Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502470

ABSTRACT

The normal function of the airway epithelium is vital for the host's well-being. Conditions that might compromise the structure and functionality of the airway epithelium include congenital tracheal anomalies, infection, trauma and post-intubation injuries. Recently, the onset of COVID-19 and its complications in managing respiratory failure further intensified the need for tracheal tissue replacement. Thus far, plenty of naturally derived, synthetic or allogeneic materials have been studied for their applicability in tracheal tissue replacement. However, a reliable tracheal replacement material is missing. Therefore, this study used a tissue engineering approach for constructing tracheal tissue. Human respiratory epithelial cells (RECs) were isolated from nasal turbinate, and the cells were incorporated into a calcium chloride-polymerized human blood plasma to form a human tissue respiratory epithelial construct (HTREC). The quality of HTREC in vitro, focusing on the cellular proliferation, differentiation and distribution of the RECs, was examined using histological, gene expression and immunocytochemical analysis. Histological analysis showed a homogenous distribution of RECs within the HTREC, with increased proliferation of the residing RECs within 4 days of investigation. Gene expression analysis revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in gene expression level of proliferative and respiratory epithelial-specific markers Ki67 and MUC5B, respectively, within 4 days of investigation. Immunohistochemical analysis also confirmed the expression of Ki67 and MUC5AC markers in residing RECs within the HTREC. The findings show that calcium chloride-polymerized human blood plasma is a suitable material, which supports viability, proliferation and mucin secreting phenotype of RECs, and this suggests that HTREC can be a potential candidate for respiratory epithelial tissue reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Tissue Engineering/methods , Trachea/transplantation , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelium/metabolism , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Ki-67 Antigen/genetics , Mucin 5AC/analysis , Mucin 5AC/genetics , Mucous Membrane/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture/methods , Respiratory Mucosa/physiology , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/physiology
2.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(10): 100421, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440413

ABSTRACT

Understanding viral tropism is an essential step toward reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, decreasing mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and limiting opportunities for mutant strains to arise. Currently, little is known about the extent to which distinct tissue sites in the human head and neck region and proximal respiratory tract selectively permit SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication. In this translational study, we discover key variabilities in expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), essential SARS-CoV-2 entry factors, among the mucosal tissues of the human proximal airways. We show that SARS-CoV-2 infection is present in all examined head and neck tissues, with a notable tropism for the nasal cavity and tracheal mucosa. Finally, we uncover an association between smoking and higher SARS-CoV-2 viral infection in the human proximal airway, which may explain the increased susceptibility of smokers to developing severe COVID-19. This is at least partially explained by differences in interferon (IFN)-ß1 levels between smokers and non-smokers.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Smokers , Viral Tropism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Cavity/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trachea/metabolism
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403478

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel coronavirus that has spread rapidly around the world, leading to high mortality because of multiple organ dysfunction; however, its underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. To determine the molecular mechanism of multiple organ dysfunction, a bioinformatics analysis method based on a time-order gene co-expression network (TO-GCN) was performed. First, gene expression profiles were downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database (GSE161200), and a TO-GCN was constructed using the breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm to infer the pattern of changes in the different organs over time. Second, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was used to analyze the main biological processes related to COVID-19. The initial gene modules for the immune response of different organs were defined as the research object. The STRING database was used to construct a protein-protein interaction network of immune genes in different organs. The PageRank algorithm was used to identify five hub genes in each organ. Finally, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database played an important role in exploring the potential compounds that target the hub genes. The results showed that there were two types of biological processes: the body's stress response and cell-mediated immune response involving the lung, trachea, and olfactory bulb (olf) after being infected by COVID-19. However, a unique biological process related to the stress response is the regulation of neuronal signals in the brain. The stress response was heterogeneous among different organs. In the lung, the regulation of DNA morphology, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial-related energy metabolism are specific biological processes related to the stress response. In particular, an effect on tracheal stress response was made by the regulation of protein metabolism and rRNA metabolism-related biological processes, as biological processes. In the olf, the distinctive stress responses consist of neural signal transmission and brain behavior. In addition, myeloid leukocyte activation and myeloid leukocyte-mediated immunity in response to COVID-19 can lead to a cytokine storm. Immune genes such as SRC, RHOA, CD40LG, CSF1, TNFRSF1A, FCER1G, ICAM1, LAT, LCN2, PLAU, CXCL10, ICAM1, CD40, IRF7, and B2M were predicted to be the hub genes in the cytokine storm. Furthermore, we inferred that resveratrol, acetaminophen, dexamethasone, estradiol, statins, curcumin, and other compounds are potential target drugs in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/genetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/virology , Transcriptome
4.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1647-1661, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been increasingly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the roles of the GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not fully understood. We investigated how the GI tract is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to elucidate the pathogenesis of COVID-19. METHODS: Our previously established nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 was modified in this study to test our hypothesis. Rhesus monkeys were infected with an intragastric or intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded after infection. Viral genomic RNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology, and mucin barrier integrity. RESULTS: Intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 led to infections and pathologic changes not only in respiratory tissues but also in digestive tissues. Expectedly, intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the productive infection of digestive tissues and inflammation in both the lung and digestive tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were induced by both types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the increased expression of CD68. Immunohistochemistry and Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining showed decreased Ki67, increased cleaved caspase 3, and decreased numbers of mucin-containing goblet cells, suggesting that the inflammation induced by these 2 types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 impaired the GI barrier and caused severe infections. CONCLUSIONS: Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in our rhesus monkey model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gastroenteritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Animals , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa , Gastroenteritis/metabolism , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Goblet Cells/pathology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Intestine, Small/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Nasal Mucosa , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/metabolism , Rectum/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/pathology
5.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 821-830, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human spillovers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to dogs and the emergence of a highly contagious avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus have raised concerns on the role of dogs in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and their susceptibility to existing human and avian influenza viruses, which might result in further reassortment. METHODS: We systematically studied the replication kinetics of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, influenza A viruses of H1, H3, H5, H7, and H9 subtypes, and influenza B viruses of Yamagata-like and Victoria-like lineages in ex vivo canine nasal cavity, soft palate, trachea, and lung tissue explant cultures and examined ACE2 and sialic acid (SA) receptor distribution in these tissues. RESULTS: There was limited productive replication of SARS-CoV-2 in canine nasal cavity and SARS-CoV in canine nasal cavity, soft palate, and lung, with unexpectedly high ACE2 levels in canine nasal cavity and soft palate. Canine tissues were susceptible to a wide range of human and avian influenza viruses, which matched with the abundance of both human and avian SA receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Existence of suitable receptors and tropism for the same tissue foster virus adaptation and reassortment. Continuous surveillance in dog populations should be conducted given the many chances for spillover during outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Lung/virology , Nasal Cavity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trachea/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Dogs , Humans , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/metabolism , Nasal Cavity/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Trachea/metabolism
6.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895404

ABSTRACT

Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV) infects the epithelial cells in the respiratory tract of pigs, causing a mild respiratory disease. We applied air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of well-differentiated porcine airway cells to mimic the respiratory tract epithelium in vitro and use it for analyzing the infection by PRCoV. As reported for most coronaviruses, virus entry and virus release occurred mainly via the apical membrane domain. A novel finding was that PRCoV preferentially targets non-ciliated and among them the non-mucus-producing cells. Aminopeptidase N (APN), the cellular receptor for PRCoV was also more abundantly expressed on this type of cell suggesting that APN is a determinant of the cell tropism. Interestingly, differentiation-dependent differences were found both in the expression of pAPN and the susceptibility to PRCoV infection. Cells in an early differentiation stage express higher levels of pAPN and are more susceptible to infection by PRCoV than are well-differentiated cells. A difference in the susceptibility to infection was also detected when tracheal and bronchial cells were compared. The increased susceptibility to infection of bronchial epithelial cells was, however, not due to an increased abundance of APN on the cell surface. Our data reveal a complex pattern of infection in porcine differentiated airway epithelial cells that could not be elucidated with immortalized cell lines. The results are expected to have relevance also for the analysis of other respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Viral Tropism , Animals , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/virology , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Swine , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/virology , Virus Internalization , Virus Release , Virus Replication
7.
Laryngoscope ; 131(3): E932-E939, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit not only respiratory symptoms but also symptoms of chemo-sensitive disorders. Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the binding of its spike protein to a cellular receptor named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the subsequent spike protein-priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Thus, high expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 is considered to enhance the invading capacity of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: To elucidate the underlying histological mechanisms of the aerodigestive disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2, we investigated the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins using immunohistochemistry, in the aerodigestive tracts of the tongue, hard palate with partial nasal tissue, larynx with hypopharynx, trachea, esophagus, and lung of rats. RESULTS: Co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 proteins was observed in the taste buds of the tongue, nasal epithelium, trachea, bronchioles, and alveoli with varying degrees of expression. Remarkably, TMPRSS2 expression was more distinct in the peripheral alveoli than in the central alveoli. These results coincide with the reported clinical symptoms of COVID-19, such as the loss of taste, loss of olfaction, and respiratory dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of organs have been speculated to be affected by SARS-CoV-2 depending on the expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Differential distribution of TMPRSS2 in the lung indicated the COVID-19 symptoms to possibly be exacerbated by TMPRSS2 expression. This study might provide potential clues for further investigation of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E932-E939, 2021.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Esophagus/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Larynx/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Male , Membrane Proteins/analysis , Models, Animal , Palate, Hard/metabolism , Rats , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tongue/metabolism , Trachea/metabolism , Virus Internalization
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(2): 219-229, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324576

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a predominantly respiratory illness. The first step in SARS-CoV-2 infection is binding of the virus to ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) on the airway epithelium.Objectives: The objective was to gain insight into the expression of ACE2 in the human airway epithelium.Methods: Airway epithelia sampled by fiberoptic bronchoscopy of trachea, large airway epithelia (LAE), and small airway epithelia (SAE) of nonsmokers and smokers were analyzed for expression of ACE2 and other coronavirus infection-related genes using microarray, RNA sequencing, and 10x single-cell transcriptome analysis, with associated examination of ACE2-related microRNA.Measurements and Main Results: 1) ACE2 is expressed similarly in the trachea and LAE, with lower expression in the SAE; 2) in the SAE, ACE2 is expressed in basal, intermediate, club, mucus, and ciliated cells; 3) ACE2 is upregulated in the SAE by smoking, significantly in men; 4) levels of miR-1246 expression could play a role in ACE2 upregulation in the SAE of smokers; and 5) ACE2 is expressed in airway epithelium differentiated in vitro on air-liquid interface cultures from primary airway basal stem/progenitor cells; this can be replicated using LAE and SAE immortalized basal cell lines derived from healthy nonsmokers.Conclusions: ACE2, the gene encoding the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is expressed in the human airway epithelium, with variations in expression relevant to the biology of initial steps in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Smoking/metabolism , Trachea/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL