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2.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(3): 482-490, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is performed in patients expected to require prolonged mechanical ventilation, but to date optimal timing of tracheostomy has not been established. The evidence concerning tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is particularly scarce. We aimed to describe the relationship between early tracheostomy (≤10 days since intubation) and outcomes for patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study performed in 152 centres across 16 European countries from February to December 2020. We included patients aged ≥70 yr with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to an intensive care unit, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the association between early tracheostomy and clinical outcomes including 3-month mortality, intensive care length of stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The final analysis included 1740 patients with a mean age of 74 yr. Tracheostomy was performed in 461 (26.5%) patients. The tracheostomy rate varied across countries, from 8.3% to 52.9%. Early tracheostomy was performed in 135 (29.3%) patients. There was no difference in 3-month mortality between early and late tracheostomy in either our primary analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.33) or a secondary landmark analysis (HR=0.78; 95% CI, 0.57-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation across Europe in the timing of tracheostomy for critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, we found no evidence that early tracheostomy is associated with any effect on survival amongst older critically ill patients with COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04321265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/mortality , Tracheostomy/mortality , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Correlation of Data , Europe , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
Am Surg ; 87(11): 1775-1782, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed New York City hospitals early in the pandemic. Shortages of ventilators and sedatives prompted tracheostomy earlier than recommended by professional societies. This study evaluates the impact of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) in COVID+ patients on critical care capacity. METHODS: This is a single-institution prospective case series of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients undergoing PDT from April 1 to June 4, 2020 at a public tertiary care center. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients met PDT criteria and underwent PDT at a median of 13 days (IQR 10, 18) from intubation. Patient characteristics are found in Table 1. Intravenous midazolam, fentanyl, and cisatracurium equivalents were significantly reduced 48 hours post-PDT (Table 2). Thirty-five patients were transferred from the ICU and liberated from the ventilator. Median time from PDT to ventilator liberation and ICU discharge was 10 (IQR 4, 14) and 12 (IQR 8, 17) days, respectively. Decannulation occurred in 45.5% and 52.7% were discharged from acute inpatient care (Figure 1). Median follow-up for the study was 62 days. Four patients had bleeding complications postoperatively and 11 died during the study period. Older age was associated with increased odds of complication (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04, 1.23) and death (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.05, 1.30). All operators tested negative for COVID-19 during the study period. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheostomy within the standard time frame can improve critical care capacity in areas strained by the pandemic with low risk to operators. Long-term outcomes after PDT deserve further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 238, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current practices regarding tracheostomy in patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome are unknown. Our objectives were to assess the prevalence and the association between the timing of tracheostomy (during or after ECMO weaning) and related complications, sedative, and analgesic use. METHODS: International, multicenter, retrospective study in four large volume ECMO centers during a 9-year period. RESULTS: Of the 1,168 patients treated with ECMO for severe ARDS (age 48 ± 16 years, 76% male, SAPS II score 51 ± 18) during the enrollment period, 353 (30%) and 177 (15%) underwent tracheostomy placement during or after ECMO, respectively. Severe complications were uncommon in both groups. Local bleeding within 24 h of tracheostomy was four times more frequent during ECMO (25 vs 7% after ECMO, p < 0.01). Cumulative sedative consumption decreased more rapidly after the procedure with sedative doses almost negligible 48-72 h later, when tracheostomy was performed after ECMO decannulation (p < 0.01). A significantly increased level of consciousness was observed within 72 h after tracheostomy in the "after ECMO" group, whereas it was unchanged in the "during-ECMO" group. CONCLUSION: In contrast to patients undergoing tracheostomy after ECMO decannulation, tracheostomy during ECMO was neither associated with a decrease in sedation and analgesia levels nor with an increase in the level of consciousness. This finding together with a higher risk of local bleeding in the days following the procedure reinforces the need for a case-by-case discussion on the balance between risks and benefits of tracheotomy when performed during ECMO.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Internationality , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Simplified Acute Physiology Score , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Surg Res ; 266: 361-365, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy improves outcomes for critically ill patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Data are limited on the use and benefit of tracheostomies for intubated, critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. During the surge in COVID 19 infections in metropolitan New York/New Jersey, our hospital cared for many COVID-19 patients who required prolonged intubation. This study describes the outcomes in COVID-19 patients who underwent tracheostomy. METHODS: We present a case series of patients with COVID-19 who underwent tracheostomy at a single institution. Tracheostomies were performed on patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation beyond 3 wk. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and ventilator settings prior to tracheostomy were reviewed. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included time on mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Fifteen COVID-19 patients underwent tracheostomy at an average of 31 d post intubation. Two patients (13%) died. Half of our cohort was liberated from the ventilator (8 patients, 53%), with an average time to liberation of 14 ± 6 d after tracheostomy. Among patients off mechanical ventilation, 5 (63%) had their tracheostomies removed prior to discharge. The average intensive care length of stay was 47 ± 13 d (range 29-74 d) and the average hospital stay was 59 ± 16 d (range 34-103 d). CONCLUSIONS: This study reports promising outcomes in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure and need for prolonged ventilation who undergo tracheostomy during their hospitalization. Further research is warranted to establish appropriate indications for tracheostomy in COVID-19 and confirm outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
7.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on ventilated COVID-19 patients, yet the appropriate timing for operating is controversial. OBJECTIVES: Assessing the effect of early tracheostomy on mortality and decannulation; elucidating changes in ventilation parameters, vasopressors and sedatives dosages immediately following the procedure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 38 ventilated COVID-19 patients, 19 of them (50%) underwent tracheostomy within 7 days of intubation (early tracheostomy group) and the rest underwent tracheostomy after 8 days or more (late tracheostomy group). RESULTS: Decannulation rates were significantly higher while mortality rates were non-significantly lower in the early tracheostomy group compared with the late tracheostomy group (58% vs 21% p < 0.05; 42% vs 74% p = 0.1, respectively). Tidal volume increased (446 ml vs 483 ml; p = 0.02) while PEEP (13 cmH20 vs 11.6 cmH2O, p = 0.04) decreased at the immediate time following the procedure. No staff member participating in the procedures was infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSION: Early tracheostomy might offer improved outcomes with higher decannulation rates and lower mortality rates in ventilated COVID-19 patients, yet larger scale studies are needed. Most likely, early exposure to COVID-19 patients with appropriate personal protective equipment during open tracheostomy does not put the surgical team at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Device Removal/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tidal Volume , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data
8.
Cir Cir ; 89(2): 183-188, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158504

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha ocasionado que los servicios de cirugía y de salud en todo el mundo tengan que reorganizarse y planear para poder brindar la mejor atención a los pacientes, con la protección necesaria para el personal de salud. Algunos de estos pacientes requerirán tratamiento quirúrgico, ya sea electivo o de urgencia. OBJETIVO: Reportar la experiencia inicial en el manejo de pacientes con COVID-19 que ameritaron tratamiento quirúrgico por los servicios de cirugía de un hospital de referencia. MÉTODO: Revisión de los protocolos quirúrgicos, equipo de protección personal usado por los equipos quirúrgicos y resultados del tratamiento de 42 pacientes sometidos a cirugía en un periodo de 4 meses. RESULTADOS: Fueron intervenidos 42 pacientes con COVID-19. Treinta pacientes tenían diagnóstico de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y en 12 casos el diagnóstico fue clínico y por imagen. Las cirugías más frecuentes fueron traqueostomía en 16 pacientes (38%) y laparotomías exploradoras en 8 pacientes (19%). La mediana de estancia posoperatoria fue de 17 días y la mortalidad durante los primeros 30 días fue del 26%. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesaria la reorganización de los departamentos quirúrgicos y del hospital para poder atender adecuadamente a los pacientes con COVID-19 y proteger al personal de salud. Los pacientes pueden presentan patologías que requieran tratamiento quirúrgico. Relacionado con la infección y la mayor frecuencia de comorbilidad, la mortalidad de estos pacientes es elevada. INTRODUCTION: the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a reorganization of hospital and general surgery departments worldwide to assure the best medical and surgical treatment of patients with this disease and protection of the health-related personnel. Some of them will require surgical treatment either elective or urgent. OBJECTIVE: report the initial experience in the management of patients with COVID-19 in a third level hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a review of the surgical protocols, personal protection equipment used by the surgical teams, and results of the treatment of forty-two patients submitted to surgery. RESULTS: During four months (April-July 2020) forty-two patients with suspicion or confirmed infection of SARS-CoV2 underwent surgical treatment. The most common surgery was tracheostomy in 16 patients (38%) followed by exploratory laparotomy in 8 patients (19%). The median postoperative stay was 17 days and the thirty-day postoperative mortality rate was 26%. CONCLUSIONS: reorganization of the general surgery department and the hospital, favors adequate management and treatment of patients with COVID-19 and protection to the health-related personnel. Due to the usual co-existence of comorbidities and pulmonary complications the postoperative mortality of these patients is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Laparotomy/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/surgery , Comorbidity , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Time Factors
9.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(1): 27-34, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Information from critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is limited and in many cases coming from health systems approaches different from the national public systems existing in most countries in Europe. Besides, patient follow-up remains incomplete in many publications. Our aim is to characterize acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients admitted to a medical critical care unit (MCCU) in a referral hospital in Spain. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of consecutive ARDS COVID-19 patients admitted and treated in our MCCU. SETTING: 36-bed MCCU in referral tertiary hospital. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal/pharyngeal swabs. INTERVENTIONS: None MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. RESULTS: Forty-four ARDS COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Median age was 61.50 (53.25 - 67) years and most of the patients were male (72.7%). Hypertension and dyslipidemia were the most frequent co-morbidities (52.3 and 36.4% respectively). Steroids (1mg/Kg/day) and tocilizumab were administered in almost all patients (95.5%). 77.3% of the patients needed invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 16 days [11-28]. Prone position ventilation was performed in 33 patients (97%) for a median of 3 sessions [2-5] per patient. Nosocomial infection was diagnosed in 13 patients (29.5%). Tracheostomy was performed in ten patients (29.4%). At study closing all patients had been discharged from the CCU and only two (4.5%) remained in hospital ward. MCCU length of stay was 18 days [10-27]. Mortality at study closing was 20.5% (n 9); 26.5% among ventilated patients. CONCLUSIONS: The seven-week period in which our MCCU was exclusively dedicated to COVID-19 patients has been challenging. Despite the severity of the patients and the high need for invasive mechanical ventilation, mortality was 20.5%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data
10.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(1): 1-7, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064478

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, may need intensive care unit (ICU) admission in up to 12% of all positive cases for massive interstitial pneumonia, with possible long-term endotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation and subsequent tracheostomy. The most common airway-related complications of such ICU maneuvers are laryngotracheal granulomas, webs, stenosis, malacia and, less commonly, tracheal necrosis with tracheo-esophageal or tracheo-arterial fistulae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper gathers the opinions of experts of the Laryngotracheal Stenosis Committee of the European Laryngological Society, with the aim of alerting the medical community about the possible rise in number of COVID-19-related laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS), and the aspiration of paving the way to a more rationale concentration of these cases within referral specialist airway centers. RESULTS: A range of prevention strategies, diagnostic work-up, and therapeutic approaches are reported and framed within the COVID-19 pandemic context. CONCLUSIONS: One of the most important roles of otolaryngologists when encountering airway-related signs and symptoms in patients with previous ICU hospitalization for COVID-19 is to maintain a high level of suspicion for LTS development, and share it with colleagues and other health care professionals. Such a condition requires specific expertise and should be comprehensively managed in tertiary referral centers.


Subject(s)
Airway Management/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Laryngostenosis/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tracheal Stenosis/epidemiology , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Otolaryngologists , Otolaryngology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Tracheostomy/adverse effects
11.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E1797-E1804, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Few studies have reported COVID-19 specific tracheotomy outcomes, and the optimal timing and patient selection criteria for tracheotomy remains undetermined. We delineate our outcomes for tracheotomies performed on COVID-19 patients during the peak of the pandemic at a major epicenter in the United States. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational cohort study. Mortality, ventilation liberation rate, complication rate, and decannulation rate were analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients with COVID-19 underwent tracheotomy between April 1, 2020 and May 19, 2020 at two tertiary care hospitals in Bronx, New York. The average duration of intubation prior to tracheotomy was 20 days ((interquartile range [IQR] 16.5-26.0). The mortality rate was 33% (n = 21), the ventilation liberation rate was 47% (n = 30), the decannulation rate was 28% (n = 18), and the complication rate was 19% (n = 12). Tracheotomies performed by Otolaryngology were associated with significantly improved survival (P < .05) with 60% of patients alive at the conclusion of the study compared to 9%, 12%, and 19% of patients undergoing tracheotomy performed by Critical Care, General Surgery, and Pulmonology, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: So far, this is the second largest study describing tracheotomy outcomes in COVID-19 patients in the United States. Our early outcomes demonstrate successful ventilation liberation and decannulation in COVID-19 patients. Further inquiry is necessary to determine the optimal timing and identification of patient risk factors predictive of improved survival in COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheotomy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4-retrospective cohort study Laryngoscope, 131:E1797-E1804, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Tracheotomy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, High-Volume/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 688-695, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report feasibility, early outcomes and challenges of implementing a 14-day threshold for undertaking surgical tracheostomy in the critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patient. METHODS: Twenty-eight coronavirus disease 2019 patients underwent tracheostomy. Demographics, risk factors, ventilatory assistance, organ support and logistics were assessed. RESULTS: The mean time from intubation to tracheostomy formation was 17.0 days (standard deviation = 4.4, range 8-26 days). Mean time to decannulation was 15.8 days (standard deviation = 9.4) and mean time to intensive care unit stepdown to a ward was 19.2 days (standard deviation = 6.8). The time from intubation to tracheostomy was strongly positively correlated with: duration of mechanical ventilation (r(23) = 0.66; p < 0.001), time from intubation to decannulation (r(23) = 0.66; p < 0.001) and time from intubation to intensive care unit discharge (r(23) = 0.71; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Performing a tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients at 8-14 days following intubation is compatible with favourable outcomes. Multidisciplinary team input is crucial to patient selection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/methods , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 99(9): 565-566, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141704

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during the first months of 2020 is causing profound changes in worldwide health care systems, resulting in a major reduction of surgical interventions and routine non-urgent outpatient diagnostic procedures. The lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, one of the most affected countries in Europe, is having severe effects on the otolaryngology medical and surgical activities. The main changes are represented by the postponement of outpatient visits and scheduled surgery, while the only guaranteed service is reserved to diagnostics and surgery for oncology and urgent patients. In these cases, given the sites of action typical of the otolaryngology practice, physicians and nurses are exposed to a high risk of contagion through virus aerosol transmission. Furthermore, as the current measures of lockdown continue, it will be difficult to perform scheduled and new diagnostic assessments, medical treatments and surgical procedures in a timely manner favoring the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic delays with severe impact on patients' health.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Otolaryngology , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Biopsy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data
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