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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1016801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142350

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has brought about great impact on the global economy. Various countries have adopted different levels of spatial isolation measures to curb the spread of the epidemic. These measures not only limit the spatial flow of people and property, but also cause global anxiety and public mental health problems. Corresponding to this process, cultural demands are growing stronger and the humanistic shift in today's urban economic development also puts forward higher requirements for local culture. Historic districts are an important symbolic historical and cultural landscape of a city, and many cities regard them as important starting points for the shaping of urban characteristics and competitiveness. Taking Qingming Bridge Historical and Cultural Block in Wuxi City as an example, combined with the public's mental health needs in the context of COVID-19 and the current background of the return of humanism in urban development, and construct a more sustainable framework for the renewal and development of urban historical blocks, focusing on the integration and development of the cultural landscape and tourism in the historical block. A comprehensive analysis shows that the development of Qingming Bridge Historical and Cultural Block must be based on the comprehensive investment of "four types of resources," such as culture, land, capital, and labor, and must rely on the cooperation of the "two sectors" of culture and tourism. By earnestly respecting the above, as well as the "triple bottom line" of regional ecology, economy, and society, sustainable development can be achieved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Economic Development
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20369, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133625

ABSTRACT

Limited mobility and restrictions in social life caused by the COVID-19 pandemic changed people's recreational behavior and made them seek more contact with nature. As a result, the provision of new recreational spaces in the vicinity of cities gained importance. In conditions of social distancing, rural and suburban areas can be an attractive alternative to individual short-term tourism, satisfying the need for recreation and mental and physical health restoration of urban residents. In the study a methodology for assessing the tourist and recreational potential of the area (METPRET) concerning the recreational behaviors identified in the pandemic was proposed. It includes the Recreational Potential Index (RPI), which comprises four criteria: landscape values and socio-economic conditions; environmental protection; air quality; transportation accessibility. The application of the methodology is exemplified in the Mazovia Voivodeship, Poland. The research allows the determination of characteristics that potential recreation areas should have under pandemic conditions. The RPI makes it possible to select new rural and suburban areas attractive for short-term tourism. Designating additional recreational areas may contribute to the dispersion of users in existing green areas in cities, which is particularly important during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , Humans , Recreation , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conservation of Natural Resources
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099529

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to explore whether religious tourism activities can create a safe leisure environment and improve the well-being of the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the participants in the Baishatun Mazu pilgrimage in Taiwan as the subjects of this study. A mixed research method was used. First, statistical software and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Then the respondents' opinions were collected. Finally, a multivariate analysis method was used to discuss the results of analysis. The findings showed that the elderly respondents thought that the epidemic prevention information and leisure space planning for the pilgrimage made them feel secure. The elderly believed the scenery, religious atmosphere, and commodities en route could reduce the perception of environmental risks to tourists, relieve pressure on the brain, and increase social opportunities. Therefore, the friendlier the leisure environment around the pilgrimage, the greater the leisure satisfaction among the elderly respondents. The happier the elderly felt, the less they considered the concentration of airborne contaminants, including viruses. The better their physical and mental health was, the less likely they were to want to ask for religious goods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Satisfaction , Humans , Aged , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tourism , Pandemics , Leisure Activities/psychology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071425

ABSTRACT

The healthcare sector recognises the role of nature in mental health. The tourism sector is equipped to take people to national parks. The conservation sector gains support from visitors. Theoretical frameworks for mental health benefits from nature tourism include: tourism destinations and activities; tourist personalities and life histories; sensory and emotional components of tourist experiences; and intensity and duration of memories. Mental health deteriorated worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recovery of global economic productivity requires immediate, accessible, affordable mental health measures at national scales, and nature-based approaches provide the best option. Different countries have adopted a variety of public, private, or voluntary mechanisms. Some focus on design of activities, others on provision of facilities. Costs and implementation depend on key research questions: marginal benefits of nature tour guides or psychologists compared to self-guided nature experiences; comparisons between repeated brief visits and one-off nature holidays; effects of biodiversity, flagship species, and scenic or wilderness quality; and differences between individuals, depending on personalities, life histories, and mental health status and symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Tourism , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Travel
5.
J Glob Health ; 12: 03058, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056221

Subject(s)
Tourism , Humans
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275152, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054358

ABSTRACT

This research examines how tourism development has impacted economic growth in a global city-Hong Kong. A large body of research has investigated national tourism-led growth in developed and developing countries. However, many such studies have overlooked how policies aimed at fostering the development of tourism affect the local economic development of global cities. The Chinese and Hong Kong governments liberalized their visa policies with the launch of the Individual Visit Scheme in 2003. Such liberalization has led to significantly more tourist arrival from China. Our autoregressive distributed lag model of tourism-related data from 2003 to 2019 provides strong evidence that more tourism can spur short-run economic growth. Yet, such tourism can lead to uncertain effects on local economic development in the longer run. Hong Kong's transient tourism-led growth has almost entered the stagnation stage of the Tourism Area Life Cycle model. During such stagnation, jurisdictions like Hong Kong can expect limited long-term economic growth from their tourist sector. Our findings thus sound a warning for global cities looking to tourism to sustain longer-term economic growth.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Tourism , China , Cities , Hong Kong
7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273354, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054323

ABSTRACT

Tourism and nature-based recreation has changed dramatically during the COVID-19 pandemic. Travel restrictions caused sharp declines in visitation numbers, particularly in remote areas, such as northern Norway. In addition, the pandemic may have altered human-nature relationships by changing visitor behaviour and preferences. We studied visitor numbers and behaviour in northern Norway, based on user-generated data, in the form of photographic material that was uploaded to the popular online platform Flickr. A total of 195.200 photographs, taken by 5.247 photographers were subjected to Google's "Cloud Vision" automatic content analysis algorithm. The resulting collection of labels that were assigned to each photograph was analysed in structural topic models, using photography date (relative to the start of the pandemic measures in Norway) and reported or estimated photographers' nationality as explanatory variables. Our results show that nature-based recreation relating to "mountains" and "winter" became more prevalent during the pandemic, amongst both domestic and international photographers. Shifts in preferences due to the pandemic outbreak strongly depended on nationality, with domestic visitors demonstrating a wide interest in topics while international visitors maintained their preference for nature-based experiences. Among those activities that suffered the most from decline in international tourism was northern lights and cruises as indicated by the topic models. On the other hand, images depicting mountains and flora and fauna increased their prevalence during the pandemic. Domestic visitors, on the other hand, spent more time in urban settings as a result of restrictions, which results in a higher prevalence of non-nature related images. Our results underscore the need to consider the dynamic nature of human-nature relationships. The contrast in flexibility to adapt to changing conditions and travel restrictions should be incorporated in collaborative efforts of municipalities and tour operators to develop sustainable local nature-based tourism products, particularly in remote areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Human Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics , Travel
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(16)2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024043

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in using virtual reality (VR) to (re)create different scenarios and environments with interactive and immersive experiences. Although VR has been popular in the tourism sector to reconfigure tourists' relationships with places and overcome mobility restrictions, its usage in senior cyclotourism has been understudied. VR is suggested to positively impact tourism promotion, cycling simulation, and active and healthy ageing due to physical and mental rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to assess the senior citizens' perceived experience and attitudes toward a designed 360° VR cyclotouristic experiment, using a head-mounted display (HMD) setting within a laboratory context. A total of 76 participants aged between 50 and 97 years old were involved in convergent parallel mixed-method research, and data were collected using a questionnaire based on the technology acceptance model, as well as the researchers' field notes. Findings suggest that 360° VR with HMD can be an effective assistive technology to foster senior cyclotourism by promoting tourism sites, simulating the cycling pedaling effect, and improving senior citizens' general wellbeing and independence with physical and mental rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Self-Help Devices , Smart Glasses , Virtual Reality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Computer Simulation , Humans , Middle Aged , Tourism
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269200, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is indeed one of the interventional strategies available to combat coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study emphasizes the relevance of citizens' acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in assisting global recovery from the pandemic and aiding the tourism industries to return to normalcy. This study further presented the impact of COVID-19 on the tourism industry in China. Also, the study confirmed the past performance of tourism in China to the current tourism-related COVID-19 effects from a global perspective by employing Australia's outbound tourism data from 2008 to 2020 on top 6 destinations, including China, Indonesia, New Zealand, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. METHODS: Jeffrey's Amazing Statistical Program (JASP) was used to analyze this study. The JASP statistical software was employed to accurately analyze the vaccines administered in China from December 15, 2020, to March 28, 2021. RESULTS: The study results demonstrate an overwhelming acceptance of vaccines in China which will positively and significantly impact the globe's travel and tourism industries. Also, the study findings indicated that industries in tourism are hopeful of regaining the past losses. Further, the study results showed an enormous decline in death and new cases. CONCLUSION: Vaccine acceptance is relevant for the eradication of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, neighborhood and individual-level acceptance of the vaccine will help reduce the challenges facing the tourism industries and the world. The researchers recommend that authorities should strictly check the vaccination certificates of visitors. Furthermore, hoteliers should put adequate measures to monitor all visitors who visit the various tourist destinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , Tourism , United States , Vaccination
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994053

ABSTRACT

The development of rural tourism (RT) has great significance in reducing poverty and achieving rural vitalization. Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is a depressed area with rich RT resources due to its unspoiled nature and diverse culture. For future sustainable development of RT in QTP, this paper analyzes the spatial distribution characteristics and its influencing factors of RT villages using various spatial analysis methods, such as nearest neighbor index, kernel density estimation, vector buffer analysis, and geographic detectors. The results show the following. First, the RT villages present an agglomeration distribution tendency dense in the southeast and spare in the northwest. The inter-county imbalance distribution feature is obvious and four relatively high-density zones have been formed. Second, the RT villages have significant positive spatial autocorrelation, and the area of cold spots is larger and of hot spots is smaller. Third, the RT villages are mainly distributed with favorable topographic and climate conditions, near the road and water, around the city, and close to tourism resources. Fourth, the spatial distribution is the result of multifactor interactions. Socio-economic and tourism resource are the dominant factor in the mechanism network. Fifth, based on the above conclusions this study provides scientific suggestions for the sustainable development of the RT industry.


Subject(s)
Climate , Tourism , China , Humans , Rural Population , Spatial Analysis , Tibet
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987781

ABSTRACT

Thailand's community-based tourism (CBT) faces a challenging adaptation in response to COVID-19 prevention. This study aimed to assess the readiness for effective implementation of the Safety and Health Administration (SHA) for COVID-19 prevention in the tourism community. A qualitative approach was adopted for this study. Three communities covering all types of CBT in Nakhon-Si-Thammarat province, southern Thailand were purposively chosen. Fifteen key informants were invited to participate in the study. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted, and the data were analysed using the thematic analysis method. The readiness stage was assigned by consensual comprehensive scores. The overall readiness of CBT is pre-planning stage, a clear recognition of the SHA benefit, and there are sufficient resources for implementation. At this stage, there is no planning because the business owners feel that they have inadequate knowledge about the SHA protocol. Another main barrier is having limited accessibility for SHA information which mainly provides through with technology platform. The CBT owner needs to improve public health-based knowledge, technology and cooperation skills to operate SHA efficiently. However, in order to embed SHA to the CBT, tourism and public health organisation should provide suitable methods at the initiation stage by considering the community readiness and need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Organizations , Public Health , Thailand
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270772, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987146

ABSTRACT

Workers' living standards have recently deteriorated in the service sector throughout the world, although a few decades ago, service was among the fastest growing sectors in industrialised nations. However, in recent years, in service sectors tourism especially has been drying up. This paper examines the symmetric and asymmetric effects of tourism, market capital, financial development, and trade on service sector employment in Australia from the period 1991-2019. The results of the cointegration tests, notably the ARDL and NARDL bound tests, reveal that the variables are related in the long run. The positive effect of tourist arrival on service sector employment in Australia is confirmed by long-run estimates from both ARDL and NARDL approaches. Similarly, both approaches also confirm the long-run positive relation of financial development. However, while ARDL shows long-run negative and positive associations of market capital and trade, respectively, the opposite is found in the case of the NARDL approach. As a result, policy proposals like planning and initiating tools for ensuring consistent international arrivals and easing of entry requirements have been recommended by this study to assist Australia in enhancing service sector employment, thus promoting economic development.


Subject(s)
Economic Development , Tourism , Australia , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Employment , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979207

ABSTRACT

The tourism, urbanization, technology, and the ecological environment both promote and restrict each other. Coordinating the relationship between the four is of great significance to the realization of high-quality sustainable regional development. Taking the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region as an example, this paper constructs an uncoordinated coupling model for the tourism-urbanization-technology-ecological environment system. Using exploratory spatial analysis and geographic information systems, this paper reveals the temporal and spatial evolution law affecting the uncoordinated coupling relationship between tourism, urbanization, technology and the ecological environment in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region from 2010 to 2020, before establishing a panel Tobit model that is used to explore the factors affecting the four systems. The research shows the following: (1) The level of comprehensive development for tourism, urbanization, technology, and the ecological environment in Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan has increased rapidly. Of all these, the tourism industry was the most affected by COVID-19 in 2020, while the level of urbanization, technology, and ecological environment developments in the three provinces has become similar over time. (2) Uncoordinated development between cities is a prominent problem; while the uncoordinated coupling spatial agglomeration in various regions is relatively stable, the proportion of cities with no significant agglomeration form amounts to more than 70%, with mostly low-low (L-L) and high-high (H-H) agglomeration types. (3) The degree to which uncoordinated coupling exists among the four systems in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region is affected by many factors. Only eco-environmental pressure has a significant positive correlation with the degree of uncoordinated coupling, while the tourism scale, economic urbanization, eco-environmental response, and investment in technology have a significant negative correlation. These results provide a theoretical basis and practical references for strengthening the government's macro-control and promoting collaborative regional development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urbanization , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cities , Economic Development , Humans , Technology , Tourism
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268047, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962995

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess and analyse the efficiency of the tourism centres in the Southern Red Sea region, Egypt to apply coastal tourism development through the blue economy perspective. According to this aim, the study used two efficiency methods: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Free Disposal Hull (FDH). A total of 29 tourism centres were selected to conduct the DEA and FDH methods. These efficiency methods (DEA-FDH) used inputs and outputs variables to estimate the efficiency of the tourism centres. The selected inputs were the length of the shoreline (km), area (ha), tourism investments (million EGP), quality of coral reefs, numbers of hotels, and tourism accommodation capacity. While the outputs were employees' number and tourists' number. The results indicate that, generally, the tourism centres in the Southern Red Sea region of Egypt showed high-efficiency scores, which reflects their good preparedness to implement the various coastal tourism development strategies from the blue economy perspective. The tourism centres in the Safaga-Quseir tourism sector were the most efficient ones, regardless of the efficiency models used. While the tourist centres representing the Ras Banas tourism sector were the least efficient centres in the whole sample (29 tourism centres).


Subject(s)
Coral Reefs , Tourism , Efficiency , Egypt , Humans , Indian Ocean
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 883277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952835

ABSTRACT

Today, various solutions have been proposed to improve the economic situation of villages and deprived areas, among which tourism is known as the best solution for those areas with the necessary potentials for tourism development. On other hand, the COVID-19 pandemic had significant effects on human life worldwide. The prevalence of COVID-19 has caused a lot of damage to different sectors of the global economy, but without a doubt, the rural tourism industry should be considered among the economic activities that have suffered the most from this virus. In this study, with the aim of investigating these effects on the rural tourism industry, it has been analyzed and compared in three important economic, social and environmental dimensions before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19. This quantitative study was used survey method. The statistical population of the study consisted of local stakeholders of rural tourism and experts of the relevant organizations in Natanz county of Iran. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the constructs used in the model have appropriate and acceptable fit. The results of the study also, showed that the prevalence of COVID-19 has adverse consequences including reducing the desirable economic and social effects of tourism mentioned among both groups of experts and rural stakeholders. from rural tourism stakeholders' opinion, environmental variables of the tourism areas before and after the COVID-19 was different, and in the absence of tourists in this area, the destructive environmental effects have strongly decreased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Pandemics
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934036

ABSTRACT

Gastronomic tourism is becoming an essential consideration among tourists when choosing a tourist destination. One of the main reasons for visiting a specific destination for almost 15% of tourists is "gastronomy". This has led to the development of a new kind of tourism called "Gastronomic Tourism". However, there has been minimal research on gastronomy tourism, specifically in Pakistan. The primary purpose of this study is to measure the level of satisfaction in a tourist destination and furthermore consider gastronomy as a component of visitor motivation. A survey of 307 tourists who had recently visited Pakistan's northern areas was undertaken to conduct the study. This has enabled us to better understand the variables that influence the behaviors and attitudes of tourists toward this popular tourist attraction. Gastronomy motivation impacts tourism location selection, and gastronomic experience influences satisfaction, according to the research. Specifically, tourists show a keen interest in gastronomic experiences after feeling satisfied with the destination and local foods, developing loyalty toward the destination.


Subject(s)
Tourism , Travel , Food , Pakistan , Personal Satisfaction
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934031

ABSTRACT

This study considers the Point of Interest data of tourism resources in Xinjiang and studies their spatial distribution by combining geospatial analysis methods, such as the average nearest neighbor index, standard deviation ellipse, kernel density analysis, and hotspot analysis, to explore their spatial distribution characteristics. Based on the analysis results, the following conclusions are made. Different categories of tourism resource sites have different spatial distributions, and all categories of tourism resources in Xinjiang are clustered in Urumqi city. The geological landscape resource sites are widely distributed and have a ring-shaped distribution in the desert area of southern Xinjiang. The biological landscape resources are distributed in a strip along the Tianshan Mountains. The water landscape resources are concentrated in the northern Xinjiang area. The site ruins are mostly distributed in the western region of Xinjiang. The distributions of the architectural landscape and entertainment and shopping resources are highly coupled with the distribution of cities. The distributions of the six categories of tourism resource points are in the northeast-southwest direction. The centripetal force and directional nature of the resource points of the water landscape are not obvious. The remaining five categories of resource points have their own characteristics. The distribution of resources in the site ruins is relatively even, and there are many hotspot areas in the geomantic and architectural landscapes, which are mainly concentrated in Bazhou and other places. The biological landscape has many cold-spot areas, distributed in areas such as Altai in northern Xinjiang and Hotan in southern Xinjiang. The remaining four categories have cold-spot and hotspot areas with different distributions. Tourism is an important thrust for economic development. The study of the distribution of tourism resources on the spatial distribution of tourism resources has clear guidance for later tourism development, can help the tourism industry optimize the layout of resources, and can promote tourism resources to achieve maximum benefits. The government can implement effective control and governance.


Subject(s)
Tourism , Water Resources , China , Electronics , Spatial Analysis , Water
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 885632, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933903

ABSTRACT

Taiwan's older population (those over the age of 65) reached ~3.95 million at the end of January 2022, accounting for around 16.9% of the country's total population. It is already an "aged society." With the gradual increase in the older population, the older people tourism market is also getting more and more attention. This article explores how older people tourism was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic (present in Tawian from early 2020), which was a major international public health event. This study adopts quantitative and PCA methods to statistically analyze the changes before and after the pandemic. The study results found that the frequency of tourism decreased after the pandemic: the number was 5.32, a decrease of 0.77, and instances of at least 1 tourist trip decreased by 3.87% after the pandemic. Regarding the reasons for not participating in tourism, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the COVID-19 accounted for a factor of 19.9%. Total travel expenses were NT$2,590, an increase of NT$229.67, and were not affected by the pandemic. We carried out a PCA analysis on tourism spending. The first component was food, accommodation, shopping, and other expenses. The factor loadings were 0.989, 0.931, 0.641 and -0.948, respectively. The second component was entertainment and transportation expenses. The factor loadings were 0.997 and 0.902, respectively. In conclusion, we put forward relevant discussions and suggestions to make tourism for older people healthier and more sustainable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Taiwan/epidemiology , Tourism , Travel
19.
J Travel Med ; 28(8)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931857

Subject(s)
Social Media , Humans , Tourism , Travel
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 845: 157261, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926894

ABSTRACT

Sustainable tourism should be promoted as a new system for the sustainable management of resources from a socioeconomic and environmental point of view. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop a tool capable of assessing the impacts associated with the sector and to identify which actions are currently being addressed in order to achieve the desired sustainability. This timely study aims to describe the current framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application to the tourism sector. To address these questions, a total of 83 documents (77 reviews and 6 international reports) were evaluated, assessing the geographical distribution, the temporal evolution of the publications, as well as the most relevant characteristics of the tourism industry articles were evaluated such as, life cycle inventory (LCI), system boundaries, functional unit (FU), methods, environmental indicators and impact categories considered. The study identifies key recommendations on the progression of LCA in tourism sector. As important results, it stands out that 94 % of articles were from the last decade and 21 % of the articles reviewed cover sustainable tourism term, considering the three dimensions. This review showed that in LCA studies the most common method was CML 2001; the most widely used environmental indicator was the Carbon Footprint (CF) and the Global Warming Potential (GWP) was the impact category used in all the studies. Hence, LCA is a highly effective tool capable of assessing direct and indirect carbon emissions in tourism as well as the socioeconomic and environmental impacts generated in this sector. COVID-19 pandemic is also an object of discussion in the framework of the sustainable tourism together with advocating support for the eco-labelling and digitalisation of the tourism experiences as valuable tools to minimize environmental negativities, to promote mechanisms to access green markets and to frame successful synergies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Footprint , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Pandemics
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