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1.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 8, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serine protease inhibitor nafamostat has been proposed as a treatment for COVID-19, by inhibiting TMPRSS2-mediated viral cell entry. Nafamostat has been shown to have other, immunomodulatory effects, which may be beneficial for treatment, however animal models of ssRNA virus infection are lacking. In this study, we examined the potential of the dual TLR7/8 agonist R848 to mimic the host response to an ssRNA virus infection and the associated behavioural response. In addition, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of nafamostat in this model. METHODS: CD-1 mice received an intraperitoneal injection of R848 (200 µg, prepared in DMSO, diluted 1:10 in saline) or diluted DMSO alone, and an intravenous injection of either nafamostat (100 µL, 3 mg/kg in 5% dextrose) or 5% dextrose alone. Sickness behaviour was determined by temperature, food intake, sucrose preference test, open field and forced swim test. Blood and fresh liver, lung and brain were collected 6 h post-challenge to measure markers of peripheral and central inflammation by blood analysis, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. RESULTS: R848 induced a robust inflammatory response, as evidenced by increased expression of TNF, IFN-γ, CXCL1 and CXCL10 in the liver, lung and brain, as well as a sickness behaviour phenotype. Exogenous administration of nafamostat suppressed the hepatic inflammatory response, significantly reducing TNF and IFN-γ expression, but had no effect on lung or brain cytokine production. R848 administration depleted circulating leukocytes, which was restored by nafamostat treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that R848 administration provides a useful model of ssRNA virus infection, which induces inflammation in the periphery and CNS, and virus infection-like illness. In turn, we show that nafamostat has a systemic anti-inflammatory effect in the presence of the TLR7/8 agonist. Therefore, the results indicate that nafamostat has anti-inflammatory actions, beyond its ability to inhibit TMPRSS2, that might potentiate its anti-viral actions in pathologies such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Benzamidines , Guanidines , Inflammation/drug therapy , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors , Toll-Like Receptor 7/immunology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Benzamidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Guanidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Illness Behavior/drug effects , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Male , Mice , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 637-646, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the effects of COVID-19, a vaccine is urgently needed. BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine formulated with a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist molecule adsorbed to alum (Algel-IMDG) or alum (Algel). METHODS: We did a double-blind, multicentre, randomised, controlled phase 1 trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of BBV152 at 11 hospitals across India. Healthy adults aged 18-55 years who were deemed healthy by the investigator were eligible. Individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and/or serology tests were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either one of three vaccine formulations (3 µg with Algel-IMDG, 6 µg with Algel-IMDG, or 6 µg with Algel) or an Algel only control vaccine group. Block randomisation was done with a web response platform. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment group allocation. Two intramuscular doses of vaccines were administered on day 0 (the day of randomisation) and day 14. Primary outcomes were solicited local and systemic reactogenicity events at 2 h and 7 days after vaccination and throughout the full study duration, including serious adverse events. Secondary outcome was seroconversion (at least four-fold increase from baseline) based on wild-type virus neutralisation. Cell-mediated responses were evaluated by intracellular staining and ELISpot. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04471519). FINDINGS: Between July 13 and 30, 2020, 827 participants were screened, of whom 375 were enrolled. Among the enrolled participants, 100 each were randomly assigned to the three vaccine groups, and 75 were randomly assigned to the control group (Algel only). After both doses, solicited local and systemic adverse reactions were reported by 17 (17%; 95% CI 10·5-26·1) participants in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG group, 21 (21%; 13·8-30·5) in the 6 µg with Algel-IMDG group, 14 (14%; 8·1-22·7) in the 6 µg with Algel group, and ten (10%; 6·9-23·6) in the Algel-only group. The most common solicited adverse events were injection site pain (17 [5%] of 375 participants), headache (13 [3%]), fatigue (11 [3%]), fever (nine [2%]), and nausea or vomiting (seven [2%]). All solicited adverse events were mild (43 [69%] of 62) or moderate (19 [31%]) and were more frequent after the first dose. One serious adverse event of viral pneumonitis was reported in the 6 µg with Algel group, unrelated to the vaccine. Seroconversion rates (%) were 87·9, 91·9, and 82·8 in the 3 µg with Algel-IMDG, 6 µg with Algel-IMDG, and 6 µg with Algel groups, respectively. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in a subset of 16 participants from both Algel-IMDG groups. INTERPRETATION: BBV152 led to tolerable safety outcomes and enhanced immune responses. Both Algel-IMDG formulations were selected for phase 2 immunogenicity trials. Further efficacy trials are warranted. FUNDING: Bharat Biotech International.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 8/agonists , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111794, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263229

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is the causative agent of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Lower production of type I and III interferons and higher levels of inflammatory mediators upon SARS-CoV2 infection contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis. Optimal interferon production and controlled inflammation are essential to limit COVID-19 pathogenesis. However, the aggravated inflammatory response observed in COVID-19 patients causes severe damage to the host and frequently advances to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) signaling pathways play a central role in regulating induction of interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory mediators in dendritic cells. Controlled inflammation is possible through regulation of TLR mediated response without influencing interferon production to reduce COVID-19 pathogenesis. This review focuses on inflammatory mediators that contribute to pathogenic effects and the role of TLR pathways in the induction of interferon and inflammatory mediators and their contribution to COVID-19 pathogenesis. We conclude that potential TLR7/8 agonists inducing antiviral interferon response and controlling inflammation are important therapeutic options to effectively eliminate SARS-CoV2 induced pathogenesis. Ongoing and future studies may provide additional evidence on their safety and efficacy to treat COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 8/physiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 8/agonists
4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(17): 9467-9473, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037522

ABSTRACT

The search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality because of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. Here we describe an amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile. It is water-soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration through binding to albumin, affording localized innate immune activation and reduction in systemic inflammation. The adjuvanticity of IMDQ-PEG-CHOL was validated in a licensed vaccine setting (quadrivalent influenza vaccine) and an experimental trimeric recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine, showing robust IgG2a and IgG1 antibody titers in mice that could neutralize viral infection in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cholesterol/analogs & derivatives , Cholesterol/immunology , Cholesterol/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Imidazoles/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Membrane Glycoproteins/agonists , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Quinolines/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 8/agonists
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110202, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741421

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptor 7 is critical in recognition of single strand RNA viruses, including SARS CoV-2, and generation of anti-viral immunity. Coronaviruses evolved strategies to dampen the host immunity. Herein, we discuss the potential use of TLR7 agonists in the early stages of COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Imiquimod/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Imiquimod/administration & dosage , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Models, Immunological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Cream
6.
Environ Res ; 188: 109858, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611836

ABSTRACT

According to numerous recent publications, the COVID-19 patients have lymphopenia, higher infection-related biomarkers and several elevated inflammatory cytokines (i.e. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin IL-2R and IL-6). The total number of B cells, T cells and NK cells are significantly decreased. RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2 included, hit the innate immune system in order to cause infection, through TLRs 3, 7 and 8. Imiquimod is an immune-stimulator that activates TLR 7 and can be used to enhance the innate and adaptive immunity. Preclinical and clinical trials are proposed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Imiquimod/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Adaptive Immunity , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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