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1.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14936, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various public health interventions have been implemented against the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. We investigated changes in pediatric emergency healthcare utilization during the current pandemic. METHODS: Based on data on outpatient healthcare visits to one pediatric emergency department in Tokyo, Japan, the descriptive, cross-sectional study compared the number of emergency department visits in 2020 to the number in the previous 3 years. Data were extracted from the electronic triage reporting system. The primary outcome was the number of emergency department visits. The characteristics of patients by age group were also investigated. RESULTS: A 40.6% reduction in pediatric emergency healthcare utilization was observed during the study period, with the greatest decrease occurring in the number of visits for fever. However, while the number of patients with a complaint with an exogenous cause decreased, the proportion of these patients increased. Although social activities in the greater community have now almost normalized, and only a slight increase in the number of patients with fever has been reported, the number of emergency department visits remains lower than in previous years as of this writing. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions led to a reduction in emergency department visits, thereby allowing time to redistribute health-care resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Tokyo/epidemiology
3.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(2): 209-211, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761196

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for COVID-19 can affect the current and future dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus infections (RSV). In Tokyo, RSV activity declined by 97.9% (95% CI: 94.8%-99.2%) during NPIs. A long period of NPIs could increase susceptible populations, thus enhancing the potential for large RSV outbreaks after the end of NPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
4.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 98(2): 87-92, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745202

ABSTRACT

A year and a half has passed since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Mathematical models to predict infection are expected and many studies have been conducted. In this study, a new interpretation was created that could reproduce the daily positive cases in Tokyo using only a simple SIR model. In addition, the data on the ratio of transfer to delta variants could also be simulated. It is anticipated that this interpretation will be a basis for the development of forecasting methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701205

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has aggravated anxiety and depression worldwide, particularly in patients with chronic illnesses and mental disorders. Using validated questionnaires, in this paper, we examine the psychological effects of the pandemic in Japan in detail. The General Mental Health Scale (GHQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to assess mental health, state and trait anxiety, and depression, respectively. The survey was completed during the patients' first visits to the clinic of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine from November 2018 to April 2021. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare data from 226 participants before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The GHQ total, GHQ subscales of "social dysfunction" and "anxiety and dysphoria", and state anxiety scores were significantly higher during than before the pandemic. The GHQ total, some GHQ subscales, and state anxiety scores were significantly higher among male than female participants during the pandemic. The GHQ total, some GHQ subscales, CES-D, and state anxiety scores in those aged 10-39 years were significantly higher. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic may have caused mental health changes in many individuals based on their gender, age, and with time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tokyo/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690238

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the 2019-2020 season, swimming competitions and training have been limited leading to a setback in performances. The study analyzed if, during the subsequent season, swimmers' have been able to regain the lost performance. Swimming time trends were analyzed comparing Tokyo with Rio Olympics and with mathematically predicted results. The gap between the gold medalist and the last finalist, and the differences between men and women have also been considered. Swimming competition results of females and males, in 100 m and 200 m Freestyle and Backstroke, were collected from the Olympics' official website. Results showed that at Tokyo Olympics almost all swimmers' times improved as compared to Rio's. Analysis of performance trends highlighted that performance progression does not proceed in a linear fashion and that is best predicted by more recent results. Women's progression was higher than men's and the gap between the first and last finalist constantly decreased, except for the Tokyo Olympics. In conclusion, the unprecedented Tokyo Olympic Games and qualification year seems not to have disrupted all Olympic swimmers' performance, suggesting that stakeholders support and athlete's coping ability might safeguard the subsistence of performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swimming , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2175, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677270

ABSTRACT

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was adopted to decompose daily COVID-19 infections in Tokyo from February 28, 2020, to July 12, 2021. Daily COVID-19 infections were nonlinearly decomposed into several monochromatic waves, intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), corresponding to their periodic meanings from high frequency to low frequency. High-frequency IMFs represent variabilities of random factors and variations in the number of daily PCR and antigen inspections, which can be nonlinearly denoised using EMD. Compared with a moving average and Fourier transform, EMD provides better performance in denoising and analyzing COVID-19 spread. After variabilities of daily inspections were weekly denoised by EMD, one low-frequency IMF reveals that the average period of external influences (public health and social measures) to stop COVID-19 spread was 19 days, corresponding to the measures response duration based on the incubation period. By monitoring this nonlinear wave, public health and social measures for stopping COVID-19 spread can be evaluated and visualized quantitatively in the instantaneous frequency domain. Moreover, another low-frequency IMF revealed that the period of the COVID-19 outbreak and retreat was 57 days on average. This nonlinear wave can be used as a reference for setting the timeframe for state of emergency declarations. Thus, decomposing daily infections in the instantaneous frequency domain using EMD represents a useful tool to improve public health and social measures for stopping COVID-19 spread.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tokyo/epidemiology
8.
Epidemics ; 38: 100545, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676725

ABSTRACT

R(t), the actual average number of secondary cases per primary case at calendar time t, is epidemiologically useful in assessing transmission dynamics in a population with varying susceptibility levels. However, a technical limitation of existing methods of estimating R(t) is the reliance on the daily number of cases with illness onset and the distribution of the serial interval, although the estimator of R(t) should be calculated as the ratio of newly infected cases at time t to the total number of potentially infectious people at the same time. Using historical data of a smallpox outbreak in Tokyo City, Japan, approximately 100 years ago, we propose a new method to compute R(t) that can be estimated using information on illness onset. Our method decomposes the mechanism of transmission into two distinct pieces of information: the frequency of secondary transmission relative to disease age and the probability density function of the incubation period. Employing a piecewise constant model, our maximum likelihood estimates of R(t) dropped below unity (0.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.7) for the period from Day 64 to Day 79, indicating that the epidemic was under control in this period. R(t) was continuously below one through the remaining days. The model prediction captured the overall observed pattern of the epidemic well. Our method is appropriate for acute infectious diseases other than smallpox for which variations in infectivity relative to disease age should be considered to correctly estimate the transmission potential, such as the ongoing global epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Smallpox , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Smallpox/epidemiology , Tokyo/epidemiology
9.
J Epidemiol ; 32(2): 105-111, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tokyo, the capital of Japan, is a densely populated city of >13 million people, so the population is at high risk of epidemic severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A serologic survey of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG would provide valuable data for assessing the city's SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Therefore, this cross-sectional study estimated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence in Tokyo. METHODS: Leftover serum of 23,234 hospital visitors was tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using an iFlash 3000 chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer (Shenzhen YHLO Biotech, Shenzhen, China) with an iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgG kit (YHLO) and iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgG-S1 kit (YHLO). Serum samples with a positive result (≥10 AU/mL) in either of these assays were considered seropositive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Participants were randomly selected from patients visiting 14 Tokyo hospitals between September 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021. No participants were diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and none exhibited COVID-19-related symptoms at the time of blood collection. RESULTS: The overall anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence among all participants was 1.83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-2.01%). The seroprevalence in March 2021, the most recent month of this study, was 2.70% (95% CI, 2.16-3.34%). After adjusting for population age, sex, and region, the estimated seroprevalence in Tokyo was 3.40%, indicating that 470,778 individuals had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated number of individuals in Tokyo with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 3.9-fold higher than the number of confirmed cases. Our study enhances understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Tokyo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tokyo/epidemiology
10.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(4): 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633870

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, undertook enhanced event-based surveillance (EBS) for infectious diseases occurring overseas that have potential for importation (excluding coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Summer Games (the Games). The pre-existing EBS system was enhanced using the World Health Organization Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources system and the BlueDot Epidemic Intelligence platform. The enhanced EBS before and during the Games did not detect any major public health event that would warrant action for the Games. However, information from multiple sources helped us identify events, characterize risk and improve confidence in risk assessment. The collaboration also reduced the surveillance workload of the host country, while ensuring the quality of surveillance, even during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24477, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599359

ABSTRACT

Assessing the impact of temperature on COVID-19 epidemiology is critical for implementing non-pharmaceutical interventions. However, few studies have accounted for the nature of contagious diseases, i.e., their dependent happenings. We aimed to quantify the impact of temperature on the transmissibility and virulence of COVID-19 in Tokyo, Japan, employing two epidemiological measurements of transmissibility and severity: the effective reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) and case fatality risk (CFR). We estimated the [Formula: see text] and time-delay adjusted CFR and to subsequently assess the nonlinear and delayed effect of temperature on [Formula: see text] and time-delay adjusted CFR. For [Formula: see text] at low temperatures, the cumulative relative risk (RR) at the first temperature percentile (3.3 °C) was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.7). As for the virulence to humans, moderate cold temperatures were associated with higher CFR, and CFR also increased as the temperature rose. The cumulative RR at the 10th and 99th percentiles of temperature (5.8 °C and 30.8 °C) for CFR were 3.5 (95% CI: 1.3-10.0) and 6.4 (95% CI: 4.1-10.1). Our results suggest the importance to take precautions to avoid infection in both cold and warm seasons to avoid severe cases of COVID-19. The results and our proposed approach will also help in assessing the possible seasonal course of COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Temperature , Basic Reproduction Number , Cold Temperature , Humans , Mortality , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Tokyo/epidemiology , Virulence
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261779, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594098

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is disturbing and overwhelming a regular medical care in the world. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) during the state of emergency for COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. We also reviewed measures against the COVID-19 pandemic in our institute with a focus on RRD treatment. Retrospectively, patients who underwent initial RRD surgery during the state of emergency between April 7, 2020 and May 25, 2020 were included. For comparison, we recruited patients who underwent surgery for initial RRD during the same period in the last 2 years (2018 and 2019). Data related to the number of surgeries, age, gender, macular detachment, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), preoperative visual acuity, surgical techniques, the time between the onset and hospitalization and/or surgery of the 2020 cohort were analyzed and compared with those of the 2018 and 2019 cohorts. Furthermore, we reviewed measures taken against COVID-19 in our institute. The number of RRD patients during the state of emergency tended to be lower than that within the last 2 years. Relatively lesser female (vs. male) patients were observed in the 2020 cohort than in the last 2 years (P = 0.084). In contrast, among all cohorts, no significant differences were observed in the incidence of macula-off and PVR, preoperative visual acuity, and the time period between symptom onset and hospitalization and/or surgery. This is the first report to show the clinical patterns of RRD during COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Despite the state of emergency for the COVID-19 pandemic, no delay in the patient's initial visit to the hospital and surgery was observed. Further studies, including multicenter researches, are important for investigating the influence of COVID-19 on urgent ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retinal Detachment/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tokyo/epidemiology
13.
Intern Med ; 60(23): 3693-3700, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547078

ABSTRACT

Objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on global healthcare systems. Some studies have reported the negative impact of COVID-19 on ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients; however, the impact in Japan remains unclear. This study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on STEMI patients admitted to an academic tertiary-care center in Tokyo, Japan. Methods In this retrospective, observational, cohort study, we included 398 consecutive patients who were admitted to our institute from January 1, 2018, to March 10, 2021, and compared the incidence of hospitalization, clinical characteristics, time course, management, and outcomes before and after March 11, 2020, the date when the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Results There was a 10.7% reduction in hospitalization of STEMI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with that in the previous year (117 vs. 131 cases). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence of late presentation was significantly higher (26.5% vs. 12.1%, p<0.001), and the onset-to-door [241 (IQR: 70-926) vs. 128 (IQR: 66-493) minutes, p=0.028] and door-to-balloon [72 (IQR: 61-128) vs. 60 (IQR: 43-90) min, p<0.001] times were significantly longer than in the previous year. Furthermore, the in-hospital mortality was higher, but the difference was not significant (9.4% vs. 5.0%, p=0.098). Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted STEMI patients in Tokyo and resulted in a slight decrease in hospitalization, a significant increase in late presentation and treatment delays, and a slight but nonsignificant increase in mortality. In the COVID-19 era, the acute management system for STEMI in Japan must be reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Tokyo/epidemiology
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1707-1710, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536159

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the Delta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a serious concern worldwide in summer 2021. We examined the copy number and variant types of all SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who visited our hospital from February to August 2021 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Whole genome sequencing was performed for some samples. The R.1 variant (B.1.1.316) was responsible for most infections in March, replacing the previous variant (B.1.1.214); the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant caused most infections in April and May; and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) was the most prevalent in July and August. There was no significant difference in the copy numbers among the previous variant cases (n = 29, median 3.0 × 104 copies/µl), R.1 variant cases (n = 28, 2.1 × 105 copies/µl), Alpha variant cases (n = 125, 4.1 × 105 copies/µl), and Delta variant cases (n = 106, 2.4 × 105 copies/µl). Patients with Delta variant infection were significantly younger than those infected with R.1 and the previous variants, possibly because many elderly individuals in Tokyo were vaccinated between May and August. There was no significant difference in mortality among the four groups. Our results suggest that the increased infectivity of Delta variant may be caused by factors other than the higher viral loads. Clarifying these factors is important to control the spread of Delta variant infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tokyo/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing
15.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(6): 9685-9696, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526882

ABSTRACT

The Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games represent the most diverse international mass gathering event held since the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Postponed to summer 2021, the rescheduled Games were set to be held amidst what would become the highest-ever levels of COVID-19 transmission in the host city of Tokyo. At the same time, the Delta variant of concern was gaining traction as the dominant viral strain and Japan had yet to exceed fifteen percent of its population fully vaccinated against COVID-19. To quantify the potential number of secondary cases that might arise during the Olympic Games, we performed a scenario analysis using a multitype branching process model. We considered the different contributions to transmission of Games accredited individuals, the general Tokyo population, and domestic spectators. In doing so, we demonstrate how transmission might evolve in these different groups over time, cautioning against any loosening of infection prevention protocols and supporting the decision to ban all spectators. If prevention measures were well observed, we estimated that the number of new cases among Games accredited individuals would approach zero by the end of the Games. However, if transmission was not controlled our model indicated hundreds of Games accredited individuals would become infected and daily incidence in Tokyo would reach upwards of 4,000 cases. Had domestic spectators been allowed (at 50% venue capacity), we estimated that over 250 spectators might have arrived infected to Tokyo venues, potentially generating more than 300 additional secondary infections while in Tokyo/at the Games. We also found the number of cases with infection directly attributable to hypothetical exposure during the Games was highly sensitive to the local epidemic dynamics. Therefore, reducing and maintaining transmission levels below epidemic levels using public health measures would be necessary to prevent cross-group transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 730611, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512061

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As of June 7, 2021, the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to more than 200 countries. The global number of reported cases is more than 172.9 million, with more than 3.7 million deaths, and the number of infected individuals is still growing rapidly. Consequently, events and activities around the world were canceled or postponed, and the preparation for sporting events were greatly challenged. Under such circumstances, about 11,000 athletes from ~206 countries are arriving in Tokyo for the 32nd Summer Olympic Games. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to assess the occurrence and spread risk of COVID-19 for the Games. Objectives: To explore effective prevention and control measures for COVID-19 in large international events through simulations of different interventions according to risk assessment. Methods: We used a random model to calculate the number of initial infected patients and used Poisson distribution to determine the number of initial infected patients based on the number of countries involved. Furthermore, to simulate the COVID-19 transmission, the susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered-hospitalized (SEIARH) model was established based on the susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) mathematical model of epidemic diseases. According to risk assessment indicators produced by different scenarios of the simulated interventions, the risk of COVID-19 transmission in Tokyo Olympic Games was assessed. Results: The current COVID-19 prevention measures proposed by the Japan Olympic Committee need to be enhanced. And large-scale vaccination will effectively control the spread of COVID-19. When the protective efficacy of vaccines is 78.1% or 89.8%, and if the vaccination rate of athletes reaches 80%, an epidemic prevention barrier can be established.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Humans , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20439, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504468

ABSTRACT

Seismic ambient noise with frequencies > 1 Hz includes noise related to human activities. A reduction in seismic noise during the COVID-19 pandemic has been observed worldwide, as restrictions were imposed to control outbreaks of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this context, we studied the effect of changes in anthropogenic activities during COVID-19 on the seismic noise levels in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, considering time of day, day of the week, and seasonal changes. The results showed the largest reduction in noise levels during the first state of emergency under most conditions. After the first state of emergency was lifted, the daytime noise reverted to previous levels immediately on weekdays and gradually on Sundays. This was likely because economic activities instantly resumed, while non-essential outings on Sundays were still mostly avoided. Furthermore, the daytime noise level on Sundays was strongly reduced regardless of changes on weekdays after the second state of emergency, which restricted activities mainly at night. Sunday noise levels gradually increased from the middle of the second state of emergency, suggesting a gradual reduction in public concern about COVID-19 following a decrease in the number of infections. Our findings demonstrate that seismic noise can be used to monitor social activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Leisure Activities , Noise , Acoustics , Activities of Daily Living , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
19.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(6): 892-901, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aim was to identify depressed mood and frailty and its related factors in older people during the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic. METHODS: Since 2010, we have conducted questionnaire surveys on all older residents, who are not certified in the long-term care insurance, living in one district of Tokyo municipality. These residents are divided into two groups by birth month, that is those born between April and September and those born between October and March, and each group completes the survey every 2 years (in April and May). Study participants were older residents who were born between April and September and who completed the survey in spring 2018 and in spring 2020, the pandemic period. Depressed mood and frailty were assessed using the Kihon Checklist, which is widely used by local governments in Japan. We had no control group in this study. RESULTS: A total of 1736 residents responded to both surveys. From 2018 to 2020, the depressed mood rate increased from 29% to 38%, and frailty increased from 10% to 16%. The incidence of depressed mood and frailty was 25% and 11%, respectively. Incidence of depressed mood was related to subjective memory impairment and difficulty in device usage, and incidence of frailty was related to being older, subjective memory impairment, lack of emotional social support, poor subjective health, and social participation difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Older people with subjective memory impairment may be a high-risk group during the coronavirus pandemic. Telephone outreach for frail older people could be an effective solution. We recommend extending the scope of the 'reasonable accommodation' concept beyond disability and including older people to build an age-friendly and crisis-resistant community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Frail Elderly , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
20.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(4): 714-720, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471374

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the progression and stability in the performance of world-ranked swimmers from 2015 to 2020, and the impairment induced by the COVID-19 lockdown. An observational retrospective design over five consecutive competitive seasons was selected. FINA's male Top-50 who were qualified for the Tokyo Olympic Games were considered in freestyle, backstroke, backstroke, and butterfly events. A total of 515 male swimmers and 2060 season-best performances were analyzed. All data was retrieved from two open-access and public websites (Swimrankings and Swimcloud). Repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test was performed to analyze the variation between seasons. Stabilization in performance was assessed using spearman correlation coefficients. A significant improvement in performance ≈0.5-2.5% was found in most of the strokes and race distances until the 2018-2019 season. The 2020 lockdown impaired the performance by 1-2%. Moderate to high associations were found in the 2017-2018 season when considering the 2019-2020 performance. The breaststroke was the only stroke with a moderate-high stability (r > 0.40) in all race distances considering the overall time period. It can be concluded that world-ranked swimmers' performance was impaired by 1-2% due to the COVID-19 lockdown, returning to levels that were reached two years earlier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swimming , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Tokyo/epidemiology
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