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1.
Cornea ; 41(2): 224-231, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625425

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection after corneal transplantation surgery, with cataract surgeries as controls, and the impact of the novel coronavirus disease pandemic in the clinical and surgical complications of corneal transplantation and cataract surgeries. METHODS: A retrospective matched case-control study of 480 consecutive individuals who underwent surgery at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between May 2020 and November 2020. A total of 240 patients who underwent corneal transplantation with tissue obtained from the Florida Lions Eye Bank were age, race, ethnicity, and sex matched with 240 patients who underwent cataract surgery during the same day and by the same surgical team. Only the first corneal transplant or cataract surgery during this period was considered for each individual. All donors and recipients were deemed SARS-CoV-2 negative by a nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction test before surgery. Postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infections were defined as previously SARS-CoV-2(-) individuals who developed symptoms or had a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test during the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Mean age, sex, race, and ethnicity were similar between groups. There were no differences between the corneal transplant and cataract groups in the rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection before (5.8% vs. 7.5%, P= 0.6) or after surgery (2.9% vs. 2.9%, P = 1). The rates of postoperative complications did not increase during the pandemic, compared with previously reported ranges. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar for individuals undergoing corneal transplantation or cataract surgery. Further research is required to evaluate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through corneal tissue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction , Corneal Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data
2.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1695-1703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound effect on transplantation activity in the United States and globally. Several single-center reports suggest higher morbidity and mortality among candidates waitlisted for a kidney transplant and recipients of a kidney transplant. We aim to describe 2020 mortality patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States among kidney transplant candidates and recipients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using national registry data for waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients collected through April 23, 2021, we report demographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19-related mortality in 2020, other deaths in 2020, and deaths in 2019 among waitlisted candidates and transplant recipients. We quantify excess all-cause deaths among candidate and recipient populations in 2020 and deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 in relation to prepandemic mortality patterns in 2019 and 2018. RESULTS: Among deaths of patients who were waitlisted in 2020, 11% were attributed to COVID-19, and these candidates were more likely to be male, obese, and belong to a racial/ethnic minority group. Nearly one in six deaths (16%) among active transplant recipients in the United States in 2020 was attributed to COVID-19. Recipients who died of COVID-19 were younger, more likely to be obese, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to belong to racial/ethnic minority groups than those who died of other causes in 2020 or 2019. We found higher overall mortality in 2020 among waitlisted candidates (24%) than among kidney transplant recipients (20%) compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates higher rates of mortality associated with COVID-19 among waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients in the United States in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
3.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(6): 654-662, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Focusing on large multicenter cohorts reported over the last months, this review aims at summarizing the available evidence by July 2021 on the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients in terms of epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of COVID-19 in institutional cohorts varied according to different regions and study periods from 0.4% to 8.3%. Clinical presentation was overall comparable to other immunocompromised hosts and the general population. Microbiologically confirmed superinfection occurred in 13-25% of recipients, with most episodes due to hospital-acquired bacteria and few reported cases of COVID-19-associated aspergillosis. Prolonged nasopharyngeal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 shedding has been demonstrated for as long as 210 days. Mortality rates were similar across studies (14.8-28.4%) and did not markedly differ from those observed in nontransplant hematological patients during the first wave. Older age and shorter time from transplantation were associated with mortality, as well as underlying disease status and amount of immunosuppression. No outcome differences were found in most studies between allogeneic and autologous procedures. SUMMARY: Considerable advances have been achieved in the characterization of COVID-19 in the HSCT population, although uncertainties remain in the optimal therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Aged , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Multicenter Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
5.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e933152, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND It is unclear whether solid organ transplant (SOT) patients have more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and worse outcome than the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a case-control study on 32 SOT recipients and 84 non-SOT controls matched for age and sex admitted for confirmed COVID-19. The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality rate. Secondary endpoints included severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), use of high-flow oxygen therapy, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS The median (IQR) Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) at admission was significantly higher in SOT recipients (6 (3-8) vs 3 (2-4); P<0.01). Fever was less frequent in SOT recipients (78% vs 94%, P=0.01). SOT recipients had a higher median SaO2/FiO2 at admission (452 [443-462] vs 443 [419-452], P<0.01) and reached the worst SaO2/FiO2 value later during hospitalization 15 (10-21) vs 11 (9-14) days, P=0.01). Both groups had a similar severe ARDS rate during hospitalization (33% vs 28%) (p=0.59). There were no significant differences during hospitalization in terms of highest level of respiratory support needed, or length of hospital stay: 8.5 (5.5-21) vs 11.5 (6.5-16.5) days; P=0.34) in SOT recipients when compared to controls. In-hospital all-cause mortality rates were significantly higher in SOT recipients (21.9% vs 4.7%, P<0.01; OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.10-10.98), but among patients who died, median CCI was similar between groups (8 [6-8] vs 7 [6-8]). CONCLUSIONS In our experience, hospitalized SOT recipients for COVID-19 had higher in-hospital mortality compared to non-SOT patients, probably due to the greater number of underlying comorbidities, and not directly related to chronic immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574883

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, we aimed to analyze the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, risk factors for mortality and impact of COVID-19 on outcomes of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients compared to a cohort of non transplant patients, evaluating if transplantation could be considered a risk factor for mortality. From March to May 2020, 261 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated, including 41 SOT recipients. Of these, thirty-two were kidney recipients, 4 liver, 3 heart and 2 combined kidney-liver transplants. Median time from transplantation to COVID-19 diagnosis was 6 years. Thirteen SOT recipients (32%) required Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and 5 patients died (12%). Using a propensity score match analysis, we found no significant differences between SOT recipients and non-transplant patients. Older age (OR 1.142; 95% [CI 1.08-1.197]) higher levels of C-reactive protein (OR 3.068; 95% [CI 1.22-7.71]) and levels of serum creatinine on admission (OR 3.048 95% [CI 1.22-7.57]) were associated with higher mortality. The clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in our cohort of SOT recipients appear to be similar to that observed in the non-transplant population. Older age, higher levels of C-reactive protein and serum creatinine were associated with higher mortality, whereas SOT was not associated with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Organ Transplantation/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Allografts/physiology , Allografts/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spain/epidemiology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(44): 7734-7738, 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573671

ABSTRACT

The recent manuscript reviewed investigations involving liver damage in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and COVID-19 in patients with previous chronic hepatological diseases, such as patients with liver graft. The literature presents several conflicting results concerning the anti-SARS-CoV-2 response in patients with solid organ transplants, in liver transplant recipients. Therefore, we would like to humbly state a few points for consideration involving liver transplant recipients and COVID-19, such as the time since transplantation, comorbidities, and immunosuppressive regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6760-6764, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544331

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than a hundred million individuals and caused more than three million deaths worldwide. Specific risk groups were defined for increased risk of mortality and morbidity in COVID-19, and renal transplant recipients are at a significantly increased risk regarding outcomes due to their immunosuppressed conditions. This study evaluated the general characteristics of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection. Among 1257 transplant cases, 56 had COVID-19 infection, and 23 (41%) were hospitalized during the 9-month study period. Among all COVID-19 cases, 58% were male with a mean age of 45.5 (±13.2, 19-71) years, and the most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (70.9%) and diabetes (23.6%). Hospitalized patients were older (p = 0.03) and had higher rates of hypertension (p = 0.008), diabetes (p = 0.002), and ischemic heart disease (p = 0.03). Therapeutic management included antimetabolite withdrawal and prednisolone increase in 71%, calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal in 8% and decrease in 58%, hydroxychloroquine in 17%, tocilizumab in 3%, and antivirals in 67% of patients. Acute kidney injury and respiratory failure developed in 34% and 85%, respectively. The mortality rate was 23%. These results emphasized that the COVID-19 infection in renal transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, these patients should be intervened earlier and monitored closely to prevent poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Young Adult
9.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 299, 2021 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated the global community with nearly 4.9 million deaths as of October 2021. While organ transplant (OT) recipients (OTr) may be at increased risk for severe COVID-19 due to their chronic immunocompromised state, outcomes for OTr with COVID-19 remain disputed in the literature. This review will examine whether OTr with COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe illness and death than non-immunocompromised individuals. METHODS: MEDLINE (via Ovid and PubMed) and EMBASE (via Embase.com ) will be searched from December 2019 to October 2021 for observational studies (including cohort and case-control) that compare COVID-19 clinical outcomes in OTr to those in individuals without history of OT. The primary outcome of interest will be mortality as defined in each study, with possible further analyses of in-hospital mortality, 28 or 30-day mortality, and all-cause mortality versus mortality attributable to COVID-19. The secondary outcome of interest will be the severity of COVID-19 disease, most frequently defined as requiring intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. Two reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text articles. Potential conflicts will be resolved by a third reviewer and potentially discussion among all investigators. Methodological quality will be appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. If data permit, we will perform random-effects meta-analysis with the Sidik-Jonkman estimator and the Hartung-Knapp adjustment for confidence intervals to estimate a summary measure of association between histories of transplant with each outcome. Potential sources of heterogeneity will be explored using meta-regression. Additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g., subgroup analysis) considering least minimal adjustment for confounders. DISCUSSION: This rapid review will assess the available evidence on whether OTr diagnosed with COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe illness and death compared to non-immunocompromised individuals. Such knowledge is clinically relevant and may impact risk stratification, allocation of organs and healthcare resources, and organ transplantation protocols during this, and future, pandemics. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework (OSF) registration DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/osf.io/4n9d7 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
11.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 36(11): 2094-2105, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has exposed haemodialysis (HD) patients and kidney transplant (KT) recipients to an unprecedented life-threatening infectious disease, raising concerns about kidney replacement therapy (KRT) strategy during the pandemic. This study investigated the association of the type of KRT with COVID-19 severity, adjusting for differences in individual characteristics. METHODS: Data on KT recipients and HD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 1 December 2020 were retrieved from the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database. Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, frailty and comorbidities were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for 28-day mortality risk in all patients and in the subsets that were tested because of symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 1670 patients (496 functional KT and 1174 HD) were included; 16.9% of KT and 23.9% of HD patients died within 28 days of presentation. The unadjusted 28-day mortality risk was 33% lower in KT recipients compared with HD patients {HR 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.85]}. In a fully adjusted model, the risk was 78% higher in KT recipients [HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.22-2.61)] compared with HD patients. This association was similar in patients tested because of symptoms [fully adjusted model HR 2.00 (95% CI 1.31-3.06)]. This risk was dramatically increased during the first post-transplant year. Results were similar for other endpoints (e.g. hospitalization, intensive care unit admission and mortality >28 days) and across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: KT recipients had a greater risk of a more severe course of COVID-19 compared with HD patients, therefore they require specific infection mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Registries , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1257-1262, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478145

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 infection management for a recipient of kidney transplant has debatable prognosis and treatment. We described the case of a COVID-19 infected 70 year old female, previously had renal transplantation in 2017. The patient took immunosuppressive agents as routine drugs for transplant recipient status and received lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and dexamethasone daily at the hospitalization. Specific question arises about renal transplant recipients being infected by COVID-19 - whether the infection will get worse compared to those without immunosuppresive agent. In this case, author decided to stop the immunosuppressive agent followed administration of combination lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and dexamethasone that gives a good clinical impact change to patient's condition after once getting worsened and mechanically ventilated. Nevertheless, the assessment of risk and benefit in continuing immunosuppressive drugs is concurrently essential due to the prevention of transplant rejection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Aged , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1273-1276, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has occurred in different parts of the world. Although a large piece of information regarding the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of COVID-19 has been reported in the general population, there is very limited data regarding organ transplant recipients, particularly regarding the management of maintenance immunosuppressive agents during infection. METHODOLOGY: We described a case of kidney transplant recipient from Thailand who had COVID-19 pneumonia and severe acute kidney injury. RESULTS: The patient's serum creatinine peaked at 7.0 mg/dL on day 15 of illness and returned to baseline value of 2.0 mg/dL on day 26 of illness. We have shown how we modified tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids in the patient who had received favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, successful modification of this immunosuppressive regimen was accomplished to reduce drug interaction complications, aiming to avoid calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity while maintaining appropriate levels of immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection and to promote the patient's recovery from infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Steroids/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thailand , Transplant Recipients
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20073, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462039

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation recipients (KTR) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at higher risk of death than general population. However, mortality risk factors in KTR are still not clearly identified. Our objective was to systematically analyze published evidence for risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 KTR. Electronic databases were searched for eligible studies on 1 August 2021. All prospective and retrospective studies of COVID-19 in KTR were considered eligible without language restriction. Since data in case reports and series could potentially be subsets of larger studies, only studies with ≥ 50 patients were included. Random-effects model meta-analysis was used to calculate weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooled odds ratio (OR) of factors associated with mortality. From a total 1,137 articles retrieved, 13 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis comprising 4,440 KTR. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were significantly older (WMD 10.5 years, 95% CI 9.3-11.8). KTR of deceased donor were at higher risk of death (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.10-2.74). Comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and active cancer significantly increased mortality risk. KTR with dyspnea (OR 5.68, 95% CI 2.11-15.33) and pneumonia (OR 10.64, 95% CI 3.37-33.55) at presentation were at higher mortality risk, while diarrhea decreased the risk (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.78). Acute kidney injury was associated with mortality (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.36-7.70). Inflammatory markers were significantly higher in the non-survivors, including C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukine-6. A number of COVID-19 mortality risk factors were identified from KTR patient characteristics, presenting symptoms, and laboratory investigations. KTR with these risk factors should receive more intensive monitoring and early therapeutic interventions to optimize health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients
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