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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838985, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742221

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Studies have shown reduced antiviral responses in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, but data on post-vaccination alloimmune responses and antiviral responses against the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant are limited. Materials and methods: To address this issue, we conducted a prospective, multi-center study of 58 adult KTRs receiving mRNA-BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines. We used multiple complementary non-invasive biomarkers for rejection monitoring including serum creatinine, proteinuria, donor-derived cell-free DNA, peripheral blood gene expression profile (PBGEP), urinary CXCL9 mRNA and de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Secondary outcomes included development of anti-viral immune responses against the wild-type and Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Results: At a median of 85 days, no KTRs developed de novo DSAs and only one patient developed acute rejection following recent conversion to belatacept, which was associated with increased creatinine and urinary CXCL9 levels. During follow-up, there were no significant changes in proteinuria, donor-derived cell-free DNA levels or PBGEP. 36% of KTRs in our cohort developed anti-wild-type spike antibodies, 75% and 55% of whom had neutralizing responses against wild-type and Delta variants respectively. A cellular response against wild-type S1, measured by interferon-γ-ELISpot assay, developed in 38% of KTRs. Cellular responses did not differ in KTRs with or without antibody responses. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in KTRs did not elicit a significant alloimmune response. About half of KTRs who develop anti-wild-type spike antibodies after two mRNA vaccine doses have neutralizing responses against the Delta variant. There was no association between anti-viral humoral and cellular responses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Kidney Transplantation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Isoantibodies/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous , Vaccination
4.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2021(1): 587-591, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566498

ABSTRACT

Infections are a major cause of morbidity and can result in mortality in long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Chronic graft-versus-host disease and delayed immune reconstitution are recognized risk factors. Different strategies must be utilized depending on the individual patient's situation but include prolonged antimicrobial prophylaxis and vaccination. Some important infections due to pathogens preventable by vaccination are pneumococci, influenza, varicella-zoster virus, and SARS-CoV-2. Despite the fact that such recommendations have been in place for decades, implementation of these recommendations has been reported to be poor.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycoses/prevention & control , Vaccination , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Aged , Bacterial Infections/etiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Humans , Infections/etiology , Male , Mycoses/etiology , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Transplantation, Homologous/methods , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/etiology
5.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(2): 250-253, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544492

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are characterized by tolerogenic potential and therefore, are used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to improve the transplant functions, as well as for the therapy and prevention of cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients and some other conditions. However, MSC can exhibit proinflammatory activity, which causes risks for their clinical use. We studied the cytokine profile of bone marrow MSC culture and demonstrate intensive production of IL-6, IL-8, and chemokine MCP-1, which participate in the pathogenesis of cytokine storm and GVHD. At the same time, no anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 were detected. To reduce the risks of MSC application in the GVHD therapeutic protocols, further studies of the conditions promoting generation of MSC with tolerogenic potential and approved clinical standards of MSC use are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/analysis , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Chemokine CCL2/analysis , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-8/analysis , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects
6.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(11): 2628-2629, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500452
8.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 174, 2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Factors affecting response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Forty allo-HCT recipients were included in a study of immunization with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine at days 0 and 21. Binding antibodies (Ab) to SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) were assessed at days 0, 21, 28, and 49 while neutralizing Ab against SARS-CoV-2 wild type (NT50) were assessed at days 0 and 49. Results observed in allo-HCT patients were compared to those obtained in 40 healthy adults naive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood cells was performed before vaccination to identify potential predictors of Ab responses. RESULTS: Three patients had detectable anti-RBD Ab before vaccination. Among the 37 SARS-CoV-2 naive patients, 20 (54%) and 32 (86%) patients had detectable anti-RBD Ab 21 days and 49 days postvaccination. Comparing anti-RBD Ab levels in allo-HCT recipients and healthy adults, we observed significantly lower anti-RBD Ab levels in allo-HCT recipients at days 21, 28 and 49. Further, 49% of allo-HCT patients versus 88% of healthy adults had detectable NT50 Ab at day 49 while allo-HCT recipients had significantly lower NT50 Ab titers than healthy adults (P = 0.0004). Ongoing moderate/severe chronic GVHD (P < 0.01) as well as rituximab administration in the year prior to vaccination (P < 0.05) correlated with low anti-RBD and NT50 Ab titers at 49 days after the first vaccination in multivariate analyses. Compared to healthy adults, allo-HCT patients without chronic GVHD or rituximab therapy had comparable anti-RBD Ab levels and NT50 Ab titers at day 49. Flow cytometry analyses before vaccination indicated that Ab responses in allo-HCT patients were strongly correlated with the number of memory B cells and of naive CD4+ T cells (r > 0.5, P < 0.01) and more weakly with the number of follicular helper T cells (r = 0.4, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic GVHD and rituximab administration in allo-HCT recipients are associated with reduced Ab responses to BNT162b2 vaccination. Immunological markers could help identify allo-HCT patients at risk of poor Ab response to mRNA vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrialsregister.eu on 11 March 2021 (EudractCT # 2021-000673-83).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Middle Aged , Transplantation Conditioning , Transplantation Immunology , Transplantation, Homologous
11.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438525

ABSTRACT

The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of lung tissue-derived diploid progenitor cell applications, ranging from historical biotechnological substrate functions for vaccine production and testing to current investigations around potential therapeutic use in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Such cell types (e.g., MRC-5 or WI-38 sources) were extensively studied since the 1960s and have been continuously used over five decades as safe and sustainable industrial vaccine substrates. Recent research and development efforts around diploid progenitor lung cells (e.g., FE002-Lu or Walvax-2 sources) consist in qualification for potential use as optimal and renewed vaccine production substrates and, alternatively, for potential therapeutic applications in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Potentially effective, safe, and sustainable cell therapy approaches for the management of inflammatory lung diseases or affections and related symptoms (e.g., COVID-19 patients and burn patient severe inhalation syndrome) using local homologous allogeneic cell-based or cell-derived product administrations are considered. Overall, lung tissue-derived progenitor cells isolated and produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) may be used with high versatility. They can either act as key industrial platforms optimally conforming to specific pharmacopoeial requirements or as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for potentially effective promotion of lung tissue repair or regeneration.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Diploidy , Lung/cytology , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Animals , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Lung/physiology , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine/history , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells/cytology , Transplantation, Homologous
13.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 100, 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present the case of a boy with acute distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with low-dose umbilical cord blood (UCB) therapy and explore the underlying possible mechanism. METHODS: A 7-year-old boy with severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and severe ARDS was treated with allogeneic UCB as salvage therapy. RESULTS: The patient did not improve after being treated with lung protective ventilation, pulmonary surfactant replacement, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for 30 days. However, his disease reversed 5 days after allogeneic UCB infusion, and he weaned from ECMO after 7 days of infusion. Bioinformatics confirmed that his Toll-like receptor (TLR) was abnormal before UCB infusion. However, after the infusion, his immune system was activated and repaired, and the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was recovered. CONCLUSION: Allogenic UCB could treat ARDS by repairing the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby achieving stability of the immune system.


Subject(s)
Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Fetal Blood/cytology , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Child , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/microbiology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Transplantation, Homologous
15.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(4): 457-464, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare delivery has been significantly changed because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are vulnerable to infections because of their immunocompromised status. The risk of nosocomial infection may be reduced by providing care to patients at home. OBJECTIVES: This article describes one cancer center's approach for delivering safe patient care through homecare encounters, the benefits of home care for HSCT, and future directions. METHODS: Patients received detailed information on home encounters. Advanced practice providers visited patients daily and then returned to the clinic to formulate a plan of care with the interprofessional care team. Transplantation RNs visited patients on the same day to provide the prescribed care. FINDINGS: Based on evaluations from 32 patients and 12 providers, the results indicated that home care was safe, feasible, and beneficial for patient care post-HSCT during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/nursing , Home Care Services/standards , Neoplasms/nursing , Neoplasms/surgery , Oncology Nursing/standards , Therapies, Investigational/standards , Transplantation, Homologous/nursing , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North Carolina , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 634416, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has evoked a pandemic that challenges public health-care systems worldwide. Endothelial cell dysfunction plays a key role in pathophysiology, and simple prognosticators may help to optimize allocation of limited resources. Endothelial activation and stress index (EASIX) is a validated predictor of endothelial complications and outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Aim of this study was to test if EASIX could predict life-threatening complications in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-positive, hospitalized patients were enrolled onto a prospective non-interventional register study (n=100). Biomarkers were assessed at hospital admission. Primary endpoint was severe course of disease (mechanical ventilation and/or death, V/D). Results were validated in 126 patients treated in two independent institutions. RESULTS: EASIX at admission was a strong predictor of severe course of the disease (odds ratio for a two-fold change 3.4, 95%CI 1.8-6.3, p<0.001), time to V/D (hazard ratio (HR) for a two-fold change 2.0, 95%CI 1.5-2.6, p<0.001) as well as survival (HR for a two-fold change 1.7, 95%CI 1.2-2.5, p=0.006). The effect was retained in multivariable analysis adjusting for age, gender, and comorbidities and could be validated in the independent cohort. At hospital admission EASIX correlated with increased suppressor of tumorigenicity-2, soluble thrombomodulin, angiopoietin-2, CXCL8, CXCL9 and interleukin-18, but not interferon-alpha. CONCLUSION: EASIX is a validated predictor of COVID19 outcome and an easy-to-access tool to segregate patients in need for intensive surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Analysis , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(10): 870.e1-870.e7, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292829

ABSTRACT

Late-onset severe pneumonia (LOSP) is defined as severe pneumonia developing during the late phase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Because of the high mortality in patients with LOSP, it is important to identify prognostic factors. In this study, we aimed to develop a risk score system with broad applicability that can help predict the risk of LOSP-associated mortality. We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with LOSP after allo-HSCT between June 2009 and July 2017. The assessment variables included immune, nutritional, and metabolic parameters at the onset of LOSP. Of these 100 patients, 45 (45%) eventually died, and 55 (55%) were positive for organisms, most commonly viruses. In the multivariate analysis, higher monocyte count (≥0.20 × 109/L versus <0.20 × 109/L; P = .001), higher albumin level (≥30.5 g/L versus <30.5 g/L; P = .044), lower lactic dehydrogenase level (<250 U/L versus ≥250 U/L; P = .008) and lower blood urea nitrogen concentration (<7.2 mmol/L versus ≥7.2 mmol/L; P = .026) at the onset of LOSP were significantly associated with better 60-day survival. A risk score system based on the foregoing results showed that the probability of 60-day survival decreased with increasing risk factors, from 96.3% in the low-risk group to 49.1% in the intermediate-risk group and 12.5% in the high-risk group. Our results indicate that this scoring system using 4 variables can stratify patients with different probabilities of survival after LOSP, which suggests that patients' immune, nutritional, and metabolic status are crucial factors in determining outcome.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Pneumonia , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26446, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279283

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Viruses are the most common pathogens that can cause infection-related non-recurrent death after transplantation, occurring mostly from the early stages of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to within 1 year after transplantation. Human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 is a coronavirus that could cause mortality among patients with underlying disease complications. Serological tests are of limited diagnostic value in immunocompromised hosts and cases of latent infection reactivation. In contrast, macro-genomic high-throughput (DNA and RNA) sequencing allows for rapid and accurate diagnosis of infecting pathogens for targeted treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we describe a patient who exhibited acute B-lymphocytic leukemia and developed complicated pulmonary HCoV-NL63 infection after a second allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT). Six months after the second allo-HSCT, he developed sudden-onset hyperthermia and cough with decreased oxygen saturation. Chest computed tomography (CT) suggested bilateral multiple rounded ground-glass opacities with the pulmonary lobules as units. DIAGNOSES: HCoV-NL63 was detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS), and HCoV-NL63 viral pneumonia was diagnosed. INTERVENTIONS: The treatment was mainly based on the use of antiviral therapy, hormone administration, and gamma-globulin. OUTCOMES: After the therapy, the body temperature returned to normal, the chest CT findings had improved on review, and the viral copy number eventually became negative. LESSONS: The latest NGS is an effective method for early infection diagnosis. The HCoV-NL63 virus can cause inflammatory factor storm and alter the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). This case suggests that the patient's NLR and cytokine levels could be monitored during the clinical treatment to assess the disease and its treatment outcome in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Leukemia, B-Cell/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, B-Cell/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Metagenomics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Young Adult , gamma-Globulins/administration & dosage
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