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1.
Transfusion ; 60(6): 1119-1122, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388414

ABSTRACT

Oral swabs, sputum, and blood samples from 18 asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were examined using RT-PCR testing in order to assess the risk of transfusion-related transmission. In asymptomatic patients as well as patients with flu-like symptoms and fever, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in the blood or serum despite a clearly positive result in all throat swabs. As patients with symptoms of infectious disease will not be admitted to blood donation, the risk for transfusion transmission of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be negligible.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Donors , Blood Safety , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Donor Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfusion Reaction/virology , Young Adult
2.
Vox Sang ; 116(6): 682-691, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thousands of healthcare workers (HCWs) have been infected with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Laboratory personnel in blood transfusion departments may be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) if laboratory biosafety protection is insufficient. Therefore, we investigated the current situation of laboratory biosafety protection in blood transfusion departments to determine how to improve the safety of laboratory processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted in blood transfusion departments from 1st to 6th May 2020 in China. A total of 653 individuals completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed with reference to COVID-19 laboratory biosafety summarized in Annex II. All responses were summarized using only descriptive statistics and expressed as frequencies and ratios [n (%)]. RESULTS: Most participants were concerned about COVID-19. Some participants had inadequate knowledge of COVID-19. Two participants stated that there were laboratory personnel infected with SARS-CoV-2 in their departments. A total of 31 (4.7%) participants did not receive any safety and security training. In terms of laboratory biosafety protection practices, the major challenges were suboptimal laboratory safety practices and insufficient laboratory conditions. CONCLUSION: The major deficiencies were insufficient security and safety training, and a lack of personal protective equipment, automatic cap removal centrifuges and biosafety cabinets. Consequently, we should enhance the security and safety training of laboratory personnel to improve their laboratory biosafety protection practices and ensure that laboratory conditions are sufficient to improve the safety of laboratory processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards , Laboratories , Pandemics , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Vox Sang ; 116(6): 673-681, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in plasma and platelet products from asymptomatic blood donors, raising concerns about potential risk of transfusion transmission, also in the context of the current therapeutic approach utilizing plasma from convalescent donors. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of amotosalen/UVA light treatment to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in human plasma to reduce the risk of potential transmission through blood transfusion. METHODS: Pools of three whole-blood-derived human plasma units (630-650 ml) were inoculated with a clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolate. Spiked units were treated with amotosalen/UVA light (INTERCEPT Blood System™) to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Infectious titres and genomic viral load were assessed by plaque assay and real-time quantitative PCR. Inactivated samples were subject to three successive passages on permissive tissue culture to exclude the presence of replication-competent viral particles. RESULTS: Inactivation of infectious viral particles in spiked plasma units below the limit of detection was achieved by amotosalen/UVA light treatment with a mean log reduction of >3·32 ± 0·2. Passaging of inactivated samples on permissive tissue showed no viral replication even after 9 days of incubation and three passages, confirming complete inactivation. The treatment also inhibited NAT detection by nucleic acid modification with a mean log reduction of 2·92 ± 0·87 PFU genomic equivalents. CONCLUSION: Amotosalen/UVA light treatment of SARS-CoV-2 spiked human plasma units efficiently and completely inactivated >3·32 ± 0·2 log of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, showing that such treatment could minimize the risk of transfusion-related SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Furocoumarins/pharmacology , Plasma/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Therapy , Virus Inactivation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
5.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(4): 103129, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195468

ABSTRACT

Call back as a procedure to report post donation symptoms or illness by donors has been established since 2009 in Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO). During the first phase of COVID-19 outbreak, all blood donors were requested to report any respiratory infection symptoms after donation. The study investigated the callback data of COVID-19 in Tehran Blood Center during the first 3 months of the outbreak in Iran. The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of post donation COVID-19 related call back reports and determine its implications for blood donors and patients. A telephone interview was conducted with donors who had reported COVID-19 symptoms. Some questions were asked to evaluate donor's health at the time of blood donation. The donors categorized into three groups: laboratory-confirmed, suspected, and COVID-19 irrelevant based on their answers. In cases that the blood component obtained from a laboratory-confirmed donor had been released, the hospital was notified and asked to follow up the recipient for COVID-19. The results showed 30 donors (0.08 %) had callback related to COVID-19 and 76.63 % of the obtained component was disposed. The results also showed that only one donor had a laboratory-confirmed result with the RBC unit processed from her whole blood released for transfusion. The RBC unit recipient did not show any signs or symptoms of infection during a 46-day follow-up. Concluded that callback system was effective to remove most of the components obtained from the donors who reported to be COVID-19 suspected or confirmed. Moreover, the result did not support virus transmission through blood transfusion.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Safety , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Donor Selection , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Blood Component Transfusion/adverse effects , Blood Component Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Erythrocyte Transfusion/adverse effects , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Interviews as Topic , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Valve Stenosis/surgery , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
6.
Transfusion ; 61(6): 1789-1798, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Source plasma is essential to support the growing demand for plasma-derived medicinal products. Supply is short, with donor availability further limited by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study examined whether a novel, personalized, technology-based nomogram was noninferior with regard to significant hypotensive adverse events (AEs) in healthy donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: IMPACT (IMproving PlasmA CollecTion) was a prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial carried out between January 6 and March 26, 2020, in three U.S plasma collection centers. Donors were randomly assigned to the current simplified 1992 nomogram (control) or a novel percent plasma nomogram (PPN) with personalized target volume calculation (experimental). Primary endpoint was the rate of significant hypotensive AEs. Noninferiority (NI) was tested with a margin of 0.15%. Collected plasma volume was a secondary endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 3443 donors (mean [SD] BMI: 32 [7.74] kg/m2 ; 65% male) underwent 23,137 donations (median [range]: 6 [1-22] per subject). Ten significant hypotensive AEs were observed (six control; four experimental), with model-based AE incidence rate estimates (95% CI) of 0.051% (0.020%-0.114%) and 0.035% (0.010%-0.094%), respectively (p = .58). NI was met at an upper limit of 0.043% versus the predefined margin of 0.15%. There was no statistical difference between total AEs (all AE types: p = .32). Mean plasma volume collected was 777.8 ml (control) versus 841.7 ml (experimental); an increase of 63.9 ml per donation (8.2%; p < .0001). CONCLUSION: This trial showed that a novel personalized nomogram approach in healthy donors allowed approximately 8% more plasma per donation to be collected without impairing donor safety.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety/methods , Blood Specimen Collection/methods , Healthy Volunteers , Nomograms , Precision Medicine/methods , Adult , Blood Donors/classification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Donor Selection/methods , Female , Humans , Inventions , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Plasmapheresis , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Young Adult
7.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(2): 132-134, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131858

ABSTRACT

Pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) have been recommended by many regulatory authorities to minimize the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted infections associated with COVID19 convalescent plasma. While its impact on safety and its cost-effectiveness are nowadays well proven, there is theoretical concern that PRT could impact efficacy of convalescent plasma by altering concentration and/or function of the neutralizing antibodies (nAb). We review here the evidence supporting a lack of significant detrimental effect from PRTs on nAbs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Infection Control/methods , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
8.
Transfusion ; 61(5): 1389-1393, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 safety measures and possibly SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing may alter blood donor demography, which has the potential to alter blood safety. We characterized pre-pandemic and pandemic rates of donor infectious disease marker (IDM) reactivity which reflect the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) undetectable by current testing. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of allogeneic blood donor presentations and successful donations in a large national US blood collector identifies changes in self-reported behavioral risk factors and IDM reactivity. Data on allogeneic blood donor presentations and successful donations from March 1 through August 31, 2020 and the same period in 2019 were retrieved from the blood center's computer system. Donor demographics and deferrals for reported behavioral risk factors and confirmed-positive IDMs were compared in pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. RESULTS: With increasing mobile blood drive cancellations, pandemic donors were more likely than 2019 donors to be female, over age 30, non-Hispanic Whites, and have a post-secondary degree. First-time donations (at highest risk for confirmed-positive IDMs) did not substantially increase. Pandemic donors reported fewer behavioral risks and IDMs declined among these donors. Mid-pandemic introduction of screening for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies did not affect IDM rates. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike disasters, which tend to bring out more first-time donors with increased IDM reactivity and TTI residual risk, COVID-19 donors had lower IDM rates which were not affected by SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. Already-low TTI residual risk is likely to have declined as a result.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Safety , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Transfusion Reaction , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology , Transfusion Reaction/ethnology , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control
9.
Vox Sang ; 116(2): 175-180, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 first appeared in Iran on 19 February 2020, and then spread rapidly over the country. In this article, we review the action plan of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization with respect to this disease. METHOD AND MATERIALS: We collected data on blood donations and RBC inventory for the first 8 weeks of the outbreak. We also evaluated the trend of blood donations and RBC inventory and compared them with the data of the past year. We include a summary of actions taken by the National Committee on Management of COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: Blood donations decreased from 33 275 to 23 465 units during the first 2 weeks of the outbreak with a corresponding decrease in the RBC inventory. But after that, donations gradually increased from 23 465 to 29 665 units. RBC inventory levels improved at the same time. Then, the Iranian New Year's holiday resulted in another downward trend. After the holiday, blood donations revived, along with the RBC inventory. DISCUSSION: Although it appears that this virus cannot be transmitted through transfusion, changes in lifestyle had a significant impact on reducing blood supply. Following implemented measures, we saw an upward trend in blood donations and an adequate supply of RBC units in blood centres, helped by a reduction in demand by hospitals. Blood centres need to be more prepared to manage future viral disasters, especially in case of transfusion-transmissible infections.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks/supply & distribution , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood Safety , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Transfusion , China , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Life Style , Safety Management , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control
10.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 1987-1997, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796294

ABSTRACT

Risk assessments of transfusion-transmitted emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are complicated by the fact that blood donors' demographics and behaviors can be different from the general population. Therefore, when assessing potential blood donor exposure to EIDs, the use of general population characteristics, such as U.S. travel statistics, may invoke uncertainties that result in inaccurate estimates of blood donor exposure. This may, in turn, lead to the creation of donor deferral policies that do not match actual risk. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This article reports on the development of a system to rapidly assess EID risks for a nationally representative portion of the U.S. blood donor population. To assess the effectiveness of this system, a test survey was developed and deployed to a statistically representative sample frame of blood donors from five blood collecting organizations. Donors were directed to an online survey to ascertain their recent travel and potential exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). RESULTS: A total of 7128 responses were received from 54 256 invitations. The age-adjusted estimated total number of blood donors potentially exposed to MERS-CoV was approximately 15 640 blood donors compared to a lower U.S. general population-based estimate of 9610 blood donors. CONCLUSION: The structured donor demographic sample-based data provided an assessment of blood donors' potential exposure to an emerging pathogen that was 63% larger than the U.S. population-based estimate. This illustrates the need for tailored blood donor-based EID risk assessments that provide more specific demographic risk intelligence and can inform appropriate regulatory decision making.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , Blood-Borne Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Risk Assessment/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel-Related Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood-Borne Infections/blood , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , Blood-Borne Infections/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/blood , Communicable Diseases, Imported/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Imported/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Sample Size , Sampling Studies , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Vox Sang ; 116(2): 155-166, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-787954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus, first identified in China at the end of 2019 and has now caused a worldwide pandemic. In this review, we provide an overview of the implications of SARS-CoV-2 for blood safety and sufficiency. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We searched the PubMed database, the preprint sites bioRxiv and medRxiv, the websites of the World Health Organization, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the US Communicable Diseases Center and monitored ProMed updates. RESULTS: An estimated 15%-46% of SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic. The reported mean incubation period is 3 to 7 days with a range of 1-14 days. The blood phase of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be brief and low level, with RNAaemia detectable in only a small proportion of patients, typically associated with more severe disease and not demonstrated to be infectious virus. An asymptomatic blood phase has not been demonstrated. Given these characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the absence of reported transfusion transmission (TT), the TT risk is currently theoretical. To mitigate any potential TT risk, but more importantly to prevent respiratory transmission in donor centres, blood centres can implement donor deferral policies based on travel, disease status or potential risk of exposure. CONCLUSION: The TT risk of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be low. The biggest risk to blood services in the current COVID-19 pandemic is to maintain the sufficiency of the blood supply while minimizing respiratory transmission of SARS-CoV-19 to donors and staff while donating blood.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Blood Transfusion , Geography , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety Management , World Health Organization
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