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1.
Chest ; 160(6): e613-e617, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544871

ABSTRACT

This is the first report to our knowledge of a successful total tracheal replacement in a post-COVID-19 patient by cryopreserved aortic allograft. The graft was anastomosed to the cricoid and carina; a silicon stent was inserted to ensure patency. The patient was extubated on the operative table and was immediately able to breathe, speak, and swallow. No immunosuppression was administered. Three weeks after surgery, the patient was discharged from hospital in excellent health, and was able to resume his normal lifestyle, work, and activity as an amateur cyclist. Two months after surgery, the patient assumes aerosol with saline solution three times per day and no other therapy; routine bronchoscopy to clear secretions is no longer needed.


Subject(s)
Aorta/transplantation , COVID-19/complications , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Tracheal Stenosis/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Cryopreservation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tracheal Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Tracheotomy
4.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 59, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the early part of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery (CSO-HNS) task force published recommendations on performance of tracheotomy. Since then, our understanding of the virus has evolved with ongoing intensive research efforts. New literature has helped us better understand various aspects including patient outcomes and health care worker (HCW) risks associated with tracheotomy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Accordingly, the task force has re-evaluated and revised some of the previous recommendations. MAIN BODY: Based on recent evidence, a negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) COVID-19 swab status is no longer the main deciding factor in the timing of tracheotomy. Instead, tracheotomy may be considered as soon as COVID-19 swab positive patients are greater than 20 days beyond initial symptoms and 2 weeks of mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, both open and percutaneous surgical techniques may be considered with both techniques showing similar safety and outcome profiles. Additional recommendations with discussion of current evidence are presented. CONCLUSION: These revised recommendations apply new evidence in optimizing patient and health care system outcomes as well as minimizing risks of COVID-19 transmission during aerosol-generating tracheotomy procedures. As previously noted, additional evidence may lead to further evolution of these and other similar recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control , Otolaryngology , Tracheotomy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Canada , Critical Care , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Patient Selection , Practice Guidelines as Topic
5.
Head Neck ; 43(12): 3743-3756, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimal timing for tracheotomy for critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is not established. METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort including all COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 36 hospitals who required tracheotomy during first pandemic wave. With a target emulation trial framework, we studied the causal effects of early (7-10 days) versus late (>10 days) tracheotomy (LT) on time from tracheotomy to weaning, postoperative mortality, and tracheotomy complications. RESULTS: Of 696 patients, 20.4% received early tracheotomy (ET). ET was associated with faster weaning (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval, CI]: 1.25 [1.00-1.56]) without differences in mortality (HR [95% CI]: 0.85 [0.60-1.21]) or complications (adjusted rate ratio [95% CI]: 0.56 [0.23-1.33]). CONCLUSIONS: ET had a similar or lower post-tracheotomy weaning time than LT, potentially shortening IMV and ICU stays, without changing complication or mortality rates in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy
7.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1392-1396, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384168

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 pandemic continues to produce a large number of patients with chronic respiratory failure and ventilator dependence. As such, surgeons will be called upon to perform tracheotomy for a subset of these chronically intubated patients. As seen during the SARS and the SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) have been associated with higher rates of infection of medical personnel and potential acceleration of viral dissemination throughout the medical center. Therefore, a thoughtful approach to tracheotomy (and other AGPs) is imperative and maintaining traditional management norms may be unsuitable or even potentially harmful. We sought to review the existing evidence informing best practices and then develop straightforward guidelines for tracheotomy during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This communication is the product of those efforts and is based on national and international experience with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the SARS epidemic of 2002/2003.


Subject(s)
Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Tracheotomy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Ventilator Weaning/methods
8.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(7): 678-679, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340220
9.
Ann Surg ; 274(2): 234-239, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Tracheostomy has an essential role in managing COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, limited data are available on how tracheostomy affects COVID-19 outcomes, and uncertainty surrounding risk of infectious transmission has led to divergent recommendations and practices. METHODS: It is a multicenter, retrospective study; data were collected on all tracheostomies performed in COVID-19 patients at 7 hospitals in 5 tertiary academic medical systems from February 1, 2020 to September 4, 2020. RESULT: Tracheotomy was performed in 118 patients with median time from intubation to tracheostomy of 22 days (Q1-Q3: 18-25). All tracheostomies were performed employing measures to minimize aerosol generation, 78.0% by percutaneous technique, and 95.8% at bedside in negative pressure rooms. Seventy-eight (66.1%) patients were weaned from the ventilator and 18 (15.3%) patients died from causes unrelated to tracheostomy. No major procedural complications occurred. Early tracheostomy (≤14 days) was associated with decreased ventilator days; median ventilator days (Q1-Q3) among patients weaned from the ventilator in the early, middle and late groups were 21 (21-31), 34 (26.5-42), and 37 (32-41) days, respectively with P = 0.030. Compared to surgical tracheostomy, percutaneous technique was associated with faster weaning for patients weaned off the ventilator [median (Q1-Q3): 34 (29-39) vs 39 (34-51) days, P = 0.038]; decreased ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.7% vs 80.8%, P = 0.039); and among patients who were discharged, shorter intensive care unit duration [median (Q1-Q3): 33 (27-42) vs 47 (33-64) days, P = 0.009]; and shorter hospital length of stay [median (Q1-Q3): 46 (33-59) vs 59.5 (48-80) days, P = 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Early, percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with improved outcomes compared to surgical tracheostomy in a multi-institutional series of ventilated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/methods , United States
10.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 79(8): 1629-1642, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248986

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Approximately 3-15% of COVID-19 patients will require prolonged mechanical ventilation thereby requiring consideration for tracheotomy. Guidelines for tracheotomy in this cohort of patients are therefore required with assessed outcomes of tracheotomies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheotomy. Inclusion criteria were the performance of a tracheotomy in COVID-19 positive patients between March 11 and December 31, 2020. Exclusion criteria were lack of consent, extubation prior to the performance of a tracheotomy, death prior to the performance of the tracheotomy, and COVID-19 patients undergoing tracheotomy who tested negative twice after medical treatment. The primary predictor variable was the performance of a tracheotomy in COVID-19 positive patients and the primary outcome variable was the time to cessation of mechanical ventilation with the institution of supplemental oxygen via trach mask. RESULTS: Seventeen tracheotomies were performed between 4-25 days following intubation (mean = 17 days). Seven patients died between 4 and 16 days (mean = 8.7 days) following tracheotomy and 10 living patients realized cessation of mechanical ventilation from 4 hours to 61 days following tracheotomy (mean = 19.3 days). These patients underwent tracheotomy between 4 and 22 days following intubation (mean = 14 days). The 7 patients who died following tracheotomy underwent the procedure between 7 and 25 days following intubation (mean = 18.2 days). Seven patients underwent tracheotomy on or after 20 days of intubation and 3 survived (43%). Ten patients underwent tracheotomy before 20 days of intubation and 7 patients survived (70%). Significant differences between the mortality groups were detected for age (P = .006), and for P/F ratio at time of consult (P = .047) and the time of tracheotomy (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Tracheotomies are safely performed in COVID-19 patients with a standardized protocol. The timing of tracheotomy in COVID-19 patients is based on ventilator parameters, P/F ratio, patient prognosis, patient advanced directives, and family wishes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheotomy , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
11.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 36850421998487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207543

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic had a significant impact on the Italian healthcare system, although geographical differences were present; regions in northern Italy have been the most severely affected while regions in the south of the country were relatively spared. Otolaryngologists were actively involved in the management of the pandemic. In this work, we analyzed and compared the otolaryngology surgical activity performed during the pandemic in two large public hospitals located in different Italian regions. In northern Italy, otolaryngologists were mainly involved in performing surgical tracheotomies in COVID-19 positive patients and contributed to the management of these patients in intensive care units. In central Italy, where the burden of the infection was significantly lower, otolaryngologists focused on diagnosis and treatment of emergency and oncology patients. This analysis confirms the important role of the otolaryngology specialists during the pandemic, but also highlights specific differences between two large hospitals in different Italian regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/surgery , COVID-19/virology , Geography , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tracheotomy
12.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(7): 678-679, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196366
13.
15.
HNO ; 69(8): 650-657, 2021 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID(coronavirus disease)-19 pandemic is characterized by high infectivity, droplet transmission, and high viral load in the upper respiratory tract. Severe disease courses are associated with interstitial pneumonia and ventilated patients, in whom tracheotomy (TT)-a droplet- and aerosol-producing medical intervention-is regularly necessary. TT as a potential infection risk for medical staff is scarcely found in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify droplet exposure of the surgical team during TT, to better define the requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgical TT was performed in four non-infectious patients, during which the surgeon and his assistant both wore a surgical nasal mask with a transparent visor. After the procedure, the type, distribution, and number of droplets on the visor were determined macroscopically and microscopically. RESULTS: An average of 29 droplets were found on the middle third of the visor, 4 on the right third, and 13 on the left third, with an average droplet size of 571 µm (±â€¯381 µm). The smallest droplets were 55 µm, the largest 1431 µm. An increase in the number of droplets was found with increased ventilation during the procedure. Blood droplets were more common than secretion droplets. CONCLUSION: Contamination of the visor with droplets was demonstrated. Especially in the case of TT in highly infectious patients, e.g., COVID-19 patients, the use of hooded headgear in combination with breathing apparatus with air purification and power supply is recommended to ensure best protection from infection for the surgeon and the surgical assistant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/adverse effects
16.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 165(6): 819-826, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147429

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish the presence of live virus and its association with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity and antibody status in patients with COVID-19 undergoing tracheotomy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Single institution across 3 hospital sites during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Patients who were intubated for respiratory wean tracheotomy underwent SARS-CoV-2 PCR nasal, throat, and endotracheal tube swabs at the time of the procedure. These were assessed via quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The tracheal tissue excised during the tracheotomy was cultured for SARS-CoV-2 with Vero E6 and Caco2 cells. Serum was assessed for antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 via neutralization assays. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were included in this study. The mean number of days intubated prior to undergoing surgical tracheotomy was 27.8. At the time of the surgical tracheotomy, PCR swab testing yielded 8 positive results, but none of the 35 individuals who underwent tissue culture were positive for SARS-CoV-2. All 18 patients who had serum sampling demonstrated neutralization antibodies, with a minimum titer of 1:80. CONCLUSION: In our series, irrespective of positive PCR swab, the likelihood of infectivity during tracheotomy remains low given negative tracheal tissue cultures. While our results do not undermine national and international guidance on tracheotomy after day 10 of intubation, given the length of time to procedure in our data, infectivity at 10 days cannot be excluded. We do however suggest that a preoperative negative PCR swab not be a prerequisite and that antibody titer levels may serve as a useful adjunct for assessment of infectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tracheotomy , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vero Cells
17.
Shock ; 55(4): 472-478, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140043

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading worldwide. Since the main route of infection with SARS-CoV-2 is probably via contact with virus-containing droplets of the exhaled air, any method of securing the airway is of extremely high risk for the health care professionals involved. We evaluated the aerosol exposure to the interventional team during a tracheotomy in a semiquantitative fashion. In addition, we present novel protective measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To visualize the air movements occurring during a tracheotomy, we used a breathing simulator filled with artificial fog. Normal breathing and coughing were simulated under surgery. The speed of aerosol propagation and particle density in the direct visual field of the surgeon were evaluated. RESULTS: Laminar air flow (LAF) in the OR reduced significantly the aerosol exposure during tracheostomy. Only 4.8 ±â€Š3.4% of the aerosol was in contact with the surgeon. Without LAF, however, the aerosol density in the inspiratory area of the surgeon is 10 times higher (47.9 ±â€Š10.8%, P < 0.01). Coughing through the opened trachea exposed the surgeon within 400 ms with 76.0 ±â€Š8.0% of the aerosol-independent of the function of the LAF. Only when a blocked tube was inserted into the airway, no aerosol leakage could be detected. DISCUSSION: Coughing and expiration during a surgical tracheotomy expose the surgical team considerably to airway aerosols. This is potentially associated with an increased risk for employees being infected by airborne-transmitted pathogens. Laminar airflow in an operating room leads to a significant reduction in the aerosol exposure of the surgeon and is therefore preferable to a bedside tracheotomy in terms of infection prevention. Ideal protection of medical staff is achieved when the procedure is performed under endotracheal intubation and muscle relaxation.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure , Surgeons , Tracheotomy , Cough/complications , Environment, Controlled , Humans , Operating Rooms , Patient Simulation , Point-of-Care Systems , Respiration , Risk , Virion , Visual Fields
20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(11): 4501-4507, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092672

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus infection disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes in 10% of patients a severe respiratory distress syndrome managed with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), sometimes difficult to wean. The role of tracheotomy is debated for the possible risks for patients and staff. We are going to describe here our experience with surgical tracheotomy in COVID-19 positive patients. METHODS: We enrolled all intensive care unit (ICU) patients requiring longer than 10 days of IMV. Demographic, clinical, respiratory, complications, and outcomes data were collected, in a particular length of weaning from sedation and IMV, in-ICU and in-hospital mortality rate. All healthcare operators involved were tested for SARS-CoV2 by pharyngeal swab and blood test (antibody test). RESULTS: 13 out of 68 ICU patients (19.1%) underwent surgical tracheotomy after a median intubation period of 14 days. The mean age was 60 (56-65) years. 85% were male patients. Postoperative mild bleeding was seen in 30.7%, pneumothorax in 7.7%. Mean weaning from sedation required 3 days, 19 days from IMV. In-ICU and in-hospital COVID-infection-related mortality was 23.1% and 30.7%, respectively. None of the healthcare operators was found SARS-CoV2 positive during the period of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 pandemic surgical tracheotomy enables to wean from sedation and subsequently from IMV in a safe way for both patients and personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/adverse effects
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