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1.
AMA J Ethics ; 24(4): E275-282, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782529

ABSTRACT

Migrants along the US-Mexico border have been subjected to transnational violence created by international policy, militaristic intervention, and multinational organizational administration of border operations. The COVID-19 pandemic compounded migrants' vulnerabilities and provoked several logistical and ethical problems for US-based clinicians and organizations. This commentary examines how the concept of transnational solidarity facilitates analysis of clinicians' and migrants' shared historical and structural vulnerabilities. This commentary also suggests how actions implemented by one organization in Tijuana, Mexico, could be scaled more broadly for care of migrants and asylum seekers in other transnational health care settings.


Los migrantes en la frontera entre EE. UU. y México han sufrido violencia transnacional por parte de la policía internacional, la intervención militar y la administración organizativa multinacional de las operaciones fronterizas. La pandemia de la COVID-19 agravó las vulnerabilidades de los migrantes y provocó varios problemas logísticos y éticos para los médicos y las organizaciones estadounidenses. Este comentario examina de qué manera el concepto de solidaridad transnacional facilita el análisis de los médicos y las vulnerabilidades históricas y estructurales compartidas de los migrantes. También, sugiere cómo las acciones implementadas por una organización en Tijuana, México, podrían aplicarse a mayor escala para la atención de los migrantes y solicitantes de asilo en otros entornos de atención médica transnacional.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Mexico , Pandemics
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266200, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective migration often requires supports for new arrivals, referred to as settlement services. Settlement services literacy (SSL) is key to ensuring new migrants have the capability to access and utilise the information and services designed to support the resettlement process and achieve positive settlement outcomes. To date, however, no research has sought to empirically validate measures of SSL or to assess individual migrants' levels of SSL. The aim of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of constructs from the conceptual SSL framework. DESIGN: Using a snowball sampling approach, trained multilingual research assistants collected data on 653 participants. The total sample was randomly divided into two split-half samples: one for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N = 324) and the other for the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; N = 329) and scale validation. The final SSL scale included 30 questions. The full data set was used to test the nomological validity of the scale regarding whether the components of SSL impact on migrants' level of acculturative stress. RESULTS: The EFA yielded five factors: knowledge (eight items, α = 0.88), empowerment (five items, α = 0.89), competence (four items, α = 0.86), community influence (four items, α = 0.82), and political (two items, α = 0.81). In the CFA, the initial model demonstrated a poor to marginal fit model. Its re-specification by examining modification indices resulted in a good model fit: CMIN/DF = 3.07, comparative fit index = 0.92, root mean square error of approximation = 0.08 and standardised root mean square residual = 0.07, which are consistent with recommendations. All the path coefficients between the second-order construct (SSL) and its five dimensions (knowledge, empowerment, competence, community influence and political) were significant at an α = .05 level, giving evidence for the validity of different SSL dimensions. We found that SSL is significantly related to migrants' acculturative stress (ß = - 0.39, p < 0.05) in the nomological model. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SSL tool. It provides the basis for integrating the measures of SSL into evaluation of settlement services. This will allow for more effective decision-making in designing and implementing settlement services as well as funding and service agreements to address any deficiencies.


Subject(s)
Literacy , Transients and Migrants , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 778110, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775983

ABSTRACT

Background: Schistosomiasis among migrant populations in Europe is an underdiagnosed infection, yet delayed treatment may have serious long-term consequences. In this study we aimed to characterize the clinical manifestations of Schistosoma infection among migrant women, and the degree of underdiagnosis. Methods: We carried out a prospective cross-sectional study among a migrant population living in the North Metropolitan Barcelona area and coming from schistosomiasis-endemic countries. We obtained clinical, laboratory and socio-demographic data from electronic clinical records, as well as information about years of residence and previous attendance at health services. Blood sample was obtained and schistosomiasis exposure was assessed using a specific ELISA serological test. Results: Four hundred and five patients from schistosomiasis-endemic regions were screened, of whom 51 (12.6%) were female. Seropositivity prevalence was 54.8%, but considering women alone we found a prevalence of 58.8% (30 out of 51). The median age of the 51 women was 41.0 years [IQR (35-48)] and the median period of residence in the European Union was 13 years [IQR (10-16)]. Schistosoma-positive women (N = 30) showed a higher prevalence of gynecological signs and symptoms compared to the seronegative women (96.4 vs. 66.6%, p = 0.005). Among seropositive women, the median number of visits to Sexual and Reproductive Health unit prior to diagnosis of schistosomiasis was 41 [IQR (18-65)]. Conclusion: The high prevalence of signs and symptoms among seropositive women and number of previous visits suggest a high rate of underdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis of Schistosoma infection, particularly female genital schistosomiasis, among migrant females.


Subject(s)
Genital Diseases, Female , Schistosomiasis , Transients and Migrants , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Genital Diseases, Female/diagnosis , Genital Diseases, Female/ethnology , Genital Diseases, Female/parasitology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis/ethnology
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 749330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775928

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Large-scale rural-to-urban migration of China has provoked heated discussion about the health of migrants and whether they have equal access to the health resources. This article aimed to compare the public and commercial medical insurance enrollment rates between temporary, permanent migrants and urban natives. Methods: Average marginal effects (AME) of the weighted logistic regression models using 2017 China General Social Survey from 2,068 urban natives, 1,285 temporary migrants, and 1,295 permanent migrants. Results: After controlling for the demographic and socio-economic characteristics, our results show that while the temporary and permanent migrants have a similar public insurance enrollment rate compared with the urban natives, both temporary and permanent migrants have significantly lower commercial insurance enrollment rates (7.5 and 5.3%, respectively) compared with the urban natives. Conclusions: The results highlight significant institutional barriers preventing the temporary migrants from gaining access to public medical insurance and the adverse impact of disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds on the access of temporary migrants to both public and commercial insurance.


Subject(s)
Insurance , Transients and Migrants , China , Humans , Urban Population
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741812, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775898

ABSTRACT

Background: With the rapid urbanization, citizenization of migrants is becoming the development tendency in China. It is significant to analyze the determining factors of the settlement intention of migrants. Methods: The data we used were taken from the China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) in 2017. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between air pollution, economic advantages, and settlement intention between different migrants and the moderating effect of social welfare. Results: At the individual level, being female, married, urban and other ethnic, having higher education, older, and health associated with likelihood of settlement intention of migrants. Higher health education, social integration, and, have a health record were positively associated with the likelihood of settlement intention. Higher educated, urban areas, and Han migrants were willing to reduce their pursuit of health for economic development. Conclusion: Health education and more social organizational participation can reduce the negative effect of air pollution and increase the positive effect of economic advantages on settlement intention of migrants. But, in less economically advantaged areas, it has no obvious effect. In the choice of health and wealth, the settlement intention of migrants shows difference, and unfairness and social welfare, in particular health education, can narrow this difference.


Subject(s)
Transients and Migrants , China , Female , Humans , Intention , Social Welfare
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736624, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775880

ABSTRACT

Background: Women, and migrant women in particular, are at increased risk of many common mental disorders, which may potentially impact their labor market participation and their work-related income. Previous research found that mental disorders are associated with several work-related outcomes such as loss of income, however, not much is known about how this varies with migrant background. This study investigated the change in work-related income following the uptake of outpatient mental healthcare (OPMH) treatment, a proxy for mental disorder, in young women with and without migrant background. Additionally, we looked at how the association varied by income level. Methods: Using data from four national registries, the study population consisted of women aged 23-40 years residing in Norway for at least three consecutive years between 2006 and 2013 (N = 640,527). By using a stratified linear regression with individual fixed effects, we investigated differences between majority women, descendants and eight migrant groups. Interaction analysis was conducted in order to examine differences in income loss following the uptake of OPMH treatment among women with and without migrant background. Results: Results showed that OPMH treatment was associated with a decrease in income for all groups. However, the negative effect was stronger among those with low income. Only migrant women from Western and EU Eastern Europe with a high income were not significantly affected following OPMH treatment. Conclusion: Experiencing a mental disorder during a critical age for establishment in the labor market can negatively affect not only income, but also future workforce participation, and increase dependency on social welfare services and other health outcomes, regardless of migrant background. Loss of income due to mental disorders can also affect future mental health, resulting in a vicious circle and contributing to more inequalities in the society.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Transients and Migrants , Adult , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health , Norway/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 575, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the past decade, the U.S. immigration detention system regularly detained more than 30,000 people per day; in 2019 prior to the pandemic, the daily detention population exceeded 52,000 people. Inhumane detention conditions have been documented by internal government watchdogs, and news media and human rights groups who have observed over-crowding, poor hygiene and sanitation and poor and delayed medical care, as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. METHODS: This study surveyed health professionals across the United States who had provided care for immigrants who were recently released from immigration detention to assess clinician perceptions about the adverse health impact of immigration detention on migrant populations based on real-life clinical encounters. There were 150 survey responses, of which 85 clinicians observed medical conditions attributed to detention. RESULTS: These 85 clinicians reported seeing a combined estimate of 1300 patients with a medical issue related to their time in detention, including patients with delayed access to medical care or medicine in detention, patients with new or acute health conditions such as infection and injury attributed to detention, and patients with worsened chronic or special needs conditions. Clinicians also provided details regarding sentinel cases, categorized into the following themes: Pregnant women, Children, Mentally Ill, COVID-19, and Other serious health issue. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first survey, to our knowledge, of health care professionals treating individuals upon release from detention. Due to the lack of transparency by federal entities and limited access to detainees, this survey serves as a source of credible information about conditions experienced within immigration detention facilities and is a means of corroborating immigrant testimonials and media reports. These findings can help inform policy discussions regarding systematic changes to the delivery of healthcare in detention, quality assurance and transparent reporting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Health Status , Humans , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 846115, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753422

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, China, rapidly spreading into a global pandemic. Italy was the first European country to experience SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, and one of the most severely affected during the first wave of diffusion. In contrast to the general restriction of people movements in Europe, the number of migrants arriving at Italian borders via the Mediterranean Sea route in the summer of 2020 had increased dramatically, representing a possible, uncontrolled source for the introduction of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. Importantly, most of the migrants came from African countries showing limited SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological surveillance. In this study, we characterized the SARS-CoV-2 genome isolated from an asymptomatic migrant arrived in Sardinia via the Mediterranean route in September 2020, in comparison with SARS-CoV-2 isolates arrived in Sicily through the Libyan migration route; with SARS-CoV-2 isolates circulating in Sardinia during 2020; and with viral genomes reported in African countries during the same summer. Results showed that our sequence is not phylogenetically related to isolates from migrants arriving in Sicily, nor to isolates circulating in Sardinia territory, having greater similarity to SARS-CoV-2 genomes reported in countries known for being sites of migrant embarkation to Italy. This is in line with the hypothesis that most SARS-CoV-2 infections among migrants have been acquired prior to embarking to Italy, possibly during the travel to or the stay in crowded Libyan immigrant camps. Overall, these observations underline the importance of dedicated SARS-CoV-2 surveillance of migrants arriving in Italy and in Europe through the Mediterranean routes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Mediterranean Sea , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056591, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752879

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The marginalisation of undocumented migrants raises concerns about equitable access to COVID-19 vaccination. This study aims to describe migrants' hesitancy about the COVID-19 vaccination during the early phase of the vaccination campaign. SETTING: This multicentric cross-sectional survey was conducted in health facilities providing care to undocumented migrants in the USA, Switzerland, Italy and France in February-May 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Eligibility criteria included age >16 years, being of foreign origin and living without valid residency permit in the country of recruitment. A convenience sample of minimum 100 patients per study site was targeted. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected using an anonymous structured questionnaire. The main outcomes were perceived access to the local COVID-19 vaccination programme and demand for vaccination. RESULTS: Altogether, 812 undocumented migrants participated (54.3% Geneva, 17.5% Baltimore, 15.5% Milano and 12.7% Paris). Most (60.9%) were women. The median age was 39 years (interquartile range 1). Participants originated from the Americas (55.9%), Africa (12.7%), Western Pacific (11.2%) Eastern Mediterranean (7.9%), Europe (7.6%) and South-East Asia (4.7%). Overall, 14.1% and 26.2% of participants, respectively, reported prior COVID-19 infection and fear of developing severe COVID-19 infection. Risk factors for severe infection were frequently reported (29.5%). Self-perceived accessibility of COVID-19 vaccination was high (86.4%), yet demand was low (41.1%) correlating with age, comorbidity and views on vaccination which were better for vaccination in general (77.3%) than vaccination against COVID-19 (56.5%). Participants mainly searched for information about vaccination in the traditional and social media. CONCLUSIONS: We found a mismatch between perceived accessibility and demand for the COVID-19 vaccination. Public health interventions using different communication modes should build on trust about vaccination in general to tackle undocumented migrants' hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccination with a specific attention to men, younger migrants and those at low clinical risk of severe infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend worldwide, and the COVID-19 pandemic may interrupt or delay NCD care, the leading cause of mortality in Thailand, which is hosting 2-3 million migrant workers. The transition of epidemiological risk factors, limited access to health-promoting activities, and pandemic containment measures may adversely impact NCD risks. Therefore, hypertension and associated risk factors were determined among registered Myanmar migrant workers in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with structured questionnaires was conducted in Thailand in 2017. Having hypertension was analyzed as a dependent variable, and the associated risk factors were explored by binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 414 participants with a mean age of 29.45 ± 9.03 years were included, and 27.8 percent of the study participants were hypertensive, which was a rate higher than that in their host country (24.7%) and country of origin (26.4%). An older age, being male, current alcohol drinking, and being overweight and obese with reference to the body mass index (BMI) were significantly associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reaffirmed the idea that NCDs are important public health concerns, and a simple BMI measurement would be a valuable tool with which to determine hypertension risks. Targeted surveillance and an appropriate health policy are necessary for such a vulnerable population in Thailand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Transients and Migrants , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e34544, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A low test positivity rate is key to keeping the COVID-19 pandemic under control. Throughout the pandemic, several migrant groups in Norway have seen higher rates of confirmed COVID-19 and related hospitalizations, while test positivity has remained high in the same groups. The Norwegian government has used several platforms for communication, and targeted social media advertisements have in particular been an important part of the communication strategy to reach these groups. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate whether such a targeted Facebook campaign increased the rate of COVID-19 tests performed in certain migrant groups. METHODS: We randomly assigned 386 Norwegian municipalities and city districts to intervention or control groups. Individuals born in Eritrea, Iraq, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Somalia, Syria, and Turkey residing in intervention areas were targeted with a social media campaign aiming at increasing the COVID-19 test rate. The campaign message was in a simple language and conveyed in the users' main language or in English. RESULTS: During the 2-week follow-up period, the predicted probability of having a COVID-19 test taken was 4.82% (95% CI 4.47%-5.18%) in the control group, and 5.58% (95% CI 5.20%-5.99%) in the intervention group (P=.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our targeted social media intervention led to a modest increase in test rates among certain migrant groups in Norway. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04866589; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04866589.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741618

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Migrants, especially those in temporary accommodations like camps and shelters, might be a vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic, but little is known about the impact of the pandemic in these settings in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and RNA prevalence, the correlates of seropositivity (emphasising socially determined conditions), and the socioeconomic impacts of the pandemic among migrants living in shelters in Tijuana, a city on the Mexico-US border. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, non-probability survey of migrants living in shelters in Tijuana in November-December 2020 and February-April 2021. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided anterior nasal swab and blood samples for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies (IgG and IgM), respectively. We explored whether SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with sociodemographic and migration-related variables, access to sanitation, protective behaviours and health-related factors. RESULTS: Overall, 481 participants were enrolled, 67.7% from Northern Central America, 55.3% women, mean age 33.2 years. Seven (1.5%) participants had nasal swabs positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and 53.0% were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive. Avoiding public transportation (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.90) and months living in Tijuana (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10) were associated with seropositivity. Sleeping on the streets or other risky places and having diabetes were marginally associated with seropositivity. Most participants (90.2%) had experienced some socioeconomic impact of the pandemic (eg, diminished income, job loss). CONCLUSION: Compared with results from other studies conducted in the general population in Mexico at a similar time, migrants living in shelters were at increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2, and they suffered considerable adverse socioeconomic impacts as a consequence of the pandemic. Expanded public health and other social support systems are needed to protect migrants from COVID-19 and reduce health inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732033

ABSTRACT

Thailand is a popular host nation for international migrant workers, particularly those from Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar. Thailand has introduced approaches to protect their rights for health and social welfare, using various mechanisms over many years. However, the implementation of these policies is dynamic and has been influenced by national security, economic necessity, and public health concerns. The aim of this study was to explore how Thailand designs and implements health and social welfare policies for migrants in Thailand, both before and during COVID-19. A qualitative analysis was used alongside interviews with 18 key informants in various sectors in this field. Thematic coding was applied. Results show that there were seven key themes emerging from the analysis, including: (i) sustainability of the HICS; (ii) people dropping out from the Social Security Scheme (SSS); (iii) quality of health screening in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) migrants; (iv) health screening problems and state quarantine management in response to COVID-19; (v) managing the migration quota and dependency on migrant workers; (vi) influx of migrants in the backdrop of COVID-19; and (vii) poor living conditions of migrants and the impact of COVID-19. The majority of interviewees agreed that undocumented migrants is a critical concern that impedes access to migrants' health and social welfare. This situation was especially pronounced during the second wave of COVID-19 in Thailand, which took hold in migrant communities. In the short term, the poor living conditions of migrants urgently need to be addressed in order to contain and mitigate this crisis. In the long term, there needs to be an improved health system design that includes migrants, regardless of their immigration status. This requires intersectoral policy coherence, including the hastening of nationality verification to sustainably mitigate undocumented migrants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732018

ABSTRACT

Migrant workers have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. To examine their access to health services and social protection during the pandemic, we conducted an exploratory scoping review on experiences of migrant workers in three countries with comparable immigration, health, and welfare policies: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. After screening 961 peer-reviewed and grey literature sources, five studies were included. Using immigration status as a lens, we found that despite more inclusive policies in response to the pandemic, temporary migrant workers, especially migrant farm workers and international students, remained excluded from health services and social protection. Findings demonstrate that exploitative employment practices, precarity, and racism contribute to the continued exclusion of temporary migrant workers. The interplay between these factors, with structural racism at its core, reflect the colonial histories of these countries and their largely neoliberal approaches to immigration. To address this inequity, proactive action that recognizes and targets these structural determinants at play is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 816597, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731869

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and control measures adopted have had a disproportionate impact on workers, with migrants being a group specifically affected but poorly studied. This scoping review aims to describe the evidence published on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical and mental health of migrant workers. Methods: Papers written in English covering physical and mental health among international migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, retrieved from six electronic databases searched on July 31, 2021, were included. A total of 1,096 references were extracted, of which 26 studies were finally included. Results: Most of the migrant populations studied were born in Asia (16 of 26) and Latin America (8 of 26) and were essential workers (15 of 26). Few studies described the length of stay in the host country (9 of 26), the legal status of the migrant population (6 of 26), or established comparison groups (7 of 26). Ten studies described COVID-19 outbreaks with high infection rates. Fourteen studies evaluated mental health (anxiety, depression, worries, fears, stress, and post-traumatic stress disorder). Three of the 26 studies presented collateral positive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic because of improved hygiene. Conclusion: There is a limited number of original publications related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical and mental health of migrant workers around the world. These publications mainly focus on migrants born in Asia and Latin America. The physical, long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has, so far, not been evaluated. The positive collateral effects of improving healthcare conditions for migrant workers should also be further investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 257, 2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities increase the risk of death for patients with COVID-19, however, little is known about how it affects the prognosis of migrants who contract the virus. Therefore, this article aims to determine which comorbidities and risk conditions are associated with the probability of death among migrants infected with COVID-19 in Mexico. METHODS: We use a sample of migrants with a positive diagnosis for COVID-19 (N = 2126) registered in the public database published in the National Epidemiological Surveillance System of the Mexican Ministry of Health; the technique used was a Probit regression. RESULTS: The findings show that most of the comorbidities commonly associated with death from COVID-19 in the native-born population were actually not significant when present in migrants infected with COVID-19. Additionally, migrants have lower comorbidities than locals. The results further indicate that the factors related to the death of migrants infected with COVID-19 are: age, intubation, nationality group, pneumonia and the Health Care Management of Patients. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to preceding studies with native-born populations with COVID-19, where pre-existing diseases aggravated the diagnosis of COVID-19 and sometimes led to death, in the case of migrants, only pneumonia was the significant comorbidity associated with mortality among migrants diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Comorbidity , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Aust J Prim Health ; 28(1): 40-48, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700697

ABSTRACT

The socio-cultural context of populations has a significant effect on health outcomes across every stage of life. In Australia, South Asian migrants have a comparatively higher incidence of chronic disease and less use of health services. Often overlooked are community views of health, cultural traits and belief systems. This study aimed to explore the factors that influence health perception and practice of South Asian migrants. The study used a mixed method approach with both a survey and interviews. A total of 62 participants between the age of 18 and 64 years were surveyed and 14 participants completed interviews. Data were analysed descriptively and thematically. South Asians share a common perception and practice around health and illness. This paper highlights two key findings. First, these groups take a broad view of health encompassing physical, mental, emotional, social and economic aspects of life. Second, these cultural groups do not seek medical help as their first choice, but have a high level of trust in family for providing health advice and share a belief in the effectiveness of home remedies for managing health conditions. Participants shared their expectation that the Australian health system should consider their socio-cultural construct to make services culturally safe and engaging to enhance service utilisation.


Subject(s)
Transients and Migrants , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Humans , Middle Aged , Perception , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263787, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690711

ABSTRACT

Implementing countrywide lockdown measures in India, from March 2020 to May 2020 was a major step to deal with the COVID -19 pandemic crisis. The decision of country lockdown adversely affected the urban migrant population, and a large section of them was compelled to move out of the urban areas to their native places. The reverse migration garnered widespread media attention and coverage in electronic as well as print media. The present study focuses on the coverage of the issue by print media using descriptive natural language text mining. The study uses topic modelling, clustering, and sentiment analysis to examine the articles on migration issues during the lockdown period published in two leading English newspapers in India- The Times of India and The Hindu. The sentiment analysis results indicate that the majority of articles have neutral sentiment while very few articles show high negative or positive polarity. Descriptive topic modelling results show that transport, food security, special services, and employment with migration and migrants are the majorly covered topics after employing Bag of Words and TF-IDF models. Clustering is performed to group the article titles based on similar traits using agglomerative hierarchical clustering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Br J Gen Pract ; 72(715): 56-57, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687082
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 1-8, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615763

ABSTRACT

Influenza vaccination coverage has generally been low in mainland China. However, few studies have attempted to measure influenza vaccination coverage among internal migrants in China who are at an increased risk of influenza infections. This study assessed influenza vaccination coverage and the factors associated with vaccination uptake among internal migrants in Shanghai, China. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among a sample of migrants residing in Shanghai during November 1-20, 2020, to investigate vaccination uptake during the 2019-20 and early 2020-21 flu seasons (September to November 2020). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with influenza vaccination uptake for the two flu seasons. About a quarter, 26.3%, and 24.4% of respondents reported receiving an influenza vaccination during the 2019-20 and early 2020-2021 flu seasons, respectively. Respondents who were divorced or widowed, had more household members (2 or ≥ 3), and considered themselves in good health were more likely to receive an influenza vaccine, regardless of the season. Respondents who perceived that they were highly susceptible to influenza and COVID-19 and those who reported ever consulting a medical professional about COVID-19 were more likely to have received a flu vaccination in the early 2020-21 flu season. The uptake of influenza vaccination among internal migrants in Shanghai was suboptimal. We found a range of factors linked to influenza vaccination uptake, pointing to the need for more in-depth evaluations on the underlying reasons driving the vaccination uptake among vulnerable populations in China, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Transients and Migrants , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccination
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