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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438686

ABSTRACT

Food supplements (FS) are a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients with nutritional or other physiological effects. Due to their easy availability, widespread advertising, and sometimes low price, increased consumption of this group of preparations has been observed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and intake of FS during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, with particular reference to FS containing zinc and vitamin D. It was noted that both of the above ingredients were used significantly more often by people with higher education (59.0%), with a medical background or related working in the medical field (54.5%), and/or exercising at home (60.1%). Preparations containing vitamin D were used by 22.8% of the respondents in the first wave, 37.6% in the second wave, and 32.9% in the third wave. To sum up, we showed the highest consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements, and preparations containing zinc and vitamin D were taken significantly more often by people with higher medical and related education. This indicates a high awareness of health aspects and the need for preventive measures in these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/immunology , Zinc/immunology
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3176-3183, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196542

ABSTRACT

This trial compared the rate and time of viral clearance in subjects receiving a combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus Zinc versus those receiving supportive treatment. This non-randomized controlled trial included 62 patients on the triple combination treatment versus 51 age- and sex-matched patients on routine supportive treatment. all of them confirmed cases by positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of a nasopharyngeal swab. Trial results showed that the clearance rates were 0% and 58.1% on the 7th day and 13.7% and 73.1% on the 15th day in the supportive treatment and combined antiviral groups, respectively. The cumulative clearance rates on the 15th day are 13.7% and 88.7% in the supportive treatment and combined antiviral groups, respectively. This trial concluded by stating that the combined use of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus zinc supplement effectively cleared the SARS-COV2 from the nasopharynx in a shorter time than symptomatic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Nitro Compounds/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Adult , Antimetabolites/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Male , Nitro Compounds/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Zinc/administration & dosage
3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178371

ABSTRACT

More than one year has passed since the first cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus were reported in Wuhan (China), rapidly evolving into a global pandemic. This infectious disease has become a major public health challenge in the world. Unfortunately, to date, no specific antivirals have been proven to be effective against COVID-19, and although a few vaccines are available, the mortality rate is not decreasing but is still increasing. One therapeutic strategy has been focused on infection prevention and control measures. In this regard, the use of nutraceutical supports may play a role against some aspect of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients, thus representing a strategy to control the worst outcomes of this pandemic. For this reason, we performed an overview including meta-analyses and systematic reviews to assess the association among melatonin, vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc supplementation and inflammatory markers using three databases, namely, MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews. According to the evidence available, an intake of 50,000 IU/month of vitamin D showed efficacy in CRP. An amount of 1 to 2 g per day of vitamin C demonstrated efficacy both in CRP and endothelial function, and a dosage of melatonin ranging from 5 to 25 mg /day showed good evidence of efficacy in CRP, TNF and IL6. A dose of 50 mg/day of elemental zinc supplementation showed positive results in CRP. Based on the data reported in this review, the public health system could consider whether it is possible to supplement the current limited preventive measures through targeted nutraceutical large-scale administration.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage
4.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 344-355, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159771

ABSTRACT

The objectives are to present an updated synopsis on osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome and evaluate the roles of selected micronutrients in its prevention and management. OSA refers to the concurrent deterioration of bone (osteopenia/osteoporosis), muscle (sarcopenia) and adipose tissue expansion. It portrays the most advanced stage in a continuum of body composition disorders. Although OSA has been widely studied involving the populations of different backgrounds, its prevalence is hard to collate because different methodologies and criteria were used for its diagnosis. Another critical health aspect is the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) which contributes to OSA and vice versa. Nutrition is important in the prevention and management of both OSA and LGCI. Although micronutrients act in numerous metabolic and physiological processes, their roles here are presented in relation to OSA (and its components) and LGCI in general and relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. These include calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and vitamins D and K; their interactions, physiological ratios and synergism/antagonism are discussed as well. In conclusion, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D have a profound impact on OSA and its components, and the latter two also on LGCI. Potassium and vitamin K are vital in bone, muscle functioning and possibly adipose tissue modification. Both, but particularly vitamin D, surfaced as important modulators of immune system with application in COVID-19 infections. While both phosphorus and sodium have important roles in bone, muscle and can impact adiposity, due to their abundance in food, their intake should be curbed to prevent possible damaging effects.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Obesity , Osteoporosis , Sarcopenia , Trace Elements , Vitamins , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diet therapy , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Humans , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Sarcopenia/diet therapy , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Syndrome , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/metabolism , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/physiology
5.
Trials ; 21(1): 890, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigate the effect of boron-containing compounds and oleoylethanolamide supplementation on the recovery trend in patients with COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The current study is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel groups. PARTICIPANTS: The inclusion criteria include male and female patients≥18 years of age, with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or antibody test and with written informed consent to participate in this trial. The exclusion criteria include regular use of any other supplement, severe and critical COVID-19 pneumonia, pregnancy and breastfeeding. This study is being conducted at Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients are randomly assigned to four groups. The first group (A) will take one capsule containing 5 mg of boron compounds twice a day for two weeks. The second group (B) will take one capsule containing 200 mg oleoylethanolamide twice a day for two weeks. The third group (C) will take one capsule containing 5 mg boron compounds with 200 mg oleoylethanolamide twice a day for two weeks, and the fourth group (D) does not receive any additional treatment other than routine treatments. Boron-containing compounds and oleoylethanolamide capsules will be synthesized at Nutrition Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary end point of this study is to investigate the recovery rate of clinical symptoms, including fever, dry cough, and fatigue, as well as preclinical features, including complete blood count (CBC), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) profiles within two weeks of randomization. RANDOMISATION: Patients are randomized into four equal groups in a parallel design (allocation ratio 1:1). A randomized block procedure is used to divide subjects into one of four treatment blocks (A, B, C, and D) by a computer-generated allocation schedule. BLINDING (MASKING): The participants and investigators (enrolling, assessing, and analyzing) are blinded to the intervention assignments until the end of the study and data analysis. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The calculated total sample size is 40 patients, with 10 patients in each group. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, May 17, 2020. Recruitment began May 19, 2020, and is anticipated to be completed by October 19, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial has been registered by the title of "Assessment of boron-containing compounds and oleoylethanolamide supplementation on the recovery trend in Patients with COVID-19: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial" in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). The registration number is " IRCT20090609002017N35 ", https://www.irct.ir/trial/48058 . The registration date is 17 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Boron Compounds , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Endocannabinoids , Oleic Acids , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Administration, Oral , Adult , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Boron Compounds/administration & dosage , Boron Compounds/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Drug Monitoring/methods , Endocannabinoids/administration & dosage , Endocannabinoids/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Oleic Acids/administration & dosage , Oleic Acids/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 90-91, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797738

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a major health problem affecting all people worldwide and has a high mortality rate especially in critically ill patients. Although much is known about its different clinical symptoms, there are significant knowledge gaps about its pathology and cellular responses to the virus. Copper plays an essential role in respiration, immune function and free-radical defense. Despite its important action in physiochemical properties, only small amount of copper is presented in biological fluid, none of which presents as free ion form that readily affirms its depletion in critically ill patients. Recent studies confirmed its anti-viral capacity. Closer understanding of copper signaling, its vulnerability, method of assessment and interpretation, administration rout and dosage opens up new perspectives regarding therapeutic copper administration against critically ill COVID-19 patients. So, it seems that physicians should consider copper insufficiency in their critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, an attention should be paid to copper toxicity and estimating the adverse responses depending on copper dose or severity of copper limitation, as well as the duration of copper misbalance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Copper/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Copper/administration & dosage , Critical Illness , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage
7.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 38: 65-66, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The COVID-19 infection can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly affecting patients aged 60 and older. Preliminary data suggest that the nutritional status can change the course of the infection, and on the matter, zinc is crucial for growth, development, and the maintenance of immune function. In the absence of treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods that can contribute to control of disease. The aim of this paper is to establish the relation between zinc and COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the prior scientific knowledge, we have performed a review of the literature and examine the role of zinc in immune function in the infection by COVID-19. Our findings are that the zinc as an anti-inflammatory agent may help to optimize immune function and reduce the risk of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc supplementation can be a useful strategy to reduce the global burden of infection in the elderly, there is a need the increased reporting to improve our understanding of COVID-19 and the care of affected patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunity/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/immunology , Zinc/immunology
8.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108781

ABSTRACT

Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/physiology , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Humans , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Vitamins/administration & dosage
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