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1.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 235: 111-119, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709798

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the outcomes of using an internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap and the conventional ILM peel technique for small- or medium-sized full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) repair. DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Eyes with an FTMH ≤400 µm that underwent vitrectomy with a single-layer inverted ILM flap (flap group, 55 eyes) or an ILM peel (peel group, 62 eyes) were enrolled. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements were obtained preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Primary hole closure was achieved in 54 (98%) and 60 (97%) eyes in the flap and peel groups, respectively. The preoperative and postoperative 12-month BCVA values were comparable between the groups but were significantly better in the flap than in the peel group at 1 month (mean ± SD logMAR: 0.83 ± 0.43 vs 1.14 ± 0.50; P = .001), 3 months (0.58 ± 0.33 vs 0.82 ± 0.43; P = .002), and 6 months (0.56 ± 0.32 vs. 0.72 ± 0.48; P = .028). In the flap group, foveal gliosis was less common than in the peel group at 1 month (P = .030), and restored external limiting membrane and interdigitation zone was more common at 3 months (P = .046 and P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The single-layer ILM flap and conventional ILM peel techniques both closed FTMHs and improved vision. ILM flaps were associated with better visual outcomes up to 6 months postoperatively and should be considered in FTMHs ≤400 µm.


Subject(s)
Retinal Perforations , Basement Membrane/surgery , Humans , Retinal Perforations/diagnosis , Retinal Perforations/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy/methods
2.
Retina ; 42(3): 465-475, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706662

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe clinical and ophthalmologic features and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease-19 with retinal vascular occlusions. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter case series and PubMed review of cases reported from March 2020 to September 2021. Outcome measures are as follows: type of occlusion, treatments, best-corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness on optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were identified. Fifteen patients with a median age of 39 (30-67) years were included in the multicenter study. Vascular occlusions included central retinal vein occlusion (12 eyes), branch retinal vein occlusion (4 eyes), and central retinal artery occlusion (2 eyes). Three cases were bilateral. Baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 20/45 (no light perception-20/20). Baseline central macular thickness was 348.64 (±83) µm. Nine eyes received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, dexamethasone intravitreal implant, or both. Final best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 (no light perception-20/20), and central macular thickness was 273.7 ± 68 µm (follow-up of 19.6 ± 6 weeks). Among the 24 cases from the literature review, retinal vein occlusion was the predominant lesion. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar to those found in our series. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease-19-associated retinal vascular occlusions tend to occur in individuals younger than 60 years. Retinal vein occlusion is the most frequent occlusive event, and outcomes are favorable in most cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Implants , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Visual Acuity/physiology
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(11): 3297-3301, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700007

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study and compare the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with the internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in the eyes with recalcitrant diabetic macular edema (DME) with and without vitreomacular traction. METHODS: A comparative prospective interventional study was undertaken in which group 1 included 45 eyes of 45 patients with DME with vitreomacular tractional component and group 2 included 45 eyes of 45 patients with recalcitrant DME without a tractional component. Both groups underwent standard PPV with ILM peeling. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. The parameters evaluated were changes in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) parameters, and occurrence of any intraoperative/postoperative surgical complication. RESULTS: The mean CMT improved significantly from 540.6 and 490.2 µm at the baseline to 292.5 and 270.6 µm at 6 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean BCVA logMAR improved from 0.78 ± 0.21 to 0.62 ± 0.22 in group 1 and 0.84 ± 0.19 to 0.65 ± 0.21 in group 2 at 6 months follow-up which was not statistically significant. The improvement in the mfERG was seen in group 2 as a significant increase in P1 wave amplitude in ring 2 (2-5°) (P < 0.004) and a significant decrease in P 1 wave implicit time in ring 1 (central 2°) (P < 0.001). None of the eyes suffered from the loss of BCVA or any major surgical complication in either group. CONCLUSION: PPV in recalcitrant DME provides good anatomical outcomes and the results are comparable in DME with and without a tractional component.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy , Epiretinal Membrane , Macular Edema , Basement Membrane/surgery , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery , Epiretinal Membrane/surgery , Humans , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Macular Edema/surgery , Prospective Studies , Retina , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Traction , Visual Acuity , Vitrectomy
4.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 452, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report one case of rare acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) in an elderly patient with hypertension and one case of common paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) in a patient with diabetes mellitus to illustrate the difference between the two diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes two cases, one involving AMN and the other PAMM. The first patient was a 70-year-old man complaining of blurred vision for 3 days. He was examined with fundus photography, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT); a diagnosis of AMN was established. The second patient was a 50-year-old woman who complained of decreased vision during the past month. She had had diabetes mellitus for 6 years. From the ophthalmic imaging examination, the patient was diagnosed with PAMM and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Both patients were treated with drugs for improving microcirculation and neurotrophic drugs; however, there was no significant improvement in visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: AMN is more common in young patients and is rarely observed in elderly patients with systemic diseases. The OCTA examination has an auxiliary diagnostic value for deep retinal capillary network ischaemia. Meanwhile, OCT examination has important imaging value in differentiating AMN from PAMM and can help avoid missed diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Macular Degeneration , Retinal Diseases , White Dot Syndromes , Acute Disease , Aged , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence
6.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102674, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the differences in retinal vascular structure and choroidal thickness between the active disease and post-recovery periods in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study included 30 eyes from 30 patients with severe COVID-19 and 30 eyes of 30 sex-matched healthy controls. Central macular thickness (CMT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) and retinal vascular changes of patients were measured after positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (where the patient had COVID-19-related symptoms) and then three months after two negative PCRs. Laboratory parameters, including C-reactive protein and d-dimer levels, were also recorded. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 47.90 ± 9.06 years in patients group, 49.07 ± 8.41 years in control goups (p = 0.467). In terms of choroidal thicknesses subfoveal, nasal and temporal region were significantly higher in the active disease period than control group (p = 0.019, p = 0.036, p = 0.003, respectively). When the after recovery period was compared with the control group in terms of choroidal thickness, although the choroidal thickness was higher in all regions, this difference was not found statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in CMT between groups (p = 0.506).The mean venous and arterial wall thicknesses were significantly higher in the active period than after recovery (p = 0.023, p = 0.013, respectively) but there were no differences between after recovery and control groups in the pairwise comparison (p = 0.851, p = 0.715, respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19, there are changes in thickness of the choroid and retinal vessel walls. While vascular wall thickness increases due to inflammation, the absence of lumen changes may be associated with hemodynamic variables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Adult , Choroid , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Photochemotherapy/methods , Prospective Studies , Retinal Vessels , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
7.
Adv Ther ; 39(4): 1568-1581, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530424

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To explore the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the stability of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) receiving the treat and extend (T&E) or the pro re nata (PRN) treatment regimen and to identify indicators that may predict the disease stability of nAMD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with nAMD treated at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University whose treatment schedule was interrupted at least once between 1 February and 31 May 2020. The demographic and clinical characteristics, including the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) features, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), interval between the last injection and the beginning of the pandemic, and the number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections, were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 209 stable patients with nAMD (122 eyes received the T&E regimen; 87 eyes received the PRN regimen) were identified. Compared to those who received the PRN regimen, the patients who received the T&E regimen were more stable during the first visit after COVID-19 (53.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.004), the BCVA was significantly better (58.5 letters vs. 56 letters, P = 0.006), and the CRT fluctuated only slightly (15 µm vs. 35 µm, P = 0.001). Furthermore, a multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that stable patients with nAMD with type 1 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) (OR 2.493 [95% CI 1.179-5.272], compared with type 2 CNV; P = 0.017; OR 2.912 [95% CI 1.133-7.485], compared with retinal angiomatous proliferation; P = 0.026) or with pigment epithelial detachment (PED) were more likely to remain stable when treatment was interrupted (OR 0.392 [95% CI 0.181-0.852], compared with no PED; P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Compared to patients who received the PRN treatment regimen, stable patients with nAMD who received the T&E treatment regimen could better maintain stability when the treatments were suddenly interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, patients with type 1 CNV or patients with PED were more likely to remain stable. At present, the COVID-19 pandemic is becoming increasingly normalized, and the T&E regimen can become a more advanced treatment option for patients undergoing therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Choroidal Neovascularization , Macular Degeneration , Retinal Detachment , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/complications , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity , Wet Macular Degeneration/complications , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy
8.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 21(6): 782-786, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524703

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of  COVID-19 on central foveal and choroidal thicknesses. Thirty-two patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test who received outpatient treatment within the previous two months and 32 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients requiring hospitalization due to COVID-19 as well as the patients who received either intensive care support and/or antiplatelet therapy, smokers, or patients with systemic or ocular diseases were excluded from the study. After full ophthalmological examination, central foveal and choroidal thicknesses were evaluated by using optical coherence tomography. Statistical analysis of the study data demonstrated no significant difference between the groups in terms of age or gender (p>0.05). There was also no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of central foveal thickness, central choroidal thickness, or nasal 500, nasal 1500, temporal 500, or temporal 500-micron distances (p>0.05 for all parameters). Choroidal and retinal thicknesses were not affected in patients with recent mild COVID 19 without comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Choroid/pathology , Fovea Centralis/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fovea Centralis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Young Adult
9.
Acta Diabetol ; 59(4): 501-508, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520359

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To report the effect of simultaneous intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX) and aflibercept for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: This retrospective analysis of an open-label, multicenter, consecutive case series included 102 eyes of 81 patients with DME. Patients were selected into two groups. The control group consisted of 50 eyes treated with aflibercept alone, and the combination group consisted of 52 eyes treated with simultaneous DEX implant and aflibercept injection. The primary endpoints were changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) from baseline to month 6. The secondary endpoint was the interval of retreatment. RESULTS: Baseline BCVA increased and CRT decreased at 6 months in both groups. Pseudophakic eyes in the combination group exhibited significantly greater BCVA improvement compared with phakic eyes (p = 0.031). Fewer intravitreal treatments were required for eyes treated with combination therapy than for those treated with aflibercept alone (1.56 ± 0.54 vs. 4.04 ± 1.26, p < .0001), with a mean retreatment interval of 3.66 ± 0.69 months. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous intravitreal DEX and aflibercept achieved non-inferior improvement of visual and anatomic outcomes compared with aflibercept alone for DME, but exhibited a significantly longer treatment interval and superior visual outcome in pseudophakic eyes. This therapeutic approach is considered a valid strategy for treating DME in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Macular Edema , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Drug Implants , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema/complications , Macular Edema/etiology , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
12.
Retina ; 41(4): 701-705, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe our managing strategy for COVID-19 emergency, to evaluate the adherence to intravitreal treatment (AtT) rate during the outbreak in a referral hospital in Milan, and to correlate it with patients' clinical features. METHODS: The AtT rate of patients with scheduled intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 outbreak from February 23, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was compared with the previous trimester and with March 2019. The impact of age, sex, visual function, and diagnosis on the AtT rate during unlocked/locked weeks (from March 8th) was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 650 consecutive patients with scheduled intravitreal injections, the AtT rate during the COVID-19 outbreak was 0.37. This was significantly lower compared with AtT registered in the previous trimester (0.92) and in the same weeks in 2019 (0.90) (both P < 0.001). Patients adherent to treatment were significantly younger (P < 0.001) and had a lower best-corrected visual acuity in the fellow eye (P = 0.046). During the lockdown weeks, the AtT rate was significantly lower than in the two unlocked weeks (0.19 vs. 0.73, P < 0.001). In addition, the AtT rate in patients classified as "emergent" during the lockdown weeks was 0.60. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results can help the retina specialist community to foresee this unique scenario and to develop successful management strategies.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/epidemiology , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Macular Edema/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnostic imaging , Choroidal Neovascularization/physiopathology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intravitreal Injections , Italy/epidemiology , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Male , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology , Wet Macular Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Wet Macular Degeneration/physiopathology
13.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(10): 1484-1490, 2021 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509999

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can result in many ocular manifestations. We report a rare case of bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy post-infection with COVID-19 in a 38-year-old woman who presented with bilateral blurred vision 1 month after infection with COVID-19. She reported fever, cough, and shortness of breath and was COVID-PCR positive. During her 10-day hospital stay, she received oxygen, antibiotics, heparin and corticosteroids intravenously and then orally. After her recovery from COVID-19, the patient developed progressive visual loss in both eyes: her corrected visual acuity was 3/10 in both eyes, the anterior segment was normal, and the vitreous was clear. Fundus examination, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography showed bilateral serous retinal detachments. Her course was characterized by improvement in visual acuity and regression of the retinal detachments. Central serous chorioretinopathy can occur after COVID-19 infection due to the administration of corticosteroids; thus, ophthalmologic examination is essential to detect ocular involvement as early as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy , Adult , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/diagnosis , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy/etiology , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Fundus Oculi , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
14.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(4): 1275-1288, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess for histopathological changes within the retina and the choroid and determine the long-term sequelae of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Eyes from seven COVID-19-positive and six similar age-matched control donors with a negative test for SARS-CoV-2 were assessed. Globes were evaluated ex vivo with macroscopic, SLO and OCT imaging. Macula and peripheral regions were processed for Epon embedding and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Fundus analysis shows hemorrhagic spots and increased vitreous debris in several of the COVID-19 eyes compared to the controls. OCT-based measurements indicated an increased trend in retinal thickness in the COVID-19 eyes; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Histology of the retina showed presence of hemorrhages and central cystoid degeneration in several of the donors. Whole mount analysis of the retina labeled with markers showed changes in retinal microvasculature, increased inflammation, and gliosis in the COVID-19 eyes compared to the controls. The choroidal vasculature displayed localized changes in density and signs of increased inflammation in the COVID-19 samples. CONCLUSIONS: In situ analysis of the retinal tissue suggests that there are severe subclinical abnormalities that could be detected in the COVID-19 eyes. This study provides a rationale for evaluating the ocular physiology of patients that have recovered from COVID-19 infections to further understand the long-term effects caused by this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macula Lutea , COVID-19/complications , Choroid/pathology , Gliosis/diagnosis , Gliosis/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/pathology , Retina , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
16.
J AAPOS ; 25(6): 325.e1-325.e6, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472012

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate retinal vascular changes in children who have recovered from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare the results with age-matched healthy children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional case-control study, children 6-18 years of age with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with historic healthy controls. All participants underwent ophthalmological examination, including fundus photography and OCTA of the macular region and optic disk. COVID-19 children were examined 4-8 weeks after COVID-19 diagnoses. Demographic data, medical history, and COVID-19 symptoms were noted. OCTA parameters in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) were analyzed according to ETDRS sectors and peripapillary quadrants. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were included: 27 recovered COVID-19 children and 45 controls. Mean age for cases was 11.96 ± 3.8 years (18 females [66%]); for controls, 11.02 ± 2.0 years (29 females [64%]). Macular OCTA of the SCP showed a significant increase in retinal vessel density (VD) in recovered COVID-19 children compared with healthy controls in the inner ring (P = 0.001). Macular perfusion density (mPD) was also increased in the inner ring (P = 0.001). Peripapillary OCTA evidenced a significant higher flux index (FI) in all four quadrants (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Recovered COVID-19 children present increased retinal VD, mPD, and peripapillary FI shortly after recovery. Since the retinal vasculature is considered a unique window to assess microvascular changes, these findings may represent a potential in vivo biomarker of vascular abnormalities in COVID-19 children in other organs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(6): 1234-1237, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470053

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To present an unusual case of recurrent multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) following the coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) vaccination. METHODS: Review of the clinical, laboratory, photographic, and angiographic records of a patient with MEWDS. RESULTS: A 49-year-old female who had MEWDS nine years ago presented to our clinic with blurred vision in her left eye. These symptoms occurred 2 days following Covid-19 vaccination. Fundus examinations and diagnostic testing were consistent with recurrent MEWDS. CONCLUSION: While rare, MEWDS can reoccur following Covid-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , White Dot Syndromes/etiology , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Tomography, Optical Coherence , White Dot Syndromes/diagnosis , White Dot Syndromes/drug therapy
19.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(3): 771-779, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To quantify the longitudinal changes of the macular microvasculature and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters in patients recovered from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) analysis. METHODS: This observational, longitudinal study was performed on patients recovered from COVID-19. The OCTA images were recorded at baseline and after 1 and 3 months at the follow-up examination. Vessel density (VD) of the retinal superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), as well as the area of the FAZ of patients who had recovered from COVID-19, were measured. RESULTS: In total, 36 eyes of 18 patients (62.2% female) with a mean age of 34.5 ± 7.5 years old were included. Regarding SCP, while the VDs of the whole image, fovea, and parafovea were comparable at different time points, the mean VDs in inferior hemifield, as well as superior and inferior regions of perifovea, underwent significant reductions at month 3, compared to the baseline. In DCP, the mean of VD in the whole image was 54.3 ± 2.7 at the first visit which significantly decreased to 52.1 ± 3.8(P = 0.003) and 51.4 ± 2.7(P = 0.001) after 1 and 3 months, respectively. The VDs in all regions of parafovea and perifovea revealed a significant reduction after 1 and 3 months, compared to the first visit. The mean FAZ area was 0.27 ± 0.08 mm2, 0.26 ± 0.08 mm2, and 0.27 ± 0.08 mm2 at the baseline, month 1, and month 3, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on the results, the patients who had recovered from COVID-19 had a progressive decrease of VD at the follow-up visit 3 months after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Adult , Female , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 36: 102577, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458876

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the short-term effect of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) on the retinal capillary network and choroid in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study included 19 recovered COVID-19 pediatric patients and 20 healthy children. Macular thickness, choroidal thickness, vessel density (VD), perfusion density (PD), and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) values were obtained. Central vessel and perfusion densities were measured at the central 6-mm area, and the values were compared among three subgroups according to location. RESULTS: The mean ages of patients and controls were 12. 42 ± 3.3 years and 13.35 ± 1.2 years, respectively. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of inner, outer, and full VD, as well as inner and full PD. No significant differences in center VD and PD were observed between groups. Although it was not evident in analysis of choroidal values, inflammatory sites were thickened. FAZ area significantly differed between groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Retinal microvascularity was impaired in the acute phase of disease in recovered COVID-19 patients aged 10-15 years. However, the microvascularity impairment was subclinical. The choroid was thickened because of inflammation during the acute phase of disease. pediatric COVID-19 patients should undergo follow up via optical coherence tomography angiography to detect subclinical and asymptomatic retinal changes. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photochemotherapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Perfusion , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents , Prospective Studies , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
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