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1.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(4): 646-655, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661608

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease characterized by strong induction of inflammatory cytokines, progressive lung inflammation, and potentially multiorgan dysfunction. It remains unclear how SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to immune activation. The Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been suggested to trigger TLR4 and thereby activate immunity. Here, we have investigated the role of TLR4 in SARS-CoV-2 infection and immunity. Neither exposure of isolated S protein, SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus nor primary SARS-CoV-2 isolate induced TLR4 activation in a TLR4-expressing cell line. Human monocyte-derived DCs express TLR4 but not angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and DCs were not infected by SARS-CoV-2. Notably, neither S protein nor SARS-CoV-2 induced DC maturation or cytokines, indicating that both S protein and SARS-CoV-2 virus particles do not trigger extracellular TLRs including TLR4. Ectopic expression of ACE2 in DCs led to efficient infection by SARS-CoV-2 and, strikingly, efficient type I IFN and cytokine responses. These data strongly suggest that not extracellular TLRs but intracellular viral sensors are key players in sensing SARS-CoV-2. These data imply that SARS-CoV-2 escapes direct sensing by TLRs, which might underlie the lack of efficient immunity to SARS-CoV-2 early during infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dendritic Cells , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 559382, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389163

ABSTRACT

Eliciting durable and protective T cell-mediated immunity in the respiratory mucosa remains a significant challenge. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based cationic pathogen-like particles (PLPs) loaded with TLR agonists mimic biophysical properties of microbes and hence, simulate pathogen-pattern recognition receptor interactions to safely and effectively stimulate innate immune responses. We generated micro particle PLPs loaded with TLR4 (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant, GLA) or TLR9 (CpG) agonists, and formulated them with and without a mucosal delivery enhancing carbomer-based nanoemulsion adjuvant (ADJ). These adjuvants delivered intranasally to mice elicited high numbers of influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ effector and tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) in lungs and airways. PLPs delivering TLR4 versus TLR9 agonists drove phenotypically and functionally distinct populations of effector and memory T cells. While PLPs loaded with CpG or GLA provided immunity, combining the adjuvanticity of PLP-GLA and ADJ markedly enhanced the development of airway and lung TRMs and CD4 and CD8 T cell-dependent immunity to influenza virus. Further, balanced CD8 (Tc1/Tc17) and CD4 (Th1/Th17) recall responses were linked to effective influenza virus control. These studies provide mechanistic insights into vaccine-induced pulmonary T cell immunity and pave the way for the development of a universal influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Dogs , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 705080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389187

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infections have been a long-standing global burden ranging from seasonal recurrences to the unexpected pandemics. The yearly hospitalizations from seasonal viruses such as influenza can fluctuate greatly depending on the circulating strain(s) and the congruency with the predicted strains used for the yearly vaccine formulation, which often are not predicted accurately. While antiviral agents are available against influenza, efficacy is limited due to a temporal disconnect between the time of infection and symptom development and viral resistance. Uncontrolled, influenza infections can lead to a severe inflammatory response initiated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or host-derived danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that ultimately signal through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Overall, these pathogen-host interactions result in a local cytokine storm leading to acute lung injury (ALI) or the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with concomitant systemic involvement and more severe, life threatening consequences. In addition to traditional antiviral treatments, blocking the host's innate immune response may provide a more viable approach to combat these infectious pathogens. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic illustrates a critical need for novel treatments to counteract the ALI and ARDS that has caused the deaths of millions worldwide. This review will examine how antagonizing TLR4 signaling has been effective experimentally in ameliorating ALI and lethal infection in challenge models triggered not only by influenza, but also by other ALI-inducing viruses.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118345, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271581

ABSTRACT

This work reports novel chitosan functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites combined fluorescence imaging and therapeutic functions in one agent, which can serve as a promising alternative to alleviate related diseases caused hyperinflammation. Briefly, GO was designed to be conjugated with chitosan, fluorescein-labeled peptide, toll-like receptor 4 antibody and hydroxycamptothecin/aloe emodin. We have demonstrated that such nanocomposites could effectively achieve active targeted delivery of pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory drugs into inflammatory cells and cause cells apoptosis by acid-responsive drug release. Moreover, confocal fluorescence imaging confirms that the drug-induced inflammatory cells apoptosis could be visualized the light-up fluorescence of fluorescein activated by caspase-3. Meanwhile, inflammatory-related biomarkers have down-regulated after the nanocomposites' treatment in both vitro and vivo experiments consistent with the results in histological sections. In summary, the bifunctional nanocomposites that possess anti-inflammation and fluorescence imaging could serve as a promising therapeutic agent for reducing hyperinflammation caused by numerous diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/physiology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antibodies/immunology , Camptothecin/analogs & derivatives , Camptothecin/chemistry , Camptothecin/therapeutic use , Cattle , Cell Line , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Emodin/chemistry , Emodin/therapeutic use , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Mammary Glands, Human/drug effects , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Mastitis/chemically induced , Mastitis/drug therapy , Mastitis/pathology , Mice , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191684

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a heterogeneous syndrome caused by a dysregulated host response during the process of infection. Neutrophils are involved in the development of sepsis due to their essential role in host defense. COVID-19 is a viral sepsis. Disfunction of neutrophils in sepsis has been described in previous studies, however, little is known about the role of microRNA-let-7b (miR-let-7b), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in neutrophils and how they participate in the development of sepsis. In this study, we investigated the regulatory pathway of miR-let-7b/TLR4/NF-κB in neutrophils. We also explored the downstream cytokines released by neutrophils following miR-let-7b treatment and its therapeutic effects in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic mice. Six-to-eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice underwent CLP following treatment with miR-let-7b agomir. Survival (n=10), changes in liver and lungs histopathology (n=4), circulating neutrophil counts (n=4), the liver-body weight ratio (n=4-7), and the lung wet-to-dry ratio (n=5-6) were recorded. We found that overexpression of miR-let-7b could significantly down-regulate the expression of human-derived neutrophilic TLR4 at a post-transcriptional level, a decreased level of proinflammatory factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and an upregulation of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 in vitro. After miR-let-7b agomir treatment in vivo, neutrophil recruitment was inhibited and thus the injuries of liver and lungs in CLP-induced septic mice were alleviated (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively), less weight loss was reduced, and survival in septic mice was also significantly improved (p=0.013). Our study suggested that miR-let-7b could be a potential target of sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , NF-kappa B/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology
7.
Immunity ; 54(2): 235-246.e5, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988081

ABSTRACT

The interleukin-6 (IL-6) membrane receptor and its circulating soluble form, sIL-6R, can be targeted by antibody therapy to reduce deleterious immune signaling caused by chronic overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. This strategy may also hold promise for treating acute hyperinflammation, such as observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), highlighting a need to define regulators of IL-6 homeostasis. We found that conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), defined in mice via expression of the transcription factor Zbtb46, were a major source of circulating sIL-6R and, thus, systemically regulated IL-6 signaling. This was uncovered through identification of a cDC-dependent but T cell-independent modality that naturally adjuvants plasma cell differentiation and antibody responses to protein antigens. This pathway was then revealed as part of a broader biological buffer system in which cDC-derived sIL-6R set the in-solution persistence of IL-6. This control axis may further inform the development of therapeutic agents to modulate pro-inflammatory immune reactions.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , ADAM17 Protein , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Inflammation , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/immunology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Plasma Cells/immunology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/blood , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/immunology
8.
Nature ; 586(7830): 567-571, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703377

ABSTRACT

A vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Structural studies have led to the development of mutations that stabilize Betacoronavirus spike proteins in the prefusion state, improving their expression and increasing immunogenicity1. This principle has been applied to design mRNA-1273, an mRNA vaccine that encodes a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that is stabilized in the prefusion conformation. Here we show that mRNA-1273 induces potent neutralizing antibody responses to both wild-type (D614) and D614G mutant2 SARS-CoV-2 as well as CD8+ T cell responses, and protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lungs and noses of mice without evidence of immunopathology. mRNA-1273 is currently in a phase III trial to evaluate its efficacy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mutation , Nose/immunology , Nose/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Th1 Cells/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/genetics
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1663, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-687238

ABSTRACT

A recent pandemic caused by a single-stranded RNA virus, COVID-19, initially discovered in China, is now spreading globally. This poses a serious threat that needs to be addressed immediately. Genome analysis of SARS-CoV-2 has revealed its close relation to SARS-coronavirus along with few changes in its spike protein. The spike protein aids in receptor binding and viral entry within the host and therefore represents a potential target for vaccine and therapeutic development. In the current study, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was explored for potential immunogenic epitopes to design multi-epitope vaccine constructs. The S1 and S2 domains of spike proteins were analyzed, and two vaccine constructs were prioritized with T-cell and B-cell epitopes. We adapted a comprehensive predictive framework to provide novel insights into immunogenic epitopes of spike proteins, which can further be evaluated as potential vaccine candidates against COVID-19. Prioritized epitopes were then modeled using linkers and adjuvants, and respective 3D models were constructed to evaluate their physiochemical properties and their possible interactions with ACE2, HLA Superfamily alleles, TLR2, and TLR4.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , HLA Antigens/chemistry , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Models, Chemical , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10895, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629396

ABSTRACT

In the past two decades, 7 coronaviruses have infected the human population, with two major outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in the year 2002 and 2012, respectively. Currently, the entire world is facing a pandemic of another coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, with a high fatality rate. The spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates entry of virus into the host cell and is one of the most important antigenic determinants, making it a potential candidate for a vaccine. In this study, we have computationally designed a multi-epitope vaccine using spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. The overall quality of the candidate vaccine was validated in silico and Molecular Dynamics Simulation confirmed the stability of the designed vaccine. Docking studies revealed stable interactions of the vaccine with Toll-Like Receptors and MHC Receptors. The in silico cloning and codon optimization supported the proficient expression of the designed vaccine in E. coli expression system. The efficiency of the candidate vaccine to trigger an effective immune response was assessed by an in silico immune simulation. The computational analyses suggest that the designed multi-epitope vaccine is structurally stable which can induce specific immune responses and thus, can be a potential vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/metabolism
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