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1.
J Appl Microbiol ; 134(1)2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308562

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the effects of the Qingwen Gupi decoction (QGT) in a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF), and explore the underlying mechanisms by integrating UPLC-Q-TOF/MS metabolomics and 16S rDNA sequencing of gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: The animals were randomly divided into the control, PF model, pirfenidone-treated, and low-, medium-, and high-dose QGT groups. The lung tissues were examined and the expression of TGF-ß, SMAD-3, and SMAD-7 mRNAs in the lung tissues were analyzed. Metabolomic profiles were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and the intestinal flora were examined by prokaryotic 16 rDNA sequencing. Pathological examination and biochemical indices revealed that QGT treatment improved the symptoms of PF by varying degrees. Furthermore, QGT significantly downregulated TGF-ß1 and Smad-3 mRNAs and increased the expression levels of Smad-7. QGT-L in particular increased the levels of 18 key metabolic biomarkers that were associated with nine gut microbial species and may exert antifibrosis effects through arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and phenylalanine metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: QGT alleviated PF in a rat model through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fibrotic effects, and by reversing bleomycin-induced gut dysbiosis.This study lays the foundation for further research on the pathological mechanisms of PF and the development of new drug candidates.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Rats , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Metabolomics
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 248, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence revealed that age could affect immune responses in patients with the acute respiratory syndrome of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study investigated the impact of age on immune responses, especially on the interaction between the tumor growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) and interferon type-I (IFN-I) axes in the pathogenesis of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This age-matched case-control investigation enrolled 41 COVID-19 patients and 40 healthy controls categorized into four groups, including group 1 (up to 20 years), group 2 (20-40 years), group 3 (40-60 years), and group 4 (over 60 years). Blood samples were collected at the time of admission. The expression of TGF-ßRI, TGF-ßRII, IFNARI, IFNARII, interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9), and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) was measured using the real-time PCR technique. In addition, serum levels of TGF-ß, IFN-α, and SERPINE1 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. All biomarkers were measured and analyzed in the four age studies groups. RESULTS: The expression of TGF-ßRI, TGF-ßRII, IFNARI, IFNARII, IRF9, and SMAD3 was markedly upregulated in all age groups of patients compared with the matched control groups. Serum levels of IFN-α and SERPINE1 were significantly higher in patient groups than in control groups. While TGF-ß serum levels were only significantly elevated in the 20 to 40 and over 60 years patient group than in matched control groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data showed that the age of patients, at least at the time of admission, may not significantly affect TGF-ß- and IFN-I-associated immune responses. However, it is possible that the severity of the disease affects these pathway-mediated responses, and more studies with a larger sample size are needed to verify it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Neoplasms , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2 , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
3.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 30(12): 1575-1582, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262066

ABSTRACT

The field of osteoarthritis (OA) biology is rapidly evolving and brilliant progress has been made this year as well. Landmark studies of OA biology published in 2021 and early 2022 were selected through PubMed search by personal opinion. These papers were classified by their molecular mechanisms, and it was largely divided into the intracellular signaling mechanisms and the inter-compartment interaction in chondrocyte homeostasis and OA progression. The intracellular signaling mechanisms involving OA progression included (1) Piezo1/transient receptor potential channels of the vanilloid subtype (TRPV) 4-mediated calcium signaling, (2) mechanical load-F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBXW7) in chondrocyte senescence, (3) mechanical loading-primary cilia-hedgehog signaling, (4) low grade inflammation by toll-like receptor (TLR)-CD14-lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) complex and inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK) ß-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, (5) selenium pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, (6) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, (7) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-acyl-CoA thioesterase 12 (ACOT12)-mediated de novo lipogenesis and (8) hypoxia-disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like (DOT1L)-H3-lysine 79 (H3K79) methylation pathway. The studies on inter-compartment or intercellular interaction in OA progression included the following subjects; (1) the anabolic role of lubricin, glycoprotein from superficial zone cells, (2) osteoclast-chondrocyte interaction via exosomal miRNA and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), (3) senescent fibroblast-like synoviocyte and chondrocyte interaction, (4) synovial macrophage and chondrocyte interaction through Flightless I, (5) αV integrin-mediated transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) activation by mechanical loading, and (6) osteocytic TGFß in subchondral bone thickening. Despite the disastrous Covid-19 pandemic, many outstanding studies have expanded the boundary of OA biology. They provide both critical insight into the pathophysiology as well as clues for the treatment of OA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Hedgehog Proteins , Pandemics , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Biology , Ion Channels/metabolism , Thiolester Hydrolases/metabolism
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 161: 114481, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254896

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to pose threats to public health. The clinical manifestations of lung pathology in COVID-19 patients include sustained inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. The macrocyclic diterpenoid ovatodiolide (OVA) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-allergic, and analgesic activities. Here, we investigated the pharmacological mechanism of OVA in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 infection and pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that OVA was an effective SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor and showed remarkable inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, OVA ameliorated pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin (BLM)-induced mice, reducing inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition in the lung. OVA decreased the levels of pulmonary hydroxyproline and myeloperoxidase, as well as lung and serum TNF-ɑ, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TGF-ß in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrotic mice. Meanwhile, OVA reduced the migration and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion of TGF-ß1-induced fibrotic human lung fibroblasts. Consistently, OVA downregulated TGF-ß/TßRs signaling. In computational analysis, OVA resembles the chemical structures of the kinase inhibitors TßRI and TßRII and was shown to interact with the key pharmacophores and putative ATP-binding domains of TßRI and TßRII, showing the potential of OVA as an inhibitor of TßRI and TßRII kinase. In conclusion, the dual function of OVA highlights its potential for not only fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection but also managing injury-induced pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diterpenes , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Mice , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung , Diterpenes/adverse effects , Bleomycin/pharmacology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Fibroblasts , Signal Transduction
5.
Inflammopharmacology ; 31(3): 1167-1182, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257642

ABSTRACT

The "Thalidomide tragedy" is a landmark in the history of the pharmaceutical industry. Despite limited clinical trials, there is a continuous effort to investigate thalidomide as a drug for cancer and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lepromatous leprosy, and COVID-19. This review focuses on the possibilities of targeting inflammation by repurposing thalidomide for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Articles were searched from the Scopus database, sorted, and selected articles were reviewed. The content includes the proven mechanisms of action of thalidomide relevant to IPF. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and epigenetic mechanisms are major pathogenic factors in IPF. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) is the major biomarker of IPF. Thalidomide is an effective anti-inflammatory drug in inhibiting TGF-ß, interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1ß), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Thalidomide binds cereblon, a process that is involved in the proposed mechanism in specific cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, multiple myeloma, and lung cancer. Cereblon is involved in activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-TGF-ß/Smad signalling, thereby attenuating fibrosis. The past few years have witnessed an improvement in the identification of biomarkers and diagnostic technologies in respiratory diseases, partly because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, investment in clinical trials with a systematic plan can help repurpose thalidomide for pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Thalidomide/therapeutic use , Thalidomide/metabolism , Thalidomide/pharmacology , Pandemics , COVID-19/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Lung
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286427

ABSTRACT

BAMBI (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) is a transmembrane pseudoreceptor structurally related to transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß type 1 receptors (TGF-ß1Rs). BAMBI lacks a kinase domain and functions as a TGF-ß1R antagonist. Essential processes such as cell differentiation and proliferation are regulated by TGF-ß1R signaling. TGF-ß is the best-studied ligand of TGF-ßRs and has an eminent role in inflammation and fibrogenesis. Liver fibrosis is the end stage of almost all chronic liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and at the moment, there is no effective anti-fibrotic therapy available. Hepatic BAMBI is downregulated in rodent models of liver injury and in the fibrotic liver of patients, suggesting that low BAMBI has a role in liver fibrosis. Experimental evidence convincingly demonstrated that BAMBI overexpression is able to protect against liver fibrosis. Chronic liver diseases have a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and BAMBI was shown to exert tumor-promoting as well as tumor-protective functions. This review article aims to summarize relevant studies on hepatic BAMBI expression and its role in chronic liver diseases and HCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Activins , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins , Membrane Proteins
7.
Am J Chin Med ; 51(3): 651-676, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269325

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressive pulmonary disease with no effective treatment and high mortality. Resveratrol has shown promising benefits in the treatment of PF. However, the probable efficacy and underlying mechanism of resveratrol in PF treatment remain unclear. This study investigates the intervention effects and potential mechanisms underpinning the treatment of PF with resveratrol. The histopathological analysis of lung tissues in PF rats showed that resveratrol improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammation. Resveratrol decreased the levels of collagen, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase, and hydroxyproline, lowered total anti-oxidant capacity, and suppressed the migration of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 and LPS-induced 3T6 fibroblasts. With resveratrol intervention, the protein and RNA expressions of TGF-[Formula: see text]1, a-SMA, Smad3/4, p-Smad3/4, CTGF, and p-ERK1/2 were markedly downregulated. Similarly, the protein and RNA expression levels of Col-1 and Col-3 were significantly downregulated. However, Smad7 and ERK1/2 were evidently upregulated. The protein and mRNA expression levels of TGF-[Formula: see text], Smad, and p-ERK correlated positively with the lung index, while the protein and mRNA expression levels of ERK correlated negatively with the lung index. These results reveal that resveratrol may have therapeutic effects on PF by reducing collagen deposition, oxidation, and inflammation. The mechanism is associated with the regulation of the TGF-[Formula: see text]/Smad/ERK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Fibrosis , Rats , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Inflammation , RNA, Messenger , RNA/adverse effects
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2128, 2023 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267535

ABSTRACT

Lung fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, is an intractable disease accompanied by an irreversible dysfunction in the respiratory system. Its pathogenesis involves the transforming growth factorß (TGFß)-induced overproduction of the extracellular matrix from fibroblasts; however, limited countermeasures have been established. In this study, we identified osa-miR172d-5p, a plant-derived microRNA (miR), as a potent anti-fibrotic miR. In silico analysis followed by an in vitro assay based on human lung fibroblasts demonstrated that osa-miR172d-5p suppressed the gene expression of TGF-ß activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7) binding protein 1 (Tab1). It also suppressed the TGFß-induced fibrotic gene expression in human lung fibroblasts. To assess the anti-fibrotic effect of osa-miR172d-5p, we established bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis models to demonstrate that osa-miR172d-5p ameliorated lung fibrosis. Moreover, it suppressed Tab1 expression in the lung tissues of bleomycin-treated mice. In conclusion, osa-miR172d-5p could be a potent candidate for the treatment of lung fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , MicroRNAs , Humans , Mice , Animals , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis , Bleomycin/toxicity , Bleomycin/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 934264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198854

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for COVID-19, has caused a global pandemic. Observational studies revealed a condition, herein called as Long-COVID syndrome (PC), that affects both moderately and severely infected patients, reducing quality-of-life. The mechanism/s underlying the onset of fibrotic-like changes in PC are still not well defined. The goal of this study was to understand the involvement of the Absent in melanoma-2 (AIM2) inflammasome in PC-associated lung fibrosis-like changes revealed by chest CT scans. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from PC patients who did not develop signs of lung fibrosis were not responsive to AIM2 activation by Poly dA:dT. In sharp contrast, PBMCs from PC patients with signs of lung fibrosis were highly responsive to AIM2 activation, which induced the release of IL-1α, IFN-α and TGF-ß. The recognition of Poly dA:dT was not due to the activation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase, a stimulator of interferon response (cGAS-STING) pathways, implying a role for AIM2 in PC conditions. The release of IFN-α was caspase-1- and caspase-4-dependent when AIM2 was triggered. Instead, the release of pro-inflammatory IL-1α and pro-fibrogenic TGF-ß were inflammasome independent because the inhibition of caspase-1 and caspase-4 did not alter the levels of the two cytokines. Moreover, the responsiveness of AIM2 correlated with higher expression of the receptor in circulating CD14+ cells in PBMCs from patients with signs of lung fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA-Binding Proteins , Pulmonary Fibrosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier Proteins , Caspase 1/immunology , DNA-Binding Proteins/blood , DNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/blood , Inflammasomes/immunology , Interferon-alpha/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/blood , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
10.
Life Sci ; 314: 121256, 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165678

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a terminal lung ailment that shares several pathological and genetic mechanisms with severe COVID-19. Thymol (THY) is a dietary compound found in thyme species that showed therapeutic effects against various diseases. However, the effect of THY against bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis was not previously investigated. The current study investigated the ability of THY to modulate oxidative stress, inflammation, miR-29a/TGF-ß expression, and PI3K/phospho-Akt signaling in lung fibrosis. Mice were divided into Normal, THY (100 mg/kg, p.o.), BLM (15 mg/kg, i.p.), BLM + THY (50 mg/kg, p.o.), and BLM + THY (100 mg/kg, p.o.) groups and treated for four weeks. The obtained results showed that BLM + THY (50 mg/kg) and BLM + THY (100 mg/kg) reduced fibrotic markers; α-SMA and fibronectin, inflammatory mediators; TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and NF-kB and oxidative stress biomarkers; MDA, GSH, and SOD, relative to BLM group. Lung histopathological examination by H&E and Masson's trichrome stains confirmed the obtained results. Remarkably, expression levels of TGF-ß, PI3K, and phospho-Akt were decreased while miR-29a expression was elevated. In conclusion, THY effectively prevented BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by exerting significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Our novel findings that THY upregulated lung miR-29a expression while decreased TGF-ß and PI3K/Akt signaling are worthy of further investigation as a possible molecular mechanism for THY's anti-fibrotic actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Mice , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Bleomycin/toxicity , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Thymol/therapeutic use , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Fibrosis , MicroRNAs/metabolism
11.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 204: 115210, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982612

ABSTRACT

In this review it is attempted to summarize current studies about formation of eicosanoids and other oxylipins in different human macrophages. There are several reports on M1 and M2 cells, also other phenotypes have been described. The eicosanoids formed in the largest amounts are the COX products TxB2 and PGE2. Thus shortlived bioactive TxA2 is a dominating product both in M1- and in M2-lineages, one exception seems to be MGM-CSF, TGFß cells. 5-LOX products are produced in both M1 and M2 macrophages, as well as in not fully polarized cells of both lineages. MM-CSF as well as M2 macrophages produced LTC4 more readily compared to M1 lineage cells. In MGM-CSF, TGFß cells LTB4 is a major eicosanoid, in line with high expression of LTA4 hydrolase. Recent reports described increased formation of leukotrienes in macrophages subjected to trained immunity with inflammatory transcriptional reprogramming. Also in macrophages derived from monocytes collected from post-COVID-19 patients. 15-LOX-1 is strongly upregulated in CD206+ M2 cells (M2a), differentiated in presence of IL-4. These macrophages also express 15-LOX-2. In incubations with pathogenic E. coli as well as other stimuli 15(S)-HETE and 17(S)-HDHA were major oxylipins formed. Also, the SPM precursor 5,15-diHETE and the SPM RvD5 were produced in considerable amounts, while other SPMs were less abundant. In M2 macrophages incubated with E. coli or S. aureus the cytosolic 15-LOX-1 enzyme accumulated to punctuate structures in a Ca2+ dependent manner with a relatively slow time course, leading to formation of mediators from endogenous substrate. Chalcones, flavone-like anti-inflammatory natural products, induced translocation of 15-LOX-1 in M2 cells, with high formation of 15-LOX derived oxylipins.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Eicosanoids , Macrophages , Oxylipins , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , COVID-19 , Chalcones , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Eicosanoids/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Flavones , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Hydrolases/metabolism , Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids/metabolism , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Leukotrienes , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages/metabolism , Oxylipins/metabolism , Prostaglandins E/metabolism , Scavenger Receptors, Class E/metabolism , Staphylococcus aureus , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
12.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911637

ABSTRACT

Screening of a protein kinase inhibitor library identified SB431542, targeting activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5), as a compound interfering with SARS-CoV-2 replication. Since ALK5 is implicated in transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) signaling and regulation of the cellular endoprotease furin, we pursued this research to clarify the role of this protein kinase for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We show that TGF-ß1 induces the expression of furin in a broad spectrum of cells including Huh-7 and Calu-3 that are permissive for SARS-CoV-2. The inhibition of ALK5 by incubation with SB431542 revealed a dose-dependent downregulation of both basal and TGF-ß1 induced furin expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ALK5 inhibitors SB431542 and Vactosertib negatively affect the proteolytic processing of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and significantly reduce spike-mediated cell-cell fusion. This correlated with an inhibitory effect of ALK5 inhibition on the production of infectious SARS-CoV-2. Altogether, our study shows that interference with ALK5 signaling attenuates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and cell-cell spread via downregulation of furin which is most pronounced upon TGF-ß stimulation. Since a TGF-ß dominated cytokine storm is a hallmark of severe COVID-19, ALK5 inhibitors undergoing clinical trials might represent a potential therapy option for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Cell Fusion , Furin , Humans , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type I , Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785739

ABSTRACT

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a frequently used plasticizer that may be linked to the development of endometriosis, a common gynecological disorder with a profound impact on quality of life. Despite its prevalence, vital access to treatment has often been hampered by a lack of understanding of its pathogenesis as well as reliable disease models. Recently, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been suggested to have a significant role in endometriosis pathophysiology. In this study, we found that DEHP treatment enhanced proliferation, migration, and inflammatory responses, along with EMT and stemness induction in human endometrial and endometriotic cells. The selective transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) receptor type 1/2 inhibitor LY2109761 reversed the DEHP-induced cell proliferation and migration enhancement as well as the increased expression of crucial molecules involved in inflammation, EMT, and stemness, indicating that DEHP-triggered phenomena occur via the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway. Our study clearly defines the role of DEHP in the etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of endometriosis and establishes an efficient disease model for endometriosis using a biomimetic 3D cell culture technique. Altogether, our data provide novel etiological and mechanistic insights into the role of DEHP in endometriosis pathogenesis, opening avenues for developing novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Diethylhexyl Phthalate , Endometriosis , Cell Proliferation , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/metabolism , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Endometriosis/pathology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Female , Humans , Phthalic Acids , Quality of Life , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factors/metabolism
14.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753714

ABSTRACT

Aberrant TGF­ß/Smad7 signaling has been reported to be an important mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of a number of potential anti­colitis agents on intestinal epithelial permeability and the TGF­ß/Smad7 signaling pathway in an experimental model of colitis. A mouse model of colitis was first established before anti­TNF­α and 5­aminosalicyclic acid (5­ASA) were administered intraperitoneally and orally, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histological index (HI) of the colon and the disease activity index (DAI) scores were then detected in each mouse. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemical and functional tests, including Evans blue (EB) and FITC­dextran (FD­4) staining, were used to evaluate intestinal mucosal permeability. The expression of epithelial phenotype markers E­cadherin, occludin, zona occludens (ZO­1), TGF­ß and Smad7 were measured. In addition, epithelial myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression and activity were measured. Anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatments was both found to effectively reduce the DAI score and HI, whilst decreasing colonic MPO activity, plasma levels of FD­4 and EB permeation of the intestine. Furthermore, anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatments decreased MLCK expression and activity, reduced the expression of Smad7 in the small intestine epithelium, but increased the expression of TGF­ß. In mice with colitis, TEM revealed partial epithelial injury in the ileum, where the number of intercellular tight junctions and the expression levels of E­cadherin, ZO­1 and occludin were decreased, all of which were alleviated by anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatment. In conclusion, anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA both exerted protective effects on intestinal epithelial permeability in an experimental mouse model of colitis. The underlying mechanism may be mediated at least in part by the increase in TGF­ß expression and/or the reduction in Smad7 expression, which can inhibit epithelial MLCK activity and in turn reduce mucosal permeability during the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Smad7 Protein/genetics , Smad7 Protein/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Animals , Cadherins/metabolism , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colon/pathology , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/ultrastructure , Male , Mesalamine/administration & dosage , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Peroxidase/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism
15.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic, progressive, and, ultimately, terminal interstitial disease caused by a variety of factors, ranging from genetics, bacterial, and viral infections, to drugs and other influences. Varying degrees of PF and its rapid progress have been widely reported in post-COVID-19 patients and there is consequently an urgent need to develop an appropriate, cost-effective approach for the prevention and management of PF. AIM: The potential "therapeutic" effect of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and carotene against bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis was investigated in rats via the modulation of TGF-ß/Smad, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways. DESIGN/METHODS: Lung fibrosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intratracheal BLM (5 mg/kg) injection. These rats were subsequently treated with TRF (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body wt/day), carotene (10 mg/kg body wt/day), or a combination of TRF (200 mg/kg body wt/day) and carotene (10 mg/kg body wt/day) for 28 days by gavage administration. A group of normal rats was provided with saline as a substitute for BLM as the control. Lung function and biochemical, histopathological, and molecular alterations were studied in the lung tissues. RESULTS: Both the TRF and carotene treatments were found to significantly restore the BLM-induced alterations in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions. The treatments appeared to show pneumoprotective effects through the upregulation of antioxidant status, downregulation of MMP-7 and inflammatory cytokine expressions, and reduction in collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline). We demonstrated that TRF and carotene ameliorate BLM-induced lung injuries through the inhibition of apoptosis, the induction of TGF-ß1/Smad, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the increased expression levels were shown to be significantly and dose-dependently downregulated by TRF (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body wt/day) treatment in high probability. The histopathological findings further confirmed that the TRF and carotene treatments had significantly attenuated the BLM-induced lung injury in rats. CONCLUSION: The results of this study clearly indicate the ability of TRF and carotene to restore the antioxidant system and to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines. These findings, thus, revealed the potential of TRF and carotene as preventive candidates for the treatment of PF in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Tocotrienols , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Carotenoids/adverse effects , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Tocotrienols/adverse effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580700

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) followed by repair with lung remodeling is observed in COVID-19. These findings can lead to pulmonary terminal fibrosis, a form of irreversible sequelae. There is evidence that TGF-ß is intimately involved in the fibrogenic process. When activated, TGF-ß promotes the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and regulates the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this sense, the present study evaluated the histopathological features and immunohistochemical biomarkers (ACE-2, AKT-1, Caveolin-1, CD44v6, IL-4, MMP-9, α-SMA, Sphingosine-1, and TGF-ß1 tissue expression) involved in the TGF-ß1 signaling pathways and pulmonary fibrosis. The study consisted of 24 paraffin lung samples from patients who died of COVID-19 (COVID-19 group), compared to 10 lung samples from patients who died of H1N1pdm09 (H1N1 group) and 11 lung samples from patients who died of different causes, with no lung injury (CONTROL group). In addition to the presence of alveolar septal fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was found to be significantly increased in the COVID-19 group, associated with a higher density of Collagen I (mature) and III (immature). There was also a significant increase observed in the immunoexpression of tissue biomarkers ACE-2, AKT-1, CD44v6, IL-4, MMP-9, α-SMA, Sphingosine-1, and TGF-ß1 in the COVID-19 group. A significantly lower expression of Caveolin-1 was also found in this group. The results suggest the participation of TGF-ß pathways in the development process of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, it would be plausible to consider therapy with TGF-ß inhibitors in those patients recovered from COVID-19 to mitigate a possible development of pulmonary fibrosis and its consequences for post-COVID-19 life quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hyaluronan Receptors/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/pathology , Interleukin-4/metabolism , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Middle Aged , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
17.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390542

ABSTRACT

The rising prevalence of diabetes is threatening global health. It is known not only for the occurrence of severe complications but also for the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, which shows that it exacerbates susceptibility to infections. Current therapies focus on artificially maintaining insulin homeostasis, and a durable cure has not yet been achieved. We demonstrate that our set of small molecule inhibitors of DYRK1A kinase potently promotes ß-cell proliferation, enhances long-term insulin secretion, and balances glucagon level in the organoid model of the human islets. Comparable activity is seen in INS-1E and MIN6 cells, in isolated mice islets, and human iPSC-derived ß-cells. Our compounds exert a significantly more pronounced effect compared to harmine, the best-documented molecule enhancing ß-cell proliferation. Using a body-like environment of the organoid, we provide a proof-of-concept that small-molecule-induced human ß-cell proliferation via DYRK1A inhibition is achievable, which lends a considerable promise for regenerative medicine in T1DM and T2DM treatment.


Subject(s)
Homeostasis , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/enzymology , Insulin/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Genes, Reporter , Harmine/pharmacology , Homeostasis/drug effects , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Kinetics , Male , Mice , Models, Biological , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Rats , Transforming Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
20.
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(3): 712-727, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes pulmonary injury or multiple-organ injury by various pathological pathways. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) is a key factor that is released during SARS-CoV-2 infection. TGF-ß, by internalization of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), suppresses the anti-oxidant system, downregulates the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and activates the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB). These changes cause inflammation and lung injury along with coagulopathy. Moreover, reactive oxygen species play a significant role in lung injury, which levels up during SARS-CoV-2 infection. DRUG SUGGESTION: Pirfenidone is an anti-fibrotic drug with an anti-oxidant activity that can prevent lung injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection by blocking the maturation process of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) and enhancing the protective role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Pirfenidone is a safe drug for patients with hypertension or diabetes and its side effect tolerated well. CONCLUSION: The drug as a theoretical perspective may be an effective and safe choice for suppressing the inflammatory response during COVID-19. The recommendation would be a combination of pirfenidone and N-acetylcysteine to achieve maximum benefit during SARS-CoV-2 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung Injury/metabolism , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung Injury/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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