approximately one in 25 middle school students (4.0%). E-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product in 2021. Tobacco product use was higher among certain subpopulations, such as those identifying as LGB or transgender, or those reporting psychological distress. Importantly, approximately two thirds of students who currently used tobacco products were seriously thinking about quitting. However, factors that might continue to promote tobacco product use among U.S. youths, such as the availability of flavors, access to tobacco products, exposure to tobacco product marketing, and misperceptions about harm from tobacco product use, remained prevalent in 2021. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: The continued monitoring of all forms of youth tobacco product use and associated factors through surveillance efforts including NYTS is important to the development of public health policy and action at national, state, and local levels. The 2021 NYTS was successfully administered during the COVID-19 pandemic using a web URL to allow participation by eligible students learning under varying instructional models. As a result of these modifications to the fielding procedures, any comparison of results between 2021 NYTS findings with previous years, including the direct attribution of any potential changes in tobacco product use, is not possible. Parents, educators, youth advocates, and health care providers can help protect youths from the harms of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. In addition, the comprehensive and sustained implementation of evidence-based tobacco control strategies, combined with FDA's regulation of tobacco products, is important for reducing all forms of tobacco product use among U.S. youths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Tobacco , Tobacco Use , United States/epidemiology
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