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Br J Anaesth ; 128(3): 482-490, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536454


BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is performed in patients expected to require prolonged mechanical ventilation, but to date optimal timing of tracheostomy has not been established. The evidence concerning tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is particularly scarce. We aimed to describe the relationship between early tracheostomy (≤10 days since intubation) and outcomes for patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study performed in 152 centres across 16 European countries from February to December 2020. We included patients aged ≥70 yr with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to an intensive care unit, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the association between early tracheostomy and clinical outcomes including 3-month mortality, intensive care length of stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The final analysis included 1740 patients with a mean age of 74 yr. Tracheostomy was performed in 461 (26.5%) patients. The tracheostomy rate varied across countries, from 8.3% to 52.9%. Early tracheostomy was performed in 135 (29.3%) patients. There was no difference in 3-month mortality between early and late tracheostomy in either our primary analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.33) or a secondary landmark analysis (HR=0.78; 95% CI, 0.57-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation across Europe in the timing of tracheostomy for critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, we found no evidence that early tracheostomy is associated with any effect on survival amongst older critically ill patients with COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04321265.

COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/mortality , Tracheostomy/mortality , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Correlation of Data , Europe , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Laryngoscope ; 131(12): E2849-E2856, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242750


OBJECTIVE: Report long-term tracheostomy outcomes in patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Review of prospectively collected data. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were extracted for adults with COVID-19 undergoing percutaneous or open tracheostomy between April 4, 2020 and June 2, 2020 at a major medical center in New York City. The primary endpoint was weaning from mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes included sedation weaning, decannulation, and discharge. RESULTS: One hundred one patients underwent tracheostomy, including 48 percutaneous (48%) and 53 open (52%), after a median intubation time of 24 days (IQR 20, 31). The most common complication was minor bleeding (n = 18, 18%). The all-cause mortality rate was 15% and no deaths were attributable to the tracheostomy. Eighty-three patients (82%) were weaned off mechanical ventilation, 88 patients (87%) were weaned off sedation, and 72 patients (71%) were decannulated. Censored median times from tracheostomy to sedation and ventilator weaning were 8 (95% CI 6-11) and 18 (95% CI 14-22) days, respectively (uncensored: 7 and 15 days). Median time from tracheostomy to decannulation was 36 (95% CI 32-47) days (uncensored: 32 days). Of those decannulated, 82% were decannulated during their index admission. There were no differences in outcomes or complication rates between percutaneous and open tracheostomy. Likelihood of discharge from the ICU was inversely related to intubation time, though the clinical relevance of this was small (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.943-0.998; P = .037). CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy by either percutaneous or open technique facilitated sedation and ventilator weaning in patients with COVID-19 after prolonged intubation. Additional study on the optimal timing of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:E2849-E2856, 2021.

COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , Airway Extubation/mortality , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Conscious Sedation/mortality , Conscious Sedation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/mortality , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): 261-270, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930106


OBJECTIVES: Early tracheotomy, defined as a procedure performed within 10 days from intubation, is associated with more ventilator free days, shorter ICU stay, and lower mortality than late tracheotomy. During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, it was especially important to save operating room resources and to have a shorter ICU stay for patients, when ICUs had insufficient beds. In this context of limited resources, early percutaneous tracheostomy could be an effective way to manage mechanically ventilated patients. Nevertheless, current recommendations suggest delaying or avoiding the tracheotomy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Aim of the study was to analyze the hospital mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 patients who had received early percutaneous tracheostomy and factors associated with removal of tracheostomy cannula at ICU discharge. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Coronavirus disease 2019 ICU. PATIENTS: Adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 3 days after ICU admission. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Three days after ICU admission, 164 patients were present in ICU and included in the analysis. One-hundred and twenty-one patients (74%) were tracheostomized, whereas the other 43 (26%) were managed with translaryngeal intubation only. In multivariable analysis, early percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with lower hospital mortality. Sixty-six of tracheostomized patients (55%) were discharged alive from the hospital. Age and male sex were the only characteristics that were independently associated with mortality in the tracheostomized patients (45.5% and 62.8% in tracheostomized and nontracheostomized patients, respectively; p = 0.009). Tracheostomy tube was removed in 47 of the tracheostomized patients (71%). The only variable independently associated with weaning from tracheostomy at ICU discharge was a faster start of spontaneous breathing after tracheotomy was performed. CONCLUSIONS: Early percutaneous tracheostomy was safe and effective in coronavirus disease 2019 patients, giving a good chance of survival and of weaning from tracheostomy cannula at ICU discharge.

COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Survival Analysis