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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 740260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506482

ABSTRACT

Increased left ventricular fibrosis has been reported in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is unclear whether this fibrosis is a consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or a risk factor for severe disease progression. We observed increased fibrosis in the left ventricular myocardium of deceased COVID-19 patients, compared with matched controls. We also detected increased mRNA levels of soluble interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (sIL1-RL1) and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) in the left ventricular myocardium of deceased COVID-19 patients. Biochemical analysis of blood sampled from patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) with COVID-19 revealed highly elevated levels of TGF-ß1 mRNA in these patients compared to controls. Left ventricular strain measured by echocardiography as a marker of pre-existing cardiac fibrosis correlated strongly with blood TGF-ß1 mRNA levels and predicted disease severity in COVID-19 patients. In the left ventricular myocardium and lungs of COVID-19 patients, we found increased neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) RNA levels, which correlated strongly with the prevalence of pulmonary SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid. Cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis may therefore predispose these patients to increased cellular viral entry in the lung, which may explain the worse clinical outcome observed in our cohort. Our study demonstrates that patients at risk of clinical deterioration can be identified early by echocardiographic strain analysis and quantification of blood TGF-ß1 mRNA performed at the time of first medical contact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Fibrosis , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Risk , Severity of Illness Index , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Viral Load
2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental kidney disease. ACE2 is on the X chromosome, and in mice, deletion of ACE2 leads to the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The relationship between sex and renal ACE2 expression in humans with kidney disease is a gap in current knowledge. METHODS: We studied renal tubulointerstitial microarray data and clinical variables from subjects with FSGS enrolled in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study. We compared relationships between ACE2 expression and age, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and genes implicated in inflammation and fibrosis in male and female subjects. RESULTS: ACE2 mRNA expression was lower in the tubulointerstitium of males compared to females (P = 0.0026). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that ACE2 expression was related to sex and eGFR but not to age or treatment with renin angiotensin system blockade. ACE2 expression is also related to interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy, in males but not in females. Genes involved in inflammation (CCL2 and TNF) correlated with ACE2 expression in males (TNF: r = -0.65, P < 0.0001; CCL2: r = -0.60, P < 0.0001) but not in females. TGFB1, a gene implicated in fibrosis correlated with ACE2 in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Sex is an important determinant of ACE2 expression in the tubulointerstitium of the kidney in FSGS. Sex also influences the relationships between ACE2, kidney fibrosis, and expression of genes involved in kidney inflammation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Child , Female , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/genetics , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
3.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108576, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741145

ABSTRACT

Upper respiratory tract is the primary site of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Releasing of pro and anti-inflammatory mediators plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the early inflammatory response in upper airway by measuring of IFN-γ, TGF-ß1 and RANTES at mRNA level. Forty five SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were enrolled, whose were divided in two groups: asymptomatic and symptomatic. Twenty healthy persons, SARS-CoV-2 negative were included as controls. Higher IFN-γ expression was detected in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in comparison with controls (p = 0.0393). IFN-γ expression was increased in symptomatic patients (p = 0.0405). TGF-ß1 and RANTES expressions were lower in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients than controls (p < 0.0001; p = 0.0011, respectively). A significant correlation between IFN-γ and TGF-ß1 was observed in SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic patients (r = +0.61, p = 0.0014). The findings suggest that imbalance between IFN-γ and TGF-ß1 expression could be an impact in clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Chemokine CCL5/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CCL5/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gene Expression , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/immunology
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