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1.
J Nutr ; 152(5): 1306-1315, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children in resource-limited settings remain vulnerable to zinc deficiency and its consequences. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of different doses, durations, and frequencies of zinc supplementation on the incidence of diarrhea and change in linear growth among young children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, partially double-blind, controlled, 6-arm, community-based efficacy trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Children aged 9-11 mo were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the following interventions for 24 wk: 1) standard micronutrient powder (MNP) containing 4.1 mg zinc and 10 mg iron, daily; 2) high-zinc (10 mg), low-iron (6 mg) (HiZn LoFe) MNP, daily; 3) HiZn (10 mg) LoFe (6 mg)/HiZn (10 mg), no-iron MNPs on alternating days; 4) dispersible zinc tablet (10 mg), daily; 5) dispersible zinc tablet (10 mg), daily for 2 wk at enrollment and 12 wk; 6) placebo powder, daily. Primary outcomes were incidence of diarrhea and change in length-for-age z-score (LAZ) over the 24-wk intervention period. Home visits were conducted twice weekly to assess diarrhea and other morbidity. Incidence and prevalence outcomes were compared among groups with Poisson regression; continuous outcomes were compared using ANCOVA. RESULTS: A total of 2886 children were enrolled between February 2018 and July 2019. The mean incidence and prevalence of diarrhea among all participants was 1.21 episodes per 100 d and 3.76 d per 100 d, respectively. There were no differences in the incidence or prevalence of diarrhea across intervention groups. The decline in LAZ was slightly smaller among children in the daily HiZn LoFe MNP group compared with the placebo powder group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The dose of zinc in MNPs as well as the duration and frequency of supplementation evaluated in this trial were not effective in reducing diarrhea; however, the daily HiZn LoFe MNP formulation offered modest improvements in linear growth among young children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03406793.


Subject(s)
Trace Elements , Zinc , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Infant , Iron , Micronutrients , Powders , Tablets , Trace Elements/therapeutic use
2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 59-73, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719339

ABSTRACT

As of April 15, 2020, the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic has swept through 213 countries and infected more than 1,870,000 individuals, posing an unprecedented threat to international health and the economy. There is currently no specific treatment available for patients with COVID-19 infection. The lessons learned from past management of respiratory viral infections have provided insights into treating COVID-19. Numerous potential therapies, including supportive intervention, immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and convalescent plasma transfusion, have been tentatively applied in clinical settings. A number of these therapies have provided substantially curative benefits in treating patients with COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, intensive research and clinical trials are underway to assess the efficacy of existing drugs and identify potential therapeutic targets to develop new drugs for treating COVID-19. Herein, we summarize the current potential therapeutic approaches for diseases related to COVID-19 infection and introduce their mechanisms of action, safety, and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Killer Cells, Natural , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
3.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(2): 209-220, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267053

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, care for an adequate diet, well adapted to the body's needs and the current level of physical activity, becomes of particular importance. Many dietary compounds participate in the functioning of the immune system, while vitamins D, C, A (including beta-carotene), E, B6, B12, folic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, iron, amino acids, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and intestinal microbiota are crucial in various types of defence processes. There has been no evidence that consumed food and its compounds, including those with pro-/prebiotic properties, play a significant role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection or alleviating its course. However, in terms of the nutritional value of food and the prevention of dysbiosis, recommending a varied diet with a high proportion of plant-based foods and an adequate amount of animal-based foods has a sound scientific basis. Malnutrition, underweight and obesity are considered independent and prognostic risk factors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which reduce a patient's chances of survival. Therefore, ensuring good nutritional status, including healthy body weight, is a reasonable approach in the prevention of viral infection SARS-CoV-2 or alleviating its course. The document is accompanied by two catalogues of practical nutritional recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressed to the general population and children.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Health Promotion/standards , Nutritional Status , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Societies, Medical/standards , Academies and Institutes/standards , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutritive Value , Poland , Public Health , Trace Elements/therapeutic use
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234784

ABSTRACT

This review answers the question of why selenium is such an important trace element in the human diet. Daily dietary intake of selenium and its content in various food products is discussed in this paper, as well as the effects of its deficiency and excess in the body. Moreover, the biological activity of selenium, which it performs mainly through selenoproteins, is discussed. These specific proteins are responsible for thyroid hormone management, fertility, the aging process, and immunity, but their key role is to maintain a redox balance in cells. Furthermore, taking into account world news and the current SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, the impact of selenium on the course of COVID-19 is also discussed. Another worldwide problem is the number of new cancer cases and cancer-related mortality. Thus, the last part of the article discusses the impact of selenium on cancer risk based on clinical trials (including NPC and SELECT), systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Additionally, this review discusses the possible mechanisms of selenium action that prevent cancer development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Diet , Neoplasms , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Selenium/therapeutic use , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3176-3183, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196542

ABSTRACT

This trial compared the rate and time of viral clearance in subjects receiving a combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus Zinc versus those receiving supportive treatment. This non-randomized controlled trial included 62 patients on the triple combination treatment versus 51 age- and sex-matched patients on routine supportive treatment. all of them confirmed cases by positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of a nasopharyngeal swab. Trial results showed that the clearance rates were 0% and 58.1% on the 7th day and 13.7% and 73.1% on the 15th day in the supportive treatment and combined antiviral groups, respectively. The cumulative clearance rates on the 15th day are 13.7% and 88.7% in the supportive treatment and combined antiviral groups, respectively. This trial concluded by stating that the combined use of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus zinc supplement effectively cleared the SARS-COV2 from the nasopharynx in a shorter time than symptomatic therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Nitro Compounds/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Adult , Antimetabolites/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Male , Nitro Compounds/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Zinc/administration & dosage
7.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 39-48, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The enormous health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has refocused attention on measures to optimize immune function and vaccine response. Dietary deficiencies of micronutrients can weaken adaptive immunity. The aim of this review was to examine links between micronutrients, immune function and COVID-19 infection, with a focus on nutritional risks in subgroups of the Swiss population. METHODS: Scoping review on the associations between selected micronutrients (vitamins D and C, iron, selenium, zinc, and n-3 PUFAs) and immunity, with particular reference to the Swiss population. These nutrients were chosen because previous EFSA reviews have concluded they play a key role in immunity. RESULTS: The review discusses the available knowledge on links between sufficient nutrient status, optimal immune function, and prevention of respiratory tract infections. Because of the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, controlled intervention studies of micronutrients in the context of COVID-19 infection are now underway, but evidence is not yet available to draw conclusions. The anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs are well established. In Switzerland, several subgroups of the population are at clear risk of nutrient deficiencies; e.g., older adults, multiple comorbidities, obesity, pregnancy, and institutionalized. Low intakes of n-3 PUFA are present in a large proportion of the population. CONCLUSION: There are clear and strong relationships between micronutrient and n-3 PUFA status and immune function, and subgroups of the Swiss population are at risk for deficient intakes. Therefore, during the COVID-19 pandemic, as a complement to a healthy and balanced diet, it may be prudent to consider supplementation with a combination of moderate doses of Vitamins C and D, as well as of Se, Zn and n-3 PUFA, in risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Male , Micronutrients/pharmacology , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Selenium/pharmacology , Selenium/therapeutic use , Switzerland , Trace Elements/pharmacology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology , Zinc/therapeutic use
8.
J Diet Suppl ; 19(3): 395-429, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122346

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first officially diagnosed in the city of Wuhan, China in January 2020. In reality, the disease was identified in December 2019 in the same city where patients began showing symptoms of pneumonia of unidentified origin. Very soon the disease became a global pandemic due to the suppression of information in the country of origin and inadequate testing for the COVID-19 virus. Currently, > 101 million people have been found positive for this virus and > 2.17 million people have died. There are no signs that COVID-19 is slowing down. This deadly virus affects multiple vital organs (lungs, heart, nervous system, blood, and immune system), yet its exact mechanism of pathophysiology remains obscure. Depending on the viral load, sick people often show symptoms of fever, cough, shortness of breath, coagulopathy, cardiac abnormalities, fatigue, and death. Great strides have been made in COVID-19 testing, thereby allowing timely therapeutic intervention. Currently, vaccines are on the market from Pfizer, Moderna and Astra Zeneca with limited supply. Phase III clinical trials are also underway from other manufacturers. In the current scenario, nutraceuticals and other phyto-mineral supplements appear to be promising alternative solutions for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trace Elements , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210369, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084243

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited evidence regarding early treatment of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection to mitigate symptom progression. Objective: To examine whether high-dose zinc and/or high-dose ascorbic acid reduce the severity or duration of symptoms compared with usual care among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, single health system randomized clinical factorial open-label trial enrolled 214 adult patients with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction assay who received outpatient care in sites in Ohio and Florida. The trial was conducted from April 27, 2020, to October 14, 2020. Intervention: Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio to receive either 10 days of zinc gluconate (50 mg), ascorbic acid (8000 mg), both agents, or standard of care. Outcomes: The primary end point was the number of days required to reach a 50% reduction in symptoms, including severity of fever, cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue (rated on a 4-point scale for each symptom). Secondary end points included days required to reach a total symptom severity score of 0, cumulative severity score at day 5, hospitalizations, deaths, adjunctive prescribed medications, and adverse effects of the study supplements. Results: A total of 214 patients were randomized, with a mean (SD) age of 45.2 (14.6) years and 132 (61.7%) women. The study was stopped for a low conditional power for benefit with no significant difference among the 4 groups for the primary end point. Patients who received usual care without supplementation achieved a 50% reduction in symptoms at a mean (SD) of 6.7 (4.4) days compared with 5.5 (3.7) days for the ascorbic acid group, 5.9 (4.9) days for the zinc gluconate group, and 5.5 (3.4) days for the group receiving both (overall P = .45). There was no significant difference in secondary outcomes among the treatment groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial of ambulatory patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment with high-dose zinc gluconate, ascorbic acid, or a combination of the 2 supplements did not significantly decrease the duration of symptoms compared with standard of care. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04342728.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Zinc/therapeutic use , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Gluconates/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
11.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982846

ABSTRACT

The third coronavirus outbreak in the last two decades has caused significant damage to the world's economy and community health. The highly contagious COVID-19 infection has affected millions of people to date and has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. Aside from the highly infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, the lack of a treatment or vaccine has been the main reason for its spread. Thus, it has become necessary to find alternative methods for controlling SARS-CoV-2. For the present review, we conducted an online search for different available nutrition-based therapies for previously known coronavirus infections and RNA-based virus infections as well as general antiviral therapies. These treatments have promise for combating COVID-19, as various nutrients and minerals play direct and indirect roles in the control and prevention of this newly emerged viral infection. The patients' nutritional status with COVID-19 must be analyzed before administering any treatment, and nutritional supplements should be given to the affected individuals along with routine treatment. We suggest a potential interventional role of nutrients to strengthen the immune system against the emerging infection caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/drug effects , Minerals/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Trace Elements/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immune System/physiology , Micronutrients , Minerals/therapeutic use , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(2): 129801, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to lack of approved drugs and vaccines, the medical world has resorted to older drugs, produced for viral infections and other diseases, as a remedy to combat COVID-19. The accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have demonstrated that several polyphenols found in plants and zinc- polyphenol clusters have been in use as herbal medicines have antiviral activities against viruses with various mechanisms. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores have been considered as nutraceuticals and nutrients showing great antiviral activities with their medicinal like activities. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we discussed the potential prophylactic and/or therapeutic effects of curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores in treatment of viral infections including COVID-19. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Curcuminoids and Zinc classified as nutraceuticals under GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) by FDA can provide complementary treatment for COVID 19 patients with their immunity-boosting and antiviral properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Zinc/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Food , Humans , Inflammation , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Virus Replication
13.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890393

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the importance of public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations in reducing their spread is well established. Furthermore, it is well known that proper nutrition can help support optimal immune function, reducing the impact of infections. Several vitamins and trace elements play an important role in supporting the cells of the immune system, thus increasing the resistance to infections. Other nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, help sustain optimal function of the immune system. The main aim of this manuscript is to discuss of the potential role of micronutrients supplementation in supporting immunity, particularly against respiratory virus infections. Literature analysis showed that in vitro and observational studies, and clinical trials, highlight the important role of vitamins A, C, and D, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc in modulating the immune response. Supplementation with vitamins, omega 3 fatty acids and zinc appears to be a safe and low-cost way to support optimal function of the immune system, with the potential to reduce the risk and consequences of infection, including viral respiratory infections. Supplementation should be in addition to a healthy diet and fall within recommended upper safety limits set by scientific expert bodies. Therefore, implementing an optimal nutrition, with micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, might be a cost-effective, underestimated strategy to help reduce the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/pharmacology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology , Zinc/therapeutic use
14.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 90-91, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797738

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a major health problem affecting all people worldwide and has a high mortality rate especially in critically ill patients. Although much is known about its different clinical symptoms, there are significant knowledge gaps about its pathology and cellular responses to the virus. Copper plays an essential role in respiration, immune function and free-radical defense. Despite its important action in physiochemical properties, only small amount of copper is presented in biological fluid, none of which presents as free ion form that readily affirms its depletion in critically ill patients. Recent studies confirmed its anti-viral capacity. Closer understanding of copper signaling, its vulnerability, method of assessment and interpretation, administration rout and dosage opens up new perspectives regarding therapeutic copper administration against critically ill COVID-19 patients. So, it seems that physicians should consider copper insufficiency in their critically ill COVID-19 patients. However, an attention should be paid to copper toxicity and estimating the adverse responses depending on copper dose or severity of copper limitation, as well as the duration of copper misbalance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Copper/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Copper/administration & dosage , Critical Illness , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/administration & dosage
15.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108545, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670405

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 rapidly turned to a global pandemic posing lethal threats to overwhelming health care capabilities, despite its relatively low mortality rate. The clinical respiratory symptoms include dry cough, fever, anosmia, breathing difficulties, and subsequent respiratory failure. No known cure is available for COVID-19. Apart from the anti-viral strategy, the supports of immune effectors and modulation of immunosuppressive mechanisms is the rationale immunomodulation approach in COVID-19 management. Diet and nutrition are essential for healthy immunity. However, a group of micronutrients plays a dominant role in immunomodulation. The deficiency of most nutrients increases the individual susceptibility to virus infection with a tendency for severe clinical presentation. Despite a shred of evidence, the supplementation of a single nutrient is not promising in the general population. Individuals at high-risk for specific nutrient deficiencies likely benefit from supplementation. The individual dietary and nutritional status assessments are critical for determining the comprehensive actions in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Cough/diet therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/immunology , Cough/pathology , Disease Management , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/diet therapy , Fever/immunology , Fever/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/diet therapy , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diet therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
17.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 39(8): 685-693, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638628

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, the viral pandemic of respiratory illness caused by COVID-19 began sweeping its way across the globe. Several aspects of this infectious disease mimic metabolic events shown to occur during latent subclinical magnesium deficiency. Hypomagnesemia is a relatively common clinical occurrence that often goes unrecognized since magnesium levels are rarely monitored in the clinical setting. Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium. It is involved in >600 enzymatic reactions in the body, including those contributing to the exaggerated immune and inflammatory responses exhibited by COVID-19 patients.Methods: A summary of experimental findings and knowledge of the biochemical role magnesium may play in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is presented in this perspective. The National Academy of Medicine's Standards for Systematic Reviews were independently employed to identify clinical and prospective cohort studies assessing the relationship of magnesium with interleukin-6, a prominent drug target for treating COVID-19.Results: Clinical recommendations are given for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Constant monitoring of ionized magnesium status with subsequent repletion, when appropriate, may be an effective strategy to influence disease contraction and progression. The peer-reviewed literature supports that several aspects of magnesium nutrition warrant clinical consideration. Mechanisms include its "calcium-channel blocking" effects that lead to downstream suppression of nuclear factor-Kß, interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, and other related endocrine disrupters; its role in regulating renal potassium loss; and its ability to activate and enhance the functionality of vitamin D, among others.Conclusion: As the world awaits an effective vaccine, nutrition plays an important and safe role in helping mitigate patient morbidity and mortality. Our group is working with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to collect patient-level data from intensive care units across the United States to better understand nutrition care practices that lead to better outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Minerals/therapeutic use , Nutritional Status , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium/pharmacology , Minerals/blood , Minerals/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nutrition Therapy , Pandemics , Potassium/metabolism , Trace Elements/blood , Trace Elements/pharmacology , Vitamin D/metabolism
18.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100739, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622213

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has put a serious strain on health treatments as well at the economies of many nations. Unfortunately, there is not currently available vaccine for SARS-Cov-2/COVID-19. Various types of patients have delayed treatment or even routine check-ups and we are adapting to a virtual world. In many cases, surgeries are delayed unless they are essential. This is also true with regards to cancer treatments and screening. Interestingly, some existing drugs and nutraceuticals have been screened for their effects on COVID-19. Certain FDA approved drugs, vitamin, natural products and trace minerals may be repurposed to treat or improve the prevention of COVID-19 infections and disease progression. This review article will summarize how the treatments of various cancer patients has changed during the COVID-19 era as well as discuss the promise of some existing drugs and other agents to be repurposed to treat this disease.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
19.
J Med Virol ; 92(5): 479-490, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2489

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19 or 2019-CoV) infection has posed significant threats to international health and the economy. In the absence of treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control the spread of disease. Here, we have conducted an online search for all treatment options related to coronavirus infections as well as some RNA-virus infection and we have found that general treatments, coronavirus-specific treatments, and antiviral treatments should be useful in fighting COVID-19. We suggest that the nutritional status of each infected patient should be evaluated before the administration of general treatments and the current children's RNA-virus vaccines including influenza vaccine should be immunized for uninfected people and health care workers. In addition, convalescent plasma should be given to COVID-19 patients if it is available. In conclusion, we suggest that all the potential interventions be implemented to control the emerging COVID-19 if the infection is uncontrollable.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use
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