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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261024, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy has been proposed as an option to help organize the healthcare system to face the unprecedented number of patients hospitalized for a COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care units (ICU). It is, however, considered a particularly high-risk procedure for contamination. This paper aims to provide our experience in performing tracheostomies on COVID-19 critically ill patients during the pandemic and its long-term local complications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients tracheostomized for a COVID-19-related ARDS in two university hospitals in the Paris region between January 27th (date of first COVID-19 admission) and May 18th, 2020 (date of last tracheostomy performed). We focused on tracheostomy technique (percutaneous versus surgical), timing (early versus late) and late complications. RESULTS: Forty-eight tracheostomies were performed with an equal division between surgical and percutaneous techniques. There was no difference in patients' characteristics between surgical and percutaneous groups. Tracheostomy was performed after a median of 17 [12-22] days of mechanical ventilation (MV), with 10 patients in the "early" group (≤ day 10) and 38 patients in the "late" group (> day 10). Survivors required MV for a median of 32 [22-41] days and were ultimately decannulated with a median of 21 [15-34] days spent on cannula. Patients in the early group had shorter ICU and hospital stays (respectively 15 [12-19] versus 35 [25-47] days; p = 0.002, and 21 [16-28] versus 54 [35-72] days; p = 0.002) and spent less time on MV (respectively 17 [14-20] and 35 [27-43] days; p<0.001). Interestingly, patients in the percutaneous group had shorter hospital and rehabilitation center stays (respectively 44 [34-81] versus 92 [61-118] days; p = 0.012, and 24 [11-38] versus 45 [22-71] days; p = 0.045). Of the 30 (67%) patients examined by a head and neck surgeon, 17 (57%) had complications with unilateral laryngeal palsy (n = 5) being the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy seems to be a safe procedure that could help ICU organization by delegating work to a separate team and favoring patient turnover by allowing faster transfer to step-down units. Following guidelines alone was found sufficient to prevent the risk of aerosolization and contamination of healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Paris , Personnel, Hospital , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
6.
Saudi Med J ; 42(11): 1217-1222, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient tracheostomy outcomes. METHODS: All COVID-19 patients at the National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were retrospectively recruited. Those who had tracheostomies between April and December 2020 were included. RESULTS: The population was 45 patients, of which 30 (66.7%) were males, 15 (33.3%) were females and the mean age was 66.76±12.74 years. The tracheostomy indications were anticipated prolonged weaning in 40 (88.9%) and failed extubation in 5 (11.1%) of the patients. The mean intubation to tracheostomy duration was 20.62±7.21 days. Mortalities were high, with most attributed to COVID-19. Mortality and a pre-tracheostomy C-reactive protein (CRP) uptrend were significantly related (p=0.039). Mortality and intubation to tracheostomy duration were not significantly related. The mean post-tracheostomy time to death was 10.64±6.9 days. Among the survivors, 20 (44.4%) males and 11 (24.4%) females were weaned off mechanical ventilation; 9 (20%) remained on ventilation during the study. The mean ventilation weaning time was 27.92±20 days. CONCLUSION: The high mortality rate was attributed to COVID-19. Mortality and a pre-tracheostomy CRP uptrend were significantly related; uptrend patients experienced far more mortalities than downtrend patients. Unlike previous findings, mortality and intubation to tracheostomy duration were not significantly related.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
7.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(5): 389-394, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502830

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency has augmented demand of tracheostomies in intubated patients. Herein, we analyse our experience with suspension laryngoscopy-assisted percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (SL-PDT) to assess the safety for both healthcare personnel and patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent SL-PDT in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) between March 13 and April 17, 2020 (first peak of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic). Results: We included 28 SL-PDTs conducted in the ICU by a single operator using standard personal protective equipment (PPE) for high-risk procedures. The average procedure time was 30 minutes. Intraoperative complications were few, mild and promptly resolved. No operators were infected after the procedure. Conclusions: SL-PDT is a safe and quick technique: it is preferable to open surgical procedures, where air-flow cessation cannot be achieved and droplet emission is high. The cost/benefit ratio is low. A disadvantage is the need for an ENT surgeon who is familiar with direct laryngoscopy, with the main difficulty being the exposure of the upper airways. Minimal air leakage and good control of occasional bleeding makes it a safe procedure for the patient and medical personnel alike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): 1058-1067, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the risk for healthcare providers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study; patients were enrolled between March 11, and April 29, 2020. The date of final follow-up was July 30, 2020. We used a propensity score matching approach to compare outcomes. Study outcomes were formulated before data collection and analysis. SETTING: Critical care units at two large metropolitan hospitals in New York City. PATIENTS: Five-hundred forty-one patients with confirmed severe coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Bedside percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with modified visualization and ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Required time for discontinuation off mechanical ventilation, total length of hospitalization, and overall patient survival. Of the 541 patients, 394 patients were eligible for a tracheostomy. One-hundred sixteen were early percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with median time of 9 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 7-12 d), whereas 89 were late percutaneous dilational tracheostomies with a median time of 19 days after initiation of mechanical ventilation (interquartile range, 16-24 d). Compared with patients with no tracheostomy, patients with an early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had a higher probability of discontinuation from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference, 30%; p < 0.001; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.34-5.84; p = 0.006) and a lower mortality (absolute difference, 34%, p < 0.001; hazard ratio for death, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.22; p < 0.001). Compared with patients with late percutaneous dilational tracheostomy, patients with early percutaneous dilational tracheostomy had higher discontinuation rates from mechanical ventilation (absolute difference 7%; p < 0.35; hazard ratio for successful discontinuation, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.3; p = 0.04) and had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation in survivors (absolute difference, -15 d; p < 0.001). None of the healthcare providers who performed all the percutaneous dilational tracheostomies procedures had clinical symptoms or any positive laboratory test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: In coronavirus disease 2019 patients on mechanical ventilation, an early modified percutaneous dilational tracheostomy was safe for patients and healthcare providers and associated with improved clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Dilatation/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
9.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(12): 1507-1512, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488354

ABSTRACT

The benefits of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) placement have been well documented in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, the data regarding the benefit of PDT in coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) patients are scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of a cohort of 37 patients who underwent tracheostomy as part of their COVID-19 care. Retrospective data from a series for 37 patients undergoing tracheostomy was collected using chart review. Primary outcomes included 30 and 60 day mortality, weaning rate, and decannulation rate. Secondary outcomes collected included admission demographics, comorbidities, and procedural information. Thirty-seven (37) patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation due to COVID-19. Of these 37 patients, 35 were alive 60 days post-PDT placement, 33 have been weaned from mechanical ventilation and 18 have been decannulated. The low mortality and high decannulation rates in this cohort in is a promising development in the care of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Of note, all participating physicians underwent routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 virus and no physician contracted COVID-19 as a result of their involvement. Overall, this case series describes the modified PDT technique used by our team and discusses the feasibility and potential benefit to PDT placement in COVID-19 patients requiring long-term mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(12): 1513-1515, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455880
11.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103240, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437392

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, our institution instituted a Safe Tracheostomy Aftercare Taskforce (STAT) team to care for the influx of patients undergoing tracheostomies. This review was undertaken to understand this team's impact on outcomes of tracheostomy care. METHODS: We compared retrospective data collected from patients undergoing tracheostomies at our institution from February to June 2019, prior to creation of the STAT team, to prospectively collected data from tracheostomies performed from February to June 2020, while the STAT team was in place and performed statistical analysis on outcomes of care such as decannulation prior to discharge, timely tube change, and post-discharge follow-up. RESULTS: We found that the STAT team significantly increased rate of decannulation prior to discharge (P < 0.0005), performance of timely trach tube change when indicated (P < 0.05), and rates of follow-up for tracheostomy patients after discharge from the hospital (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSION: The positive impact of the STAT team on outcomes of patient care such as decannulation prior to discharge, timely tube change, and post-discharge follow-up makes a strong case for its continuation even in non-pandemic times.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/standards , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Care Team/standards , Tracheostomy/standards , Adult , Advisory Committees , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1797-1804, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increased the number of patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation, either through an endotracheal tube or through a tracheostomy. Tracheomalacia is a rare but potentially severe complication of mechanical ventilation, which can significantly complicate the weaning process. The aim of this study was to describe the strategies of airway management in mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2, the incidence of severe tracheomalacia, and investigate the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study was performed in an Italian teaching hospital. All adult subjects admitted to the ICU between February 24, 2020, and June 30, 2020, treated with invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by SARS-CoV-2 were included. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission, whereas information regarding airway management was collected daily. RESULTS: A total of 151 subjects were included in the study. On admission, ARDS severity was mild in 21%, moderate in 62%, and severe in 17% of the cases, with an overall mortality of 40%. A tracheostomy was performed in 73 (48%), open surgical technique in 54 (74%), and percutaneous Ciaglia technique in 19 (26%). Subjects who had a tracheostomy performed had, compared to the other subjects, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and longer ICU and hospital stay. Tracheomalacia was diagnosed in 8 (5%). The factors associated with tracheomalacia were female sex, obesity, and tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, approximately 50% of subjects with ARDS due to SARS-CoV-2 were tracheostomized. Tracheostomized subjects had a longer ICU and hospital stay. In our population, 5% were diagnosed with tracheomalacia. This percentage is 10 times higher than what is reported in available literature, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Tracheomalacia , Adult , Female , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
15.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103230, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427502

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tracheostomy is an aerosol-generating procedure, thus performing it during the COVID-19 pandemic arises considerations such as the most appropriate timing and the patients to whom it is suitable. Medical teams lack sufficient data to assist determining whether or not to conduct tracheostomy, its short- and long-term implications are not fully understood. This study aims to shed light on the critically ill COVID-19 patients that require tracheostomy, and to investigate its value. METHODS: A retrospective multicentral case-control study of 157 hospitalized critically ill COVID-19 patients, among whom 30 patients went through tracheostomy and consisted of our study group. RESULTS: The mean age was similar between study and control groups (68.9 ± 12.7 years vs 70.5 ± 15.8 years, p = 0.57), as well as comorbidity prevalence (56.7% vs 67.7%, p = 0.25). Patients in the study group were hospitalized for longer duration until defined critically ill (5 ± 4.3 vs 3 ± 3.9 days; p = 0.01), until admitted to the intensive care unit (6 ± 6.6 vs 2.5 ± 3.7 days respectively; p = 0.005), and until discharged (24 ± 9.7 vs 10.7 ± 9.1 days, p < 0.001). Mortality rate was lower in the study group (30% vs 59.8%, p = 0.003). Kaplan Meier survival analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in survival time between groups (Log rank chi-sq = 20.91, p < 0.001) with mean survival time of 41 ± 3.1 days vs 21 ± 2.2 days. Survival was significantly longer in the study group (OR = 0.37, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy allows for more prolonged survival for gradually deteriorating critically ill COVID-19 patients. This should be integrated into the medical teams' considerations when debating whether or not to conduct tracheostomy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tracheostomy , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(2): 731-732, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382225
17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(1): 381, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382222
18.
J Am Coll Surg ; 231(6): 786-787, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1382488
19.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 316, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379798

ABSTRACT

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2021. Other selected articles can be found online at https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2021 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from https://link.springer.com/bookseries/8901 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Tracheostomy , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Critical Care , Humans , RNA, Viral/blood , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time-to-Treatment , Tracheostomy/methods
20.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 897-903, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes in patients with laryngeal and tracheal stenosis treated during and prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic period. METHOD: Patients treated for laryngotracheal lesions with impending airway compromise during the active pandemic period were matched with those treated for similar lesions in the preceding years in a monocentric tertiary hospital setting. RESULTS: During the pandemic period of 55 days, 31 patients underwent 47 procedures. Seven patients (2 children, 5 adults) had open airway surgery, and one had an operation-specific complication. Twenty-four patients (10 children, 14 adults) underwent 40 endoscopic interventions without any complications. Operation specific results during and prior to the pandemic were comparable. CONCLUSION: The management strategy in patients with laryngotracheal lesions and impending airway compromise should not be altered during periods of risk from coronavirus disease 2019. Avoiding a tracheostomy by performing primary corrective surgery or proceeding with a definitive decannulation would be beneficial in these patients to reduce the risk of contagion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Laryngostenosis/surgery , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Catheterization/adverse effects , Child, Preschool , Clinical Decision-Making/ethics , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
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