Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
2.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 43(8): 554-555, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364851

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2" (SARS-CoV-2) infection has variable described dermatologic manifestations. "COVID (coronavirus disease) toes" became a hallmark of the disease in young and largely asymptomatic patients, who may have negative test results for SARS-CoV-2. Pernio (chilblains)-like lesions are seen mostly in infected pediatric patients and are purple painful, frequently bilateral, ill-defined plaques with prominent inflammation on histological examination. In contrast to pernio-like presentation in children, critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 develop "purple" digits that may be sharply demarcated and may demonstrate asymmetric areas of ischemia. These 2 contrasting entities are sometimes grouped together as "COVID toes" due to some similarities in clinical appearance and presentation. Here, we summarize histopathologic examination from an autopsy, including the cutaneous lesions from the affected and normal contralateral toes and correlate them with systemic findings. In contrast to pernio-like lesions, the skin of the affected necrotic toes contained thrombi in vessels without prominent inflammation, suggestive of an embolic event. This is further supported by the clinical history of and autopsy findings of popliteal artery thrombus and multiple subsegmental pulmonary emboli. Our findings suggest that critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 have different pathological processes affecting skin at peripheral sites (ie, fingers, toes, ears, and nose), which may be due to thromboembolic events. The skin is a mirror of the body and skin pathology may shed light into overall pathogenesis of systemic illness and processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Toes/pathology , Autopsy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Toes/blood supply
3.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 104, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: H syndrome (HS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by a mutation in the solute carrier family 29, member 3 (SCL29A3) gene. It has a variable clinical presentation and little phenotype-genotype correlation. The pathognomonic sign of HS is cutaneous hyperpigmentation located mainly in the inner thighs and often accompanied by other systemic manifestations. Improvement after tocilizumab treatment has been reported in a few patients with HS. We report the first patient with HS who presented cardiogenic shock, multiorgan infiltration, and digital ischemia. CASE PRESENTATION: 8-year-old boy born to consanguineous parents of Moroccan origin who was admitted to the intensive care unit during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with tachypnoea, tachycardia, and oliguria. Echocardiography showed dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systolic dysfunction compatible with cardiogenic shock. Additionally, he presented with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection by chromatographic immunoassay were negative. A previously ordered gene panel for pre-existing sensorineural hearing loss showed a pathological mutation in the SCL29A3 gene compatible with H syndrome. Computed tomography scan revealed extensive alveolar infiltrates in the lungs and multiple poor defined hypodense lesions in liver, spleen, and kidneys; adenopathy; and cardiomegaly with left ventricle subendocardial nodules. Invasive mechanical ventilation, broad antibiotic and antifungal coverage showed no significant response. Therefore, Tocilizumab as compassionate use together with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone was initiated. Improvement was impressive leading to normalization of inflammation markers, liver and kidney function, and stabilising heart function. Two weeks later, he was discharged and has been clinically well since then on two weekly administration of Tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS: We report the most severe disease course produced by HS described so far in the literature. Our patient's manifestations included uncommon, new complications such as acute heart failure with severe systolic dysfunction, multi-organ cell infiltrate, and digital ischemia. Most of the clinical symptoms of our patient could have been explained by SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating the importance of a detailed differential diagnosis to ensure optimal treatment. Although the mechanism of autoinflammation of HS remains uncertain, the good response of our patient to Tocilizumab makes a case for the important role of IL-6 in this syndrome and for considering Tocilizumab as a first-line treatment, at least in severely affected patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/physiopathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Child , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/diagnosis , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/genetics , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/therapy , Humans , Ischemia/therapy , Kidney Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/physiopathology , Lymphadenopathy/therapy , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Nucleoside Transport Proteins/genetics , Pulse Therapy, Drug , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Splenic Diseases/physiopathology , Splenic Diseases/therapy , Toes/blood supply , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111369, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263036

ABSTRACT

Importance: Chilblain-like lesions have been one of the most frequently described cutaneous manifestations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their etiopathogenesis, including the role of SARS-CoV-2, remains elusive. Objective: To examine the association of chilblain-like lesions with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective case series enrolled 17 adolescents who presented with chilblain-like lesions from April 1 to June 30, 2020, at a tertiary referral academic hospital in Italy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Macroscopic (clinical and dermoscopic) and microscopic (histopathologic) analysis contributed to a thorough understanding of the lesions. Nasopharyngeal swab, serologic testing, and in situ hybridization of the skin biopsy specimens were performed to test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Laboratory tests explored signs of systemic inflammation or thrombophilia. Structural changes in peripheral microcirculation were investigated by capillaroscopy. Results: Of the 17 adolescents (9 [52.9%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 13.2 [12.5-14.3] years) enrolled during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, 16 (94.1%) had bilaterally localized distal erythematous or cyanotic lesions. A triad of red dots (16 [100%]), white rosettes (11 [68.8%]), and white streaks (10 [62.5%]) characterized the dermoscopic picture. Histologic analysis revealed a remodeling of the dermal blood vessels with a lobular arrangement, wall thickening, and a mild perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. SARS-CoV-2 infection was excluded by molecular and serologic testing. In situ hybridization did not highlight the viral genome in the lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: This study delineated the clinical, histologic, and laboratory features of chilblain-like lesions that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic, and its findings do not support their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The lesions occurred in otherwise healthy adolescents, had a long but benign course to self-resolution, and were characterized by a microvascular remodeling with perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate but no other signs of vasculitis. These results suggest that chilblain-like lesions do not imply a concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ongoing studies will help clarify the etiopathogenic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin/pathology , Toes/pathology , Vascular Remodeling , Adolescent , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/pathology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Toes/blood supply
5.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 25(6): 627-633, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183484

ABSTRACT

Reports of chilblain-like lesions (CLL) coinciding with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been described in the literature, but this phenomenon has not been critically summarized. The aim of this paper is to summarize reports of CLL coinciding with SARS-CoV-2 infection to clarify the prevalence, clinical relevance, and prognostic value of these lesions. A literature search was conducted using the Embase, Pubmed, and Scopus databases from December 2019 to June 16, 2020 using the search terms ("COVID-19" OR "coronavirus" OR "2019-nCoV" OR "SARS-CoV-2") AND ("chilblain-like" OR "COVID toes" OR "acral"). Papers that described skin changes in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were included. A total of 31 papers were summarized, representing 813 cases of CLL. Available data suggests an equal gender distribution, mean age of 21 years, and median age of 14 years. Mild extracutaneous symptoms were reported in 53% of cases and 47% were asymptomatic. CLL occurred an average of 16 days after extracutaneous symptoms. Patients with CLL were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in 15% of cases. Lesions were mainly described as asymptomatic and/or pruritic erythematous to violaceous acral macules and plaques. Partial or complete resolution occurred in 85% of cases in a mean of 13 days. The most common histologic findings were perivascular and perieccrine superficial and deep lymphocytic infiltrates. Although a causal relationship between CLL and SARS-CoV-2 has not been confirmed, the temporal association and 15% positive SARS-CoV-2 rate in affected individuals should not be ignored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/physiopathology , Chilblains/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Toes/blood supply , Toes/physiopathology , Young Adult
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 989-1005, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039483

ABSTRACT

Pernio or chilblains is characterized by erythema and swelling at acral sites (eg, toes and fingers), typically triggered by cold exposure. Clinical and histopathologic features of pernio are well described, but the pathogenesis is not entirely understood; vasospasm and a type I interferon (IFN-I) immune response are likely involved. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, dermatologists have observed an increase in pernio-like acral eruptions. Direct causality of pernio due to COVID-19 has not been established in many cases because of inconsistent testing methods (often negative results) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, a form of COVID-19‒associated pernio (also called COVID toes) is probable because of increased occurrence, frequently in young patients with no cold exposure or a history of pernio, and reports of skin biopsies with positive SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry. PubMed was searched between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020 for publications using the following keywords: pernio, chilblain, and acral COVID-19. On the basis of our review of the published literature, we speculate that several unifying cutaneous and systemic mechanisms may explain COVID-19‒associated pernio: (1) SARS-CoV-2 cell infection occurs through the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 mediated by transmembrane protease serine 2, subsequently affecting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with an increase in the vasoconstricting, pro-inflammatory, and prothrombotic angiotensin II pathway. (2) Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 cell infection triggers an immune response with robust IFN-I release in patients predisposed to COVID-19‒associated pernio. (3) Age and sex discrepancies correlated with COVID-19 severity and manifestations, including pernio as a sign of mild disease, are likely explained by age-related immune and vascular differences influenced by sex hormones and genetics, which affect susceptibility to viral cellular infection, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system balance, and the IFN-I response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vasoconstriction , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chilblains/immunology , Chilblains/physiopathology , Chilblains/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Fingers/blood supply , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Toes/blood supply
7.
Acta Med Port ; 34(2): 128-136, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027409

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, that has spread rapidly throughout the world. This has resulted in an urgent need to obtain information regarding its pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical manifestations. More specifically, skin manifestations, seldom reported initially, have been increasingly described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a literature search in the PubMed database, regarding cutaneous manifestations associated with COVID-19. This article describes the clinical and histological findings of the main skin lesions observed in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. DISCUSSION: Cutaneous manifestations associated with COVID-19 have been described in multiple retrospective and prospective studies, case series and case reports. The reported incidence reached 20.4%. Although there was substantial heterogeneity in terms of clinical patterns, the main ones include: erythematous/maculopapular, urticarial, papulovesicular, and purpuric/petechial eruptions, chilblain-like lesions and livedoid/acro-ischemic lesions. In the vast majority, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are not fully understood, although histopathological findings and biomolecular studies can add relevant data. CONCLUSION: The recognition of cutaneous manifestations associated with COVID-19 is of utmost importance. They may help establishing an early diagnosis, namely in oligosymptomatic patients or when confirmatory tests are impossible to perform. Moreover, chilblain-like lesions and acro-ischemia, also seem to play an important role in terms of prognosis.


Introdução: A COVID-19, doença infeciosa causada por um novo coronavírus, SARS-CoV-2, propagou-se rapidamente pelo mundo inteiro, resultando numa necessidade emergente de obtenção de conhecimentos alusivos à sua patogénese, diagnóstico e sintomatologia. Mais especificamente, um número cada vez maior de casos relativos a manifestações cutâneas, previamente desconhecidas, tem vindo a ser descrito.Material e Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa de literatura, através da base de dados PubMed, referente às manifestações dermatológicas associadas à COVID-19. O presente artigo descreve os achados clínicos e histológicos das principais lesões cutâneas observadas em contexto da infeção por SARS-CoV-2.Discussão: Manifestações cutâneas associadas à COVID-19 foram descritas em múltiplos estudos retrospetivos e prospetivos, séries de casos e casos clínicos isolados. A incidência reportada atingiu os 20,4%, verificando-se uma heterogeneidade de padrões clínicos substancial. Destes destacam-se as erupções eritematosas/maculopapulares, urticariformes, papulovesiculares, purpúricas/petequiais, lesões tipo-perniose e lesões livedóides/acro-isquémicas. O conhecimento dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos subjacentes tem vindo a ser enriquecido com achados os histológicos e de biologia molecular.Conclusão: É essencial o reconhecimento das manifestações dermatológicas associadas à COVID-19, uma vez que podem permitir o diagnóstico precoce da infeção, nomeadamente em casos oligossintomáticos ou quando não é possível a realização de testes confirmatórios. Embora menos estabelecido, lesões tipo-perniose e acro-isquémicas, parecem ter também um papel importante a nível prognóstico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases, Viral/etiology , Erythema/etiology , Erythema/pathology , Humans , Incidence , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/pathology , Nicolau Syndrome/etiology , Nicolau Syndrome/pathology , Prospective Studies , Purpura/etiology , Purpura/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Skin Diseases, Viral/pathology , Toes/blood supply , Urticaria/etiology , Urticaria/pathology
8.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926886, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which originated in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and has led to an ongoing pandemic. COVID-19 typically affects the respiratory tract and mucous membranes, leading to pathological involvement of various organ systems. Although patients usually present with fever, cough, and fatigue, less common manifestations have been reported including symptoms arising from thrombosis and thromboembolism. A spectrum of dermatologic changes is becoming recognized in patients with COVID-19 who initially present with respiratory symptoms. The mechanism behind these manifestations remains unclear. This report presents the case of a 47-year-old Hispanic man who developed cutaneous vasculitic lesions and gangrene of the toes following admission to hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE REPORT COVID-19 has been associated with cardiovascular disease entities including stroke, acute coronary syndrome, venous thromboembolism, and peripheral vascular disease. We present a case in which a 47-year-old Hispanic man arrived at the Emergency Department with COVID-19 and was admitted for respiratory failure. Despite anticoagulation initiated on admission in the presence of an elevated D-dimer, the patient developed gangrene of all his toes, which required bilateral transmetatarsal amputation. CONCLUSIONS This case shows that dermatologic manifestations may develop in patients who initially present with COVID-19 pneumonia. These symptoms may be due to venous thrombosis following SARS-CoV-2 vasculitis, leading to challenging decisions regarding anticoagulation therapy. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of anticoagulation, to choose appropriate anticoagulants and dosing, and to assess bleeding risk.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Toes/surgery , Vasculitis/etiology , Amputation/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Follow-Up Studies , Gangrene/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Metatarsal Bones/surgery , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/ethnology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Toes/blood supply , Toes/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Vasculitis/physiopathology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL