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Am J Chin Med ; 49(8): 1965-1999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599109


Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and irreversible interstitial lung disease that even threatens the lives of some patients infected with COVID-19. PF is a multicellular pathological process, including the initial injuries of epithelial cells, recruitment of inflammatory cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, activation and differentiation of fibroblasts, etc. TGF-[Formula: see text]1 acts as a key effect factor that participates in these cellular processes of PF. Recently, much attention was paid to inhibiting TGF-[Formula: see text]1 mediated cell processes in the treatment of PF with Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. Here, this review first summarized the effects of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 in different cellular processes of PF. Then, this review summarized the recent research on CHM (compounds, multi-components, single medicines and prescriptions) to directly and/or indirectly inhibit TGF-[Formula: see text]1 signaling (TLRs, PPARs, micrRNA, etc.) in PF. Most of the research focused on CHM natural compounds, including but not limited to alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and terpenes. After review, the research perspectives of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1 inhibition in PF were further discussed. This review hopes that revealing the inhibiting effects of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1-mediated cellular processes of PF can promote CHM to be better understood and utilized, thus transforming the therapeutic activities of CHM into practice.

Cell Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
Carbohydr Polym ; 247: 116740, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635683


Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.

Betacoronavirus , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Bleomycin/toxicity , COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Forkhead Box Protein O3/physiology , Fungi/chemistry , Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D0/physiology , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Neutrophils/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , RNA, Long Noncoding/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Seaweed/chemistry , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smad2 Protein/physiology , Smad3 Protein/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors