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Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344393


Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are rRNA N-glycosylases from plants (EC that inactivate ribosomes thus inhibiting protein synthesis. The antiviral properties of RIPs have been investigated for more than four decades. However, interest in these proteins is rising due to the emergence of infectious diseases caused by new viruses and the difficulty in treating viral infections. On the other hand, there is a growing need to control crop diseases without resorting to the use of phytosanitary products which are very harmful to the environment and in this respect, RIPs have been shown as a promising tool that can be used to obtain transgenic plants resistant to viruses. The way in which RIPs exert their antiviral effect continues to be the subject of intense research and several mechanisms of action have been proposed. The purpose of this review is to examine the research studies that deal with this matter, placing special emphasis on the most recent findings.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Genetically Modified/enzymology , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ribosome Inactivating Proteins/pharmacology , Toxins, Biological/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Humans , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plant Diseases/virology , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/virology , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Ribosome Inactivating Proteins/isolation & purification , Toxins, Biological/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/metabolism , Viruses/pathogenicity
Stem Cells Dev ; 30(15): 758-772, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254367


Cytokine storm is recognized as one of the factors contributing to organ failures and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Due to chronic inflammation, COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or renal disease (RD) have more severe symptoms and higher mortality. However, the factors that contribute to severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients with DM and RD have received little attention. In an effort to investigate potential treatments for COVID-19, recent research has focused on the immunomodulation functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, the correlation between DM and RD and the severity of COVID-19 was examined by a combined approach with a meta-analysis and experimental research. The results of a systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the odd of mortality in patients with both DM and RD was increased in comparison to those with a single comorbidity. In addition, in the experimental research, the data showed that high glucose and uremic toxins contributed to the induction of cytokine storm in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) in response to SARS-CoV Peptide Pools. Of note, the incorporation of Wharton's jelly MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (WJ-EVs) into SARS-CoV peptide-induced Calu-3 resulted in a significant decrease in nuclear NF-κB p65 and the downregulation of the cytokine storm under high concentrations of glucose and uremic toxins. This clearly suggests the potential for WJ-EVs to reduce cytokine storm reactions in patients with both chronic inflammation diseases and viral infection.

Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Wharton Jelly/cytology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Pregnancy , Toxins, Biological/metabolism , Toxins, Biological/pharmacology , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Uremia/blood , Uremia/complications , Uremia/metabolism , Uremia/therapy
Biochem Pharmacol ; 181: 114096, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597939


Venomous animals have evolved toxins that interfere with specific components of their victim's core physiological systems, thereby causing biological dysfunction that aids in prey capture, defense against predators, or other roles such as intraspecific competition. Many animal lineages evolved venom systems independently, highlighting the success of this strategy. Over the course of evolution, toxins with exceptional specificity and high potency for their intended molecular targets have prevailed, making venoms an invaluable and almost inexhaustible source of bioactive molecules, some of which have found use as pharmacological tools, human therapeutics, and bioinsecticides. Current biomedically-focused research on venoms is directed towards their use in delineating the physiological role of toxin molecular targets such as ion channels and receptors, studying or treating human diseases, targeting vectors of human diseases, and treating microbial and parasitic infections. We provide examples of each of these areas of venom research, highlighting the potential that venom molecules hold for basic research and drug development.

Biomedical Research/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , Peptides/pharmacology , Toxins, Biological/pharmacology , Venoms/pharmacology , Animals , Drug Development/methods , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/therapeutic use , Protein Conformation , Toxins, Biological/chemistry , Toxins, Biological/therapeutic use , Venoms/chemistry , Venoms/metabolism , Venoms/therapeutic use