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1.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(2): 279-288, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the potential characteristics of convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China based on emerging clinical tongue data and guide the treatment and recovery of COVID-19 patients from the perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine tongue diagnosis. METHODS: In this study, we developed and validated radiomics-based and lab-based methods as a novel approach to provide individualized pretreatment evaluation by analyzing different features to mine the orderliness behind tongue data of convalescent patients. In addition, this study analyzed the tongue features of convalescent patients from clinical tongue qualitative values, including thick and thin, fur, peeling, fat and lean, tooth marks and cracked, and greasy and putrid fur. RESULTS: We included 2164 tongue images in total (34% from day 0, 35.4% from day 14 and 30.6% from day 28) from convalescent patients. The significance results are shown as follows. Firstly, as the recovery time prolongs, the L average values of tongue and coat decrease from 60.21 to 57.18 and from 60.06 to 57.03 respectively. Secondly, the decrease of abnormality rate of tongue coat, included greasy tongue fur, putrid fur, teeth-mark, thick-thin fur, are of significant statistical difference ( < 0.05). Thirdly, the average value of gray-level co-occurrence matrices increases from 0.173 to 0.194, the average value of entropy increases from 0.606 to 0.665, the average value of inverse difference normalized decrease from 0.981 to 0.979, and the average value of dissimilarity decrease from 0.1576 to 0.1828. The details of other radiomics features are describe in results section. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiment shows that patients in different recovery periods have a relationship with quantitative values of tongue images, including L color space of the tongue and coat radiomics features analysis. This relationship can help clinical doctors master the recovery and health of patients as soon as possible and improve their understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying the dynamic changes and mechanisms underlying COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Tongue/diagnostic imaging
2.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776141

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a recently emerged disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, can present with different degrees of severity and a large variety of signs and symptoms. The oral manifestations of COVID-19 often involve the tongue, with loss of taste being one of the most common symptoms of the disease. This study aimed to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and assess possible morphological and immunopathological alterations in the lingual tissue of patients who died with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sixteen cadavers from 8 SARS-CoV-2 positive (COVID-19+) and 8 negative (COVID-19-) subjects provided 16 tongues, that were biopsied. Samples underwent molecular analysis through Real-Time RT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Lingual papillae were harvested and processed for histological analysis and for immunohistochemical evaluation for ACE2, IFN-γ and factor VIII. Real-Time RT-PCR revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in filiform, foliate, and circumvallate papillae in 6 out of 8 COVID-19+ subjects while all COVID-19- samples resulted negative. Histology showed a severe inflammation of COVID-19+ papillae with destruction of the taste buds. ACE2 and IFN-γ resulted downregulated in COVID-19+ and no differences were evidenced for factor VIII between the two groups. The virus was detectable in most COVID-19+ tongues. An inflammatory damage to the lingual papillae, putatively mediated by ACE2 and IFN-γ in tongues from COVID-19+ cadavers, was observed. Further investigations are needed to confirm these findings and deepen the association between taste disorders and inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tongue , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cadaver , Factor VIII , Humans , Inflammation , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/pathology , Tongue/virology
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 287-294, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study assesses and compares the performance of different swab types and specimen collection sites for SARS-CoV-2 testing, to reference standard real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture. METHODS: Symptomatic adults with COVID-19 who visited routine COVID-19 testing sites used spun polyester and FLOQSwabs to self-collect specimens from the anterior nares and tongue. We evaluated the self-collected specimen from anterior nares and tongue swabs for the nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S) antigen of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and then compared these results with results from RT-PCR and viral cultures from nurse-collected nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Diagnostic sensitivity was highest for RT-PCR testing conducted using specimens from the anterior nares collected on FLOQSwabs (84%; 95% CI 68-94%) and spun polyester swabs (82%; 95% CI 66-92%), compared to RT-PCR tests conducted using specimens from nasopharyngeal swabs. Relative to viral culture from nasopharyngeal swabs, diagnostic sensitivities were higher for RT-PCR and antigen testing of anterior nares swabs (91-100%) than that of tongue swabs (18-81%). Antigen testing of anterior nares swabs had higher sensitivities against viral culture (91%) than against nasopharyngeal RT-PCR (38-70%). All investigational tests had high specificity compared with nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. Spun polyester swabs are equally effective as FLOQSwabs for anterior nasal RT-PCR testing. CONCLUSIONS: We found that anterior nares specimens were more sensitive than tongue swab specimens or antigen testing for detecting SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Thus, self-collected anterior nares specimens may represent an alternative method for diagnostic SARS-CoV-2 testing in some settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Tongue
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114905, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611829

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongue coating has been used as an effective signature of health in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The level of greasy coating closely relates to the strength of dampness or pathogenic qi in TCM theory. Previous empirical studies and our systematic review have shown the relation between greasy coating and various diseases, including gastroenteropathy, coronary heart disease, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the objective and intelligent greasy coating and related diseases recognition methods are still lacking. The construction of the artificial intelligent tongue recognition models may provide important syndrome diagnosis and efficacy evaluation methods, and contribute to the understanding of ethnopharmacological mechanisms based on TCM theory. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to develop an artificial intelligent model for greasy tongue coating recognition and explore its application in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we developed greasy tongue coating recognition networks (GreasyCoatNet) using convolutional neural network technique and a relatively large (N = 1486) set of tongue images from standard devices. Tests were performed using both cross-validation procedures and a new dataset (N = 50) captured by common cameras. Besides, the accuracy and time efficiency comparisons between the GreasyCoatNet and doctors were also conducted. Finally, the model was transferred to recognize the greasy coating level of COVID-19. RESULTS: The overall accuracy in 3-level greasy coating classification with cross-validation was 88.8% and accuracy on new dataset was 82.0%, indicating that GreasyCoatNet can obtain robust greasy coating estimates from diverse datasets. In addition, we conducted user study to confirm that our GreasyCoatNet outperforms TCM practitioners, yet only consuming roughly 1% of doctors' examination time. Critically, we demonstrated that GreasyCoatNet, along with transfer learning, can construct more proper classifier of COVID-19, compared to directly training classifier on patient versus control datasets. We, therefore, derived a disease-specific deep learning network by finetuning the generic GreasyCoatNet. CONCLUSIONS: Our framework may provide an important research paradigm for differentiating tongue characteristics, diagnosing TCM syndrome, tracking disease progression, and evaluating intervention efficacy, exhibiting its unique potential in clinical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Ethnopharmacology/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Tongue , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Qi , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/microbiology , Tongue/pathology
5.
J Clin Virol ; 146: 105053, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561863

ABSTRACT

Throughout the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the recommended sample type for initial diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been a nasopharyngeal swab. Shortages in swabs and difficulties in obtaining nasopharyngeal swabs in certain patient groups has prompted research into alternative specimen types for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to assess how 'simply collected' saliva along with tongue swabs and buccal swabs preformed as an alternative specimen type for SARS-CoV-2 detection. It was observed that saliva samples allowed for the detection of 85.3% of positive patients, tongue swabs allowed for the detection of 67.6% of positive patients and buccal swabs allowed for detection of 20.8% of positive patients, when compared to nasopharyngeal swabs. From this data, it could be concluded that using simple saliva collection can provide a less invasive and reliable alternative method for the detection of SARS-CoV2 particularly in those patients where invasive sampling is difficult and where regular repeat testing is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral , Saliva , Specimen Handling , Tongue
6.
Pract Neurol ; 21(6): 518-520, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526522

ABSTRACT

Loss of sense of taste (hypogeusia) involving a part of the tongue can follow acute stroke. We describe a woman with a small right thalamic acute infarct causing bilateral (mainly left-sided) hypogeusia. Her problem remains sufficiently severe to cause distress and nutritional deficit. The anatomical distribution of her problem-cheiro-oral syndrome with concurrent hypogeusia-suggested involvement of adjacent relevant thalamic fibres. We address key considerations in examining taste in research and in practice and discuss issues to address in people with hypogeusia, including swallow deficits, psychological elements of the poststroke condition and nutrition. Dietetic management should include optimising taste stimuli and nutritional support. Introducing more detailed taste assessments into standard practice would likely improve stroke unit care.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Cerebral Infarction/complications , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Taste , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Tongue
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512311

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of oral health education using a mobile app (OHEMA) on the oral health and swallowing-related quality of life (SWAL-QoL) of the elderly population in a community-based integrated care project (CICP). Forty elderly individuals in the CICP were randomized into intervention and control groups. OHEMA provided information on customized oral health care management, oral exercises, and intraoral and extraoral massage methods for 50 min/session, once a week, for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention surveys assessed the unstimulated salivary flow rate, subjective oral dryness, tongue pressure, and SWAL-QoL, which were analyzed using ANCOVA and repeated measures ANOVA. In the intervention group, tongue pressure increased significantly from pre- (17.75) to post-intervention (27.24) (p < 0.001), and subjective oral dryness decreased from pre- (30.75) to post-intervention (18.50). The unstimulated salivary flow rate had a higher mean score in the intervention group (7.19) than in the control group (5.04) (p < 0.001). The SWAL-QoL significantly improved from pre- (152.10) to post-intervention (171.50) in the intervention group (p < 0.001) but did not change significantly in the control group (p > 0.05). OHEMA appears to be a useful tool for oral health education for the elderly as it improved the SWAL-QoL, with increased tongue pressure and reduced oral dryness.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Mobile Applications , Aged , Deglutition , Health Education , Humans , Oral Health , Pressure , Quality of Life , Tongue
10.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 8(1): 117-122, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Besides angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), an active involvement of proteases (FURIN and/or TMPRSS2) is important for cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, a simultaneous expression profiling of entry proteins in a tissue might provide a better risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection as compared to individual proteins. In an attempt to understand the relative susceptibility of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lesions as compared to the normal oral mucosa (NOM) for SARS-CoV-2 attachment/entry, this study examined the mRNA and protein expression profiles of ACE2, FURIN, and TMPRSS2 in the corresponding tissues using public transcriptomic and proteomics datasets. METHODS AND METHODS: Public transcriptomic and proteomics datasets (the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)/the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), the Human Protein Atlas (HPA), and two independent microarray datasets) were used to examine the expression profiles of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN in NOM and OSCC. RESULTS: ACE2, TMPRSS2, and FURIN mRNAs were detected in NOM, however, at lower levels as compared to other body tissues. Except for moderate up-regulation of FURIN, expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA were unchanged/down-regulated in OSCC as compared to the NOM. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that NOM may serve as a possible site for SARS-CoV-2 attachment, however, to a lesser extent as compared to organs with higher expression levels of the SARS-CoV-2 entry proteins. However, the evidence is lacking to suggest that expression status of entry proteins predisposes OSCC lesions to additional risk for SARS-CoV-2 attachment/entry as compared to NOM.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Furin/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Furin/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Mouth Mucosa , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Tongue/metabolism
11.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(4): 387-390, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339787
12.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 287-289, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Prone positioning is frequently used in patients intubated for COVID-19-related lung injury to improve oxygenation. At our institution, we observed severe tongue edema develop in some of these patients. Hence, we sought to determine the incidence of tongue edema in this cohort and whether prone positioning was a risk factor associated with this complication. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A single-system retrospective cohort study of patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 who subsequently developed clinically notable tongue edema from March 13 to July 5, 2020. RESULTS: 260 patients were intubated for COVID-19-related respiratory failure during the study period. 158 patients (60.8%) underwent at least one episode of proning. Twelve patients in total (4.6%) developed clinically significant tongue edema. Eleven of the twelve patients (91.7%) who developed tongue edema underwent proning prior to the development of edema. Prone positioning was associated with an increased incidence of tongue edema (odds ratio [OR] 7.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-59.46, P = .027). In all proned patients who developed edema, this complication was noted during proning or shortly after supination (range, 0-4 days). Tongue edema was primarily managed with conservative measures; one patient required tracheostomy for definitive management. CONCLUSIONS: Tongue edema appears to develop in a subset of patients with COVID-19 who are intubated. It appears to be associated with prone positioning but is likely multifactorial in nature. Further investigation into its incidence and pathophysiology is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:287-289, 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glossitis/etiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Patient Positioning/adverse effects , Prone Position , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/pathology
13.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21: e0011, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1308203

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and systematize tongue color-related manifestations among patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included analysis of tongue images obtained from patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection. Evaluation of coronavirus disease severity (mild, moderate, severe, critical) was provided, considering clinical symptomatology and results of laboratorial and instrumental diagnostic methods. Each picture was analyzed considering the parameters of color of the tongue and color of the tongue plaque by two dental specialists. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate associations between the tongue color and tongue plaque color, and coronavirus disease severity. Results: The most prevalent tongue colors were pale pink, red and dark red (burgundy color). A total of 64.29% of patients with mild disease demonstrated pale pink color of the tongue. Patients with moderate coronavirus disease were characterized with the adverse trend: 62.35% of them presented with red-colored tongue, while in 37.64% of cases, the tongue was pale pink. Severe COVID-19 patients, almost in 90% of the cases, had either red or burgundy color of the tongue. Conclusion: SARS-COV-2 infection is not manifested by tongue-targeted or tongue-specific signs and features; however, coronavirus disease itself provokes changes within the tongue color and tongue plaque color similar to those registered during other internal pathologies.


Subject(s)
Tongue/abnormalities , Ukraine/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , Color
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273460

ABSTRACT

More than a year ago, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization, with the world approaching its fourth wave. During this period, vaccines were developed in a much shorter period than thought possible, with the initiation of the pertinent vaccination. However, oral cavities have come under renewed scrutiny worldwide because saliva, a mixture of salivary secretions, pharyngeal secretions, and gingival crevicular fluid, have not only been shown to contain infective viral loads, mediating the route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via droplet, aerosol, or contagion, but also used as a sample for viral RNA testing with a usefulness comparable to the nasopharyngeal swab. The oral cavity is an important portal for ingress of SARS-CoV-2, being an entryway to the bronchi, alveoli, and rest of the lower respiratory tract, causing inflammation by viral infection. Moreover, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, a host receptor for SARS-CoV-2, coupled with proteases responsible for viral entry have been found to be expressed on the tongue and other oral mucosae, suggesting that the oral cavity is the site of virus replication and propagation. Furthermore, there is a possibility that the aspiration of oral bacteria (such as periodontal pathogens) along with saliva into the lower respiratory tract may be a complicating factor for COVID-19 because chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes are known COVID-19 comorbidities with a greater risk of disease aggravation and higher death rate. These comorbidities have a strong connection to chronic periodontitis and periodontal pathogens, and an oral health management is an effective measure to prevent these comorbidities. In addition, oral bacteria, particularly periodontal pathogens, could be proinflammatory stimulants to respiratory epithelia upon its exposure to aspirated bacteria. Therefore, it may be expected that oral health management not only prevents comorbidities involved in aggravating COVID-19 but also has an effect against COVID-19 progression. This review discusses the significance of oral health management in SARS-CoV-2 infection in the era of "the new normal with COVID-19" and COVID-19 prevention with reference to the hypothetical mechanisms that the authors and the other researchers have proposed.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Tongue/metabolism , Virus Internalization
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 273, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 has devastated many parts of the world. From asymptomatic to symptomatic, the virus causes a wide spectrum of presentations. COVID-19 patients may present with oral manifestations. In Afghanistan, where COVID-19 has severely strained the health care system, much of the population lacks proper oral hygiene. This makes the oral cavity a perfect site for SARS-CoV-2 to manifest clinical signs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old male was evaluated in the Dentistry Teaching Clinic of Kabul University of Medical Sciences for a painful erosive lesion on dorsal surface of his tongue. He also complained of fever, cough, and taste alteration. He was referred to Afghan Japan Hospital for COVID-19 testing and tested positive. He was followed on for the treatment of SARS-CoV2. After 2 weeks, the patient tested negative and returned to the dentistry clinic for follow-up. Although there were no other signs of COVID-19, the painful erosive lesion on his tongue persisted. Oral evaluation were performed and the patient was advised to practice good hygiene. After 10 days, we observed an asymptomatic geographic tongue without fever and myalgias and the lesion of dorsal surface of tongue improved from severe condition to moderate. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 should be screened for symptoms and physical findings in the oral mucosa To prevent such an outcome, awareness programs need to be implemented for the diagnosis and management of clinical symptoms among patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue , Ulcer
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238494

ABSTRACT

A healthy middle-aged man presents with symptoms of dysphagia and dysphonia following an upper respiratory infection, and is diagnosed and treated for complications of pharyngitis. He presents for evaluation at a tertiary care hospital after symptoms fail to resolve, with the final diagnosis being a carotid artery dissection with compressing pseudoaneurysm. This patient's constellation of symptoms and physical examination findings are consistent with Collet-Sicard syndrome, a rare disorder caused by cranial nerve compression at the skull base. Understanding the morbidity of missing, or delaying, a diagnosis of carotid artery pathology, such as Collet-Sicard syndrome, underscores the importance of an accurate diagnosis. A review of cranial nerve anatomy, surrounding structures and potential mechanism of injury to the carotid artery are emphasised as key learning points.


Subject(s)
Cranial Nerve Diseases , Deglutition Disorders , Dysphonia , Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases , Cranial Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Dysphonia/etiology , Humans , Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Tongue
18.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 59(4): 500-501, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147363
19.
Br Dent J ; 230(3): 114, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081959
20.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 8, 2020 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997807

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that ACE2 is the main host cell receptor of 2019-nCoV and plays a crucial role in the entry of virus into the cell to cause the final infection. To investigate the potential route of 2019-nCov infection on the mucosa of oral cavity, bulk RNA-seq profiles from two public databases including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Functional Annotation of The Mammalian Genome Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (FANTOM5 CAGE) dataset were collected. RNA-seq profiling data of 13 organ types with para-carcinoma normal tissues from TCGA and 14 organ types with normal tissues from FANTOM5 CAGE were analyzed in order to explore and validate the expression of ACE2 on the mucosa of oral cavity. Further, single-cell transcriptomes from an independent data generated in-house were used to identify and confirm the ACE2-expressing cell composition and proportion in oral cavity. The results demonstrated that the ACE2 expressed on the mucosa of oral cavity. Interestingly, this receptor was highly enriched in epithelial cells of tongue. Preliminarily, those findings have explained the basic mechanism that the oral cavity is a potentially high risk for 2019-nCoV infectious susceptibility and provided a piece of evidence for the future prevention strategy in dental clinical practice as well as daily life.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Mouth Mucosa , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tongue , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/enzymology , Mouth Mucosa/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/metabolism , Tongue/virology
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