Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 78
Filter
1.
Perm J ; 26(1): 80-84, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted mental health among the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer community, with the delay of medical services as a factor. The pandemic's psychological effect on the transfeminine community pursuing facial feminization surgery remains unstudied. METHODS: Patients at our institution whose facial feminization surgeries were delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic were included. A chart review collected validated, self-reported depression and psychological distress measures, as well as perceived facial femininity and desire for feminizing facial surgery prior to the pandemic. The data were compared to repeat measures during the pandemic (March-April 2020). RESULTS: Thirty patients were included in the study, 11 of whom had repeat data. Respondents during the pandemic (compared to prepandemic) felt their face was more feminine (p = 0.026) and more likely to be perceived as feminine by others (p = 0.026). They indicated a lower desire to alter their appearance with surgery (p = 0.041). Depression and distress indices were greater during the pandemic (p = 0.0018 and p = 0.026, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study is consistent with increasing depression and psychological distress among transfeminine individuals pursuing facial feminization surgery during the pandemic. The study revealed greater perceived facial femininity and a lower desire for surgery during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transgender Persons , Face/surgery , Female , Feminization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Transgender Persons/psychology
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): e67-e69, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new pandemic, and its impact by HIV status is unknown. National reporting does not include gender identity; therefore, data are absent on the impact of COVID-19 on transgender people, including those with HIV. Baseline data from the American Cohort to Study HIV Acquisition Among Transgender Women in High Risk Areas (LITE) Study provide an opportunity to examine pre-COVID factors that may increase vulnerability to COVID-19-related harms among transgender women. SETTING: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Miami, New York City, Washington, DC. METHODS: Baseline data from LITE were analyzed for demographic, psychosocial, and material factors that may affect vulnerability to COVID-related harms. RESULTS: The 1020 participants had high rates of poverty, unemployment, food insecurity, homelessness, and sex work. Transgender women with HIV (n = 273) were older, more likely to be Black, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to experience material hardship. Mental and behavioral health symptoms were common and did not differ by HIV status. Barriers to health care included being mistreated, provider discomfort serving transgender women, and past negative experiences; as well as material hardships, such as cost and transportation. However, most reported access to material and social support-demonstrating resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Transgender women with HIV may be particularly vulnerable to pandemic harms. Mitigating this harm would benefit everyone, given the highly infectious nature of this coronavirus. Collecting gender identity in COVID-19 data is crucial to inform an effective public health response. Transgender-led organizations' response to this crisis serve as an important model for effective community-led interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Boston , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mid-Atlantic Region , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Psychosocial Deprivation , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Southeastern United States
3.
N C Med J ; 83(3): 182-188, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836112

ABSTRACT

Transgender youth face health disparities in suicidality, which have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Health care providers should advocate for upstream interventions to reduce suicide disparities, including Medicaid expansion, family acceptance therapy, improved access to name and gender marker changes, continuation of telehealth, and creation of trauma-informed schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Transgender Persons , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control , United States
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e041896, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788957

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic, and the responses it has generated, have had disproportionate impacts on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ+) communities. This study seeks to build on existing information and provide regional insight. METHODS: In response, a cross-sectional survey was administered to a global sample of LGBTQ+ individuals (n=13 358) between 16 April and 20 May 2020 via the social networking application Hornet. The survey contained questions that characterise the impact of COVID-19 and associated mitigation strategies on economics, employment, mental health and access to healthcare. RESULTS: 5191 (43.9%) individuals indicated they were somewhat, slightly or unable to meet basic needs with their current income, while 2827 (24.1%) and 4710 (40.1%) felt physically or emotionally unsafe in their living environment, respectively. 2202 individuals (24.7%) stated they are at risk for losing health insurance coverage. 2685 (22.7%) persons reported having skipped or cut meals as there was not enough money. CONCLUSION: Many LGBTQ+persons who responded reported adverse consequences to mental health, economics, interruptions to care and lack of support from their government. This data is part of ongoing analyses but accentuates the unique needs of LGBTQ+ communities that will require targeted, ameliorative approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics
5.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 60(4): 7-10, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771304

ABSTRACT

More than 54 million people in the United States are aged ≥65 years, including an estimated 2.4 million people who identify as lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ). As a group, LGBTQ older adults experienced criminalization, discrimination, and social stigma the majority of their lives, with rates of victimization and stigma increasing with age. LGBTQ older adults continue to experience social and health disparities compared to heterosexual individuals. To meet the needs of LGBTQ older adults, it is necessary to understand the impact of politics, culture, and social norms as they came of age. Unique mental health needs, such as social isolation, loneliness, disenfranchised grief, and long-term social support, are discussed through the lens of the minority stress model. Implications and recommendations for health care, research, and policy, such as creating a safe and welcoming environment and providing culturally competent care for LGBTQ older adults, are discussed. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 60(4), 7-10.].


Subject(s)
Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Aged , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Mental Health , Social Stigma , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056697, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our study identified barriers and facilitators in implementing HIV self-testing (HIVST), including the perceptions of men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) on HIVST. Furthermore, we explored the current knowledge, practices and potential of HIVST among the MSM and TGW populations. DESIGN: Qualitative in-depth key informant interviews were administered using semistructured interviews administered in both English and Filipino. Thematic analysis of the findings was done after transcribing all audio recordings. SETTING: The study was done in the National Capital Region (NCR), Philippines using online video conferencing platforms due to mobility restrictions and lockdowns caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: All study participants were either MSM or TGW, 18-49 years old and residing/working in NCR. Exclusion criteria include biologically born female and/or currently on pre-exposure prophylaxis, antiretroviral therapy medications or an HIV-positive diagnosis. RESULTS: Twenty informants were interviewed, of which 75% were MSM, and most of them preferred the use of HIVST. Facilitators and barriers to the use of HIVST were grouped into three main themes: Acceptability, distribution and monitoring and tracking. Convenience and confidentiality, overcoming fears and normalisation of HIV testing services (HTS) in the country were the participants' perceived facilitators of HIVST. In contrast, lack of privacy and maintenance of confidentiality during kit delivery were perceived as barriers in HIVST implementation. Moreover, social media was recognised as a powerful tool in promoting HIVST. The use of a welcoming tone and positive language should be taken into consideration due to the prevalent HIV stigma. CONCLUSIONS: The identified facilitators and barriers from the study may be considered by the Philippine HTS programme implementers. The HIVST strategy may complement the current HTS. It will be very promising to involve the MSM and TGW communities and other key populations to know their HIV status by bringing testing closer to them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Language , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Philippines , Self-Testing , Young Adult
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736892

ABSTRACT

Disabled adults and transgender people in the United States face multiple compounding and marginalizing forces that result in unmet healthcare needs. Yet, gender identity among disabled people has not been explored, especially beyond binary categories of gender. Using cross-sectional survey data, we explored the rates of disability types and the odds of unmet healthcare needs among transgender people with disabilities compared to cisgender people with disabilities. The rates of disability type were similar between transgender and cisgender participants with two significant differences. Fewer transgender participants identified physical or mobility disability as their main disability compared to cisgender participants (12.31%/8 vs. 27.68/581, p < 0.01), and more transgender participants selected developmental disability as their main disability compared to cisgender participants (13.85%/9 vs. 3.67%/77, p < 0.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of disabled transgender participants reporting an unmet need were higher for every unmet need except for preventative services.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Transgender Persons , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , United States
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 452, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether heavy episodic drinking (HED), cannabis use, and subjective changes in alcohol and cannabis use during the COVID-19 pandemic differ between transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) and cisgender adults. METHODS: Successive waves of web-based cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Canada, May 2020 to March 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 6,016 adults (39 TGD, 2,980 cisgender men, 2,984 cisgender women, and 13 preferred not to answer), aged ≥18 years. MEASUREMENTS: Measures included self-reported HED (≥5 drinks on one or more occasions in the previous week for TGD and cisgender men and ≥4 for cisgender women) and any cannabis use in the previous week. Subjective changes in alcohol and cannabis use in the past week compared to before the pandemic were measured on a five-point Likert scale (1: much less to 5: much more). Binary and ordinal logistic regressions quantified differences between TGD and cisgender participants in alcohol and cannabis use, controlling for age, ethnoracial background, marital status, education, geographic location, and living arrangement. RESULTS: Compared to cisgender participants, TGD participants were more likely to use cannabis (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.78, 95%CI: 1.89, 7.53) and to have reported subjective increases in alcohol (adjusted proportional odds ratios (aPOR)= 2.00, 95%CI: 1.01, 3.95) and cannabis use (aPOR=4.56, 95%CI: 2.13, 9.78) relative to before the pandemic. Compared to cisgender women, TGD participants were more likely to use cannabis (aOR=4.43, 95%CI: 2.21, 8.87) and increase their consumption of alcohol (aPOR=2.05, 95%CI: 1.03, 4.05) and cannabis (aPOR=4.71, 95%CI: 2.18, 10.13). Compared to cisgender men, TGD participants were more likely to use cannabis (aOR=3.20, 95%CI: 1.60, 6.41) and increase their use of cannabis (aPOR=4.40, 95%CI: 2.04, 9.49). There were no significant differences in HED between TGD and cisgender participants and in subjective change in alcohol between TGD and cisgender men; however, the odds ratios were greater than one as expected. CONCLUSIONS: Increased alcohol and cannabis use among TGD populations compared to before the pandemic may lead to increased health disparities. Accordingly, programs targeting the specific needs of TGD individuals should be prioritized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Transgender Persons , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 366, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706885

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Philippines, which has the fastest rising HIV epidemic globally, has limited options for HIV testing and its uptake remains low among cisgender men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) and transgender women (TGW), especially amid the COVID-19 pandemic. As HIV self-testing (HIVST) and technology-based approaches could synergize to expand uptake of HIV testing, we aimed to evaluate the outcomes of a community-led online-based HIVST demonstration and to explore factors associated with HIVST-related behaviours and outcomes. METHODS: We did a secondary data analysis among cis-MSM and TGW who participated in the HIVST demonstration, who were recruited online and tested out-of-facility, in Western Visayas, Philippines, from March to November 2020. We reviewed data on demographics, sexuality-, and context-related variables. Using multivariable logistic regression, we tested for associations between the aforementioned covariates and two primary outcomes, opting for directly-assisted HIVST (DAH) and willingness to secondarily distribute kits. RESULTS: HIVST kits were distributed to 647 individuals (590 cis-MSM, 57 TGW), 54.6% were first-time testers, 10.4% opted DAH, and 46.1% were willing to distribute to peers. Reporting rate was high (99.3%) with 7.6% reactivity rate. While linkage to prevention (100%) and care (85.7%) were high, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) (0.3%) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) (51.0%) initiation were limited. There were no reports of adverse events. Those who were employed, had recent anal intercourse, opted for DAH, not willing to secondarily distribute, and accessed HIVST during minimal to no quarantine restriction had significantly higher reactivity rates. Likelihood of opting for DAH was higher among those who had three or more partners in the past year (aOR = 2.01 [CI = 1.01-4.35]) and those who accessed during maximal quarantine restrictions (aOR = 4.25 [CI = 2.46-7.43]). Odds of willingness to share were higher among those in urban areas (aOR = 1.64 [CI = 1.15-2.36]) but lower among first-time testers (aOR = 0.45 [CI = 0.32-0.62]). CONCLUSIONS: HIVST could effectively reach hard-to-reach populations. While there was demand in accessing online-based unassisted approaches, DAH should still be offered. Uptake of PrEP and same-day ART should be upscaled by decentralizing these services to community-based organizations. Differentiated service delivery is key to respond to preferences and values of key populations amid the dynamic geographical and sociocultural contexts they are in.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Philippines/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing
10.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 287-301, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681094

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, the pathogen which causes COVID-19, has left an indelible impact on the daily lives of individuals in the USA. This study sought to explore the sexual behaviors among people in the LGBTQ+ population at the onset of the pandemic. Behaviors were explored across sub-groups of the population. The study employed data from an internet survey about the impact of COVID-19 on LGBTQ+ identified individuals conducted between May and July 2020. The final sample was comprised of 1090 participants from across the USA. Overall, sexual activity and the number of sexual partners decreased after March 13, 2020 (as compared to before this date) across all sexual orientation groups; however, living situation and partnership status supported sexual activity. Gay and bisexual men living with a partner or a spouse (AOR = 2.20, p = .023) and those living with a non-romantic roommate or friend (AOR = 2.88, p = .004) reported more sexual activity. For both cisgender lesbian and bisexual women and transgender and non-binary individuals, those who were married or in a domestic partnership (AOR = 4.54, p < .001; AOR = 9.97, p < .001, respectively) and those in a committed relationship (AOR = 3.54, p = .001; AOR = 8.46, p < .001, respectively) reported more sexual activity. Additionally, cisgender lesbian and bisexual women living with their partner or spouse (AOR = 2.14, p = .044) reported more sexual activity. When examining the number of sexual partners, cisgender lesbian and bisexual women and transgender and non-binary individuals in a committed relationship (AOR = 0.31, p < 0.001; AOR = 0.26, p = .004, respectively) and those living with a partner or spouse (AOR = 0.30, p = .002; AOR = 0.25, p = .028, respectively) were less likely to report two or more sexual partners. Examining the changes in sexual activity and number of sexual partners helps us better identify the effects of COVID-19 on intimate relationships and sexual behaviors. Furthermore, this study may help develop clinical best practices to facilitate risk-reduction strategies for LGBTQ+ populations when engaging in sexual activity within a communicable disease framework. Current guidance on sexual activity within a pandemic has created a unique opportunity for sex-positive public health messaging that protects individual health while also offering a framework for conversations about risk mitigation that is applicable for both COVID-19 and STI/HIV prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , United States/epidemiology
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 309: 114391, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683545

ABSTRACT

There is a dearth of public health data and research focusing on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ+) populations during the coronavirus ("COVID") pandemic. This study evaluated how COVID has impacted health, social, and occupational areas of functioning of the LGBTQ+ community. A community survey was distributed via email by local LGBTQ+ community organizations between September and December 2020. Participants (cisgender, heterosexual people, n = 63; cisgender sexual minority people, n = 184; and gender minority people, n = 74) were asked how COVID has impacted their life circumstances (i.e., physical health, mental health, financial stability, meeting basic needs, and social connectedness). A multivariate analysis of covariance was tested with these groups, demographic and HIV serostatus variables as independent variables and covariates, and outcomes as dependent variables. Compared to cisgender, heterosexual people, significantly more cisgender sexual minority people reported worsening physical health, and significantly more gender minority people reported worsening of all outcomes. Significantly more gender minority people reported worsening financial stability than cisgender sexual minority people. COVID has contributed to a worsening of life circumstances among the LGBTQ+ community, especially for gender minority people. More research is needed to create proactive, equitable, culturally-focused responses and interventions to pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Female , Heterosexuality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transgender Persons/psychology
13.
J Sex Med ; 19(4): 650-660, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender-affirming and supportive relations for transgender youth are considered protective in terms of mental health. AIM: To describe how transgender youth perceived changes in their gender expression, in the course of the gender-affirming path, and the effect of social connectedness and social support on depression and anxiety during the pandemic. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, transgender youth completed an online survey developed to evaluate the perceived changes in gender expression and affirmation path that occurred during COVID-19 and the age-stratified lockdown. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the effect of social connectedness and social support on depression and anxiety in this population during the pandemic. The participants completed the following scales: Social Connectedness Scale Revised (SCS-R), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The effect of lockdown on life conditions, gender expression, social and medical gender-affirming path, social connectedness, social support, depression, and anxiety levels were examined. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between BDI and STAI scores and other variables. OUTCOMES: The relationship between the levels of perceived social connectedness, and social support, the pandemic-related changes in living conditions and depression and anxiety scores were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 49 transgender youth with a mean age of 20.53 ± 1.86 years were enrolled. Participants reporting discomfort at the place they live and who had difficulties concerning gender expression and affirmation had higher depression and anxiety scores and perceived lower social support from their family. Social connectedness score was a significant negative predictor of depression severity, whereas social connectedness and social support were both significant negative predictors of anxiety severity. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our results show increased adversity for transgender youth when connectedness with supportive people is diminished. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social connectedness and social support perceived by transgender youth are associated with better mental health. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This is one of the first studies to evaluate the changes that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in transgender youth with relation to social support and connectedness, during an age-stratified lockdown. The main limitations were the small study size, skewed gender ratio and that the study sample came from a single gender clinic. CONCLUSION: As social connectedness and social support are significant predictors of depression and anxiety severity, special attention is needed to increase contact and support for transgender youth during the pandemic. Tüzün Z, Basar K, Akgül S. Social Connectedness Matters: Depression and Anxiety in Transgender Youth During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Sex Med 2022;19:650-660.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transgender Persons , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Transgender Persons/psychology , Young Adult
14.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 48(e1): e22-e30, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transgender, nonbinary and gender-expansive (TGE) people face barriers to abortion care and may consider abortion without clinical supervision. METHODS: In 2019, we recruited participants for an online survey about sexual and reproductive health. Eligible participants were TGE people assigned female or intersex at birth, 18 years and older, from across the United States, and recruited through The PRIDE Study or via online and in-person postings. RESULTS: Of 1694 TGE participants, 76 people (36% of those ever pregnant) reported considering trying to end a pregnancy on their own without clinical supervision, and a subset of these (n=40; 19% of those ever pregnant) reported attempting to do so. Methods fell into four broad categories: herbs (n=15, 38%), physical trauma (n=10, 25%), vitamin C (n=8, 20%) and substance use (n=7, 18%). Reasons given for abortion without clinical supervision ranged from perceived efficiency and desire for privacy, to structural issues including a lack of health insurance coverage, legal restrictions, denials of or mistreatment within clinical care, and cost. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight a high proportion of sampled TGE people who have attempted abortion without clinical supervision. This could reflect formidable barriers to facility-based abortion care as well as a strong desire for privacy and autonomy in the abortion process. Efforts are needed to connect TGE people with information on safe and effective methods of self-managed abortion and to dismantle barriers to clinical abortion care so that TGE people may freely choose a safe, effective abortion in either setting.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Spontaneous , Transgender Persons , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Preceptorship , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , United States
15.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 343-354, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556372

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an increasing body of research focused on the effects that measures like stay-at-home orders and social distancing are having on other aspects of health, including mental health and sexual health. Currently, there are limited extant data on the effects of the pandemic on sexual and gender minorities. Between April 15, 2020, and May 15, 2020, we invited participants in an ongoing U.S. national cohort study (Together 5000) to complete a cross-sectional online survey about the pandemic, and its effects on mental and sexual health and well-being (n = 3991). Nearly all (97.7%) were living in an area where they were told they should only leave their homes for essentials. Most (70.1%) reported reducing their number of sex partners as a result of the pandemic. Among the 789 participants prescribed HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), 29.9% said they stopped taking their PrEP entirely, and 14.2% started selectively skipping doses. For those who had been taking PrEP, discontinuing PrEP was associated with having no new sex partners (ß = 0.90, 95% CI 0.40-1.40). Among the 152 HIV-positive participants, 30.9% said they were unable to maintain an HIV-related medical appointment because of the pandemic and 13.8% said they had been unable to retrieve HIV medications. Additionally, 35.3% of participants were experiencing moderate to severe anxiety because of the pandemic and 36.7% reported symptoms of depression. In a multivariable logistic regression, reporting a new sex partner in the prior 30 days was significantly associated with being aged 30 or older (vs. not, AOR = 1.21), being Black (AOR = 1.79) or Latinx (AOR = 1.40, vs. white), and being unsure if they had been in close contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19 (AOR = 1.32, vs. no contact). It was unassociated with COVID-19-induced anxiety, depression, or knowing someone hospitalized with COVID-19. The pandemic has caused disruptions in sexual behavior (partner reduction) as well as difficulties navigating PrEP and HIV care continua. Findings will guide more comprehensive public health responses to optimize HIV prevention and treatment in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/psychology , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Transgender Persons/psychology
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(12): e30278, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global incidence in the treatment of transgender people is increasing. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many consultations had to be cancelled, postponed, or converted to a virtual format. Telemedicine in the management of transgender health care could support physicians. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the acceptance, use, and barriers of telemedicine in transgender health care in times of SARS-CoV-2 in Germany. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was based on a survey of gynecological endocrinologists and transgender patients undergoing gender-affirming hormone treatment in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and regression analyses were performed to show correlations. RESULTS: We analyzed responses of 269 transgender patients and 202 gynecological endocrinologists treating transgender patients. Most believed that telemedicine was useful. Physicians and patients rated their knowledge of telemedicine as unsatisfactory. The majority of respondents said they did not currently use telemedicine, although they would like to do so. Patients and physicians reported that their attitudes toward telemedicine had changed positively and that their use of telemedicine had increased due to COVID-19. The majority in both groups agreed on the implementation of virtual visits in the context of stable disease conditions. In the treatment phases, 74.3% (150/202) of the physicians said they would use telemedicine during follow-ups. Half of the physicians said they would choose tele-counseling as a specific approach to improving care (128/202, 63.4%). Obstacles to the introduction of telemedicine among physicians included the purchase of technical equipment (132/202, 65.3%), administration (124/202, 61.4%), and poor reimbursement (106/202, 52.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine in transgender health care found limited use but high acceptance among doctors and patients alike. The absence of a structured framework is an obstacle for effective implementation. Training courses should be introduced to improve the limited knowledge of physicians in the use of telemedicine. More research in tele-endogynecology is needed. Future studies should include large-scale randomized controlled trials, economic analyses, and the exploration of user preferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Transgender Persons , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(6): 15579883211062681, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551166

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, global research has suggested that the pandemic has negatively affected lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) populations, including by limiting health care access. There is little research on the impact of COVID-19 among transmasculine persons and men assigned female sex at birth (AFAB) in the United States, who face unique health care challenges outside of the pandemic context. Between May and June of 2020, 20 transmasculine individuals and AFAB men who have sex with men participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were asked how the pandemic affected their access to health care, overall health, and well-being. Interviews were analyzed using an inductive, thematic approach. Participants reported reduced access to in-person health care, which in some cases meant overdue hormone-related bloodwork and unmet health care needs. Most participants reported that they were able to maintain their testosterone regimen, although some were concerned about future access, citing anxiety about potential shortages. Three participants reported canceled or deferred gender-affirming procedures, which they were uncertain would be rescheduled soon. Participants generally reported that the expansion of telehealth improved access to care, particularly for gender-affirming psychotherapy that was otherwise inaccessible or inconvenient prior to the pandemic. Other salient themes include the pandemic's impact on health behaviors and daily routines. Although the COVID-19 pandemic created new challenges for maintaining health, it also expanded access to gender-affirming health care, largely through the expansion of telehealth. Our findings provide new insights for supporting the health of transmasculine individuals and AFAB men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00069521, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1551342

ABSTRACT

The understanding of health care demands and possible access barriers may support policymaking and best practices targeting the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and related identities (LGBT+) population. The aims of the Brazilian LGBT+ Health Survey were to characterize the LGBT+ population during the COVID-19 pandemic and to specify the characteristics of the COVID-19 pandemic in this population. This is a cross-sectional online study, with a convenience sample of 976 individuals identified as LGBT+, aged 18 years or older from Brazil. It allows investigations of sexuality, discrimination, internal homophobia, health-related behaviors, and health care access. The study adopts a conceptual framework (i.e., validated tools and measures) common to other epidemiological studies, allowing comparisons. We describe the study methodology, some descriptive results, and health-selected indicators compared with the Brazilian National Health Survey. Most of the respondents were from Southeast Region (80.2%), mean aged 31.3 (± 11.5 years). Regarding COVID-19, 4.8% tested positive. Both weekly episodes of discrimination (36%) and depression prevalence (24.8%) were high among the LGBT+ population in Brazil, highlighting mental health and homophobia as major concerns in the LGBT+ context during the pandemic. Although a decade has passed since the institution of the Brazilian National Policy for Comprehensive LGBT Health, appropriate training of health professionals to offer adequate services is still needed. Knowledge of the specific health demands of this group might guide person-centered best practices, promote sexual minority high-acceptance settings, and contribute to higher equity during the pandemic.


A compreensão das demandas de cuidados de saúde e das possíveis barreiras ao acesso pode apoiar a formulação de políticas e as melhores práticas voltadas para a população de lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, transgêneros e identidades relacionadas (LGBT+). O Inquérito Nacional de Saúde LGBT+ teve como objetivos caracterizar a população LGBT+ durante a pandemia da COVID-19 e especificar as características da pandemia da COVID-19 nessa população. Este é um estudo transversal online com uma amostra de conveniência de 976 indivíduos identificados como LGBT+ com idade 18 anos ou mais, no Brasil. O inquérito permite a investigação da sexualidade, discriminação, homofobia interna, comportamentos relacionados à saúde e acesso a cuidados de saúde. O inquérito adota um arcabouço conceitual (p.ex.: ferramentas e medidas validadas) comum a outros estudos epidemiológicos, o que permite comparações. O artigo descreve a metodologia do inquérito, alguns resultados descritivos e indicadores de saúde selecionados, em comparação com a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. A maioria dos participantes era do Sudeste (80,2%), com média de idade de 31,3 (± 11,5 anos). Com relação à COVID-19, 4,8% testaram positivos. As taxas de episódios semanais de discriminação (36%) e de prevalência de depressão (24,8%) eram altas na população LGBT+ brasileira, o que destaca a saúde mental e a homofobia como preocupações no contexto LGBT+ durante a pandemia. Embora tenha transcorrido uma década desde a implementação da Política Nacional de Saúde Integral LGBT, ainda é necessário treinamento de profissionais de saúde para oferecer serviços adequados. O conhecimento das demandas específicas de saúde nesse grupo pode orientar melhores práticas centradas na pessoa, promover ambientes de acolhimento de minorias sexuais e contribuir para maior equidade durante a pandemia.


La compresión de las demandas de cuidados de salud y las posibles barreras de acceso a los mismos pueden apoyar en la creación de políticas y realización de mejores prácticas, enfocando a la población lesbiana, gay, bisexual, transgénero e identidades relacionadas (LGBT+). Los objetivos de la Encuesta Brasileña sobre la Salud LGBT+ fueron caracterizar a la población LGBT+ durante la pandemia de COVID-19 y especificar las características de la pandemia COVID-19 en esta población. Se trata de un estudio transversal en línea, con una muestra de conveniencia de 976 individuos brasileños identificados con el colectivo LGBT+, con una edad comprendida entre 18 años o más. Permite investigaciones de sexualidad, discriminación, homofobia interna, comportamientos relacionados con la salud, y acceso a cuidados de salud. El estudio adopta un marco conceptual común (p.ej., herramientas validadas y medidas) respecto a otros estudios epidemiológicos, permitiendo comparaciones. Expusimos la metodología de estudio, algunos resultados descriptivos, así como indicadores de salud seleccionados comparados con la Encuesta Nacional de Salud. La mayoría de quienes respondieron eran originarios de la región sureste (80,2%), la media de edad fue 31,3 (± 11,5 años). Respecto al COVID-19, 4,8% dieron positivo tras las pruebas. Tanto los episodios semanales de discriminación (36%) y prevalencia depresión (24,8%) fueron altos entre la población LGBT+ en Brasil, resaltando la salud mental y la homofobia como principales preocupaciones en el contexto LGBT+ durante la pandemia. A pesar de que ha pasado una década desde la institución de la Política Nacional de Salud Integral LGBT, sigue siendo necesario un entrenamiento apropiado de profesionales de salud para ofrecer servicios adecuados. El conocimiento de las demandas específicas de salud de este grupo puede llevar a mejores prácticas centradas en estas personas, promover contextos de alta aceptación de minorías sexuales, así como contribuir a una equidad más alta durante la pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Transgender Persons , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Services Accessibility
19.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1810-1820, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545969

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately impacted lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) communities. Many disparities mirror those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic. These health inequities have repeated throughout history due to the structural oppression of LGBTQ+ people. We aim to demonstrate that the familiar patterns of LGBTQ+ health disparities reflect a perpetuating, deeply rooted cycle of injustice imposed on LGBTQ+ people. Here, we contextualize COVID-19 inequities through the history of the HIV/AIDS crisis, describe manifestations of LGBTQ+ structural oppression exacerbated by the pandemic, and provide recommendations for medical professionals and institutions seeking to reduce health inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/history , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Pandemics
20.
J Sex Marital Ther ; 48(4): 415-426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528058

ABSTRACT

Based on the possible effects of androgens on the course of COVID-19, it can be posited that Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy (GAHT) may affect the course of the disease in people with GD. We aimed to investigate the relationship between GAHT and contracting COVID-19, as well as the severity of the disease in individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The single center, cross-sectional, web-based survey was completed by people with GD who received GAHT. The questionnaire contained three parts: a sociodemographic data form; a GAHT data form; a COVID-19-related data form. Of the 238 participants, 179 were individuals with female-to-male (FtM) and 59 male-to-female (MtF) GD. We detected that the risk of contracting COVID-19 increased 3.46 times in people with FtM GD, who had received testosterone therapy, in comparison to people with MtF GD, who received estrogen and anti-androgen therapy. Additionally, people with FtM GD who contracted COVID-19 had received longer testosterone therapy when compared to those who did not contract COVID-19. Our findings indicate that individuals with FtM GD who receive testosterone treatment within the scope of GAHT are at higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and that the clinicians who follow-up on GAHT should be more careful about this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gender Dysphoria , Transgender Persons , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gender Dysphoria/therapy , Humans , Male , Testosterone/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL