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1.
Am J Emerg Med ; 56: 107-112, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the usability, feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness of the information and communication technology for emergency medical services (ICT-EMS) systems to improve the transportation of emergency patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) (n = 229) employed at 7 fire stations operated by the North Chungcheong Fire Service Headquarters, South Korea were trained to use ICT-EMS devices prior to a 1-month implementation period. System Usability Scale (SUS), Feasibility of Intervention Measure (FIM), Acceptability of Intervention Measure (AIM), and Intervention Appropriateness Measure (IAM) questionnaires were conducted in the 4th week of the 1-month implementation period to assess the perceived usability, feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness of the ICT-EMS systems. RESULTS: Among a total of 229 EMTs, 187 EMTs (81.7%) completed the survey. The overall SUS score was significantly low (score of 35.6) indicating an overall negative perception of the ICT-EMS systems. With regard to the feasibility, acceptability, and intervention appropriateness of ICT-EMS, roughly 50 (26.7%) participants agreed that ICT-EMS implementation was possible, appealing, and suitable. CONCLUSION: Many potential areas of improvement were identified within the ICT-EMS systems. System alterations regarding usability, feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness may be necessary to successfully implement the ICT-EMS systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Medical Technicians , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Transportation of Patients
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935474, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) and the sudden inflow of patients with severe COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) symptoms increased demand for hospital and pre-hospital care, the latter being provided by emergency medical teams. The Polish Medical Air Rescue Services include the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and the airplane-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS). This study aimed to present the experience of the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken to protect patients, medical staff, and air crew from SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of missions completed by the Polish Medical Air Rescue crews with respect to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases. We analyzed data from the medical records of the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service, which included flights to accidents and emergencies, and air patient transport missions, where medical assistance was provided to patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first year of the pandemic in Poland. RESULTS Among the COVID-19 patients, the most common comorbidity was acute respiratory failure (41.58%). Emergency missions more often concerned older patients with sudden cardiac arrest, dyspnea, upper respiratory tract infection, stroke, and acute coronary syndromes. CONCLUSIONS During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service implemented procedures to protect patients, medical staff, and air crew from SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study highlights the importance of using single-patient isolation units for patient transport between hospitals and for emergency hospital admissions when the SARS-CoV-2 status of the patients were unknown.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Staff , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Medical Records , Pandemics , Poland , Retrospective Studies , Transportation of Patients
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263278, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients may require emergency medical services for emergent treatment and/or transport to a hospital for further treatment. However, it is common for the patients to experience adverse events during transport, even the shortest transport may cause life-threatening conditions. Most of the studies that have been done on prehospital care of COVID-19 patients were conducted in developed countries. Differences in population demographics and economy may limit the generalizability of available studies. So, this study was aimed at investigating the status of prehospital care delivery for COVID-19 patients in Addis Ababa focusing on adverse events that occurred during transport and associated factors. METHODS: A total of 233 patients consecutively transported to Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College from November 6 to December 31, 2020, were included in the study. A team of physicians and nurses collected the data using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, and ordinal logistic regression was carried out to assess the association between explanatory variables and the outcome variable. Results are presented using frequency, percentage, chi-square, crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The overall level of adverse events in prehospital setting was 44.2%. Having history of at least one chronic medical illness, [AOR3.2 (95%; CI; 1.11-9.53)]; distance traveled to reach destination facility, [AOR 0.11(95%; CI; 0.02-0.54)]; failure to recognize and administer oxygen to the patient in need of oxygen, [AOR 15.0(95%; CI; 4.0-55.7)]; absent or malfunctioned suctioning device, [AOR 4.0(95%; CI; 1.2-13.0)]; patients handling mishaps, [AOR 12.7(95%; CI; 2.9-56.8)] were the factors associated with adverse events in prehospital transport of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: There were a significant proportion of adverse events in prehospital care among COVID-19 patients. Most of the adverse events were preventable. There is an urgent need to strengthen prehospital emergency care in Ethiopia by equipping the ambulances with essential and properly functioning equipment and trained manpower. Awareness creation and training of transport staff in identifying potential hazards, at-risk patients, adequate documentation, and patient handling during transport could help to prevent or minimize adverse events in prehospital care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Transportation of Patients , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Documentation , Emergency Medical Services , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(48): e27881, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583961

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In February 2021, an explosion of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia overwhelmed the only hospital in Mayotte. To report a case series of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to SARS-CoV-2 who were evacuated by air from Mayotte to Reunion Island.This retrospective observational study evaluated all consecutive patients with ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 who were evacuated by air from Mayotte Hospital to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Félix Guyon University Hospital in Reunion Island between February 2, and March 5, 2021.A total of 43 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were evacuated by air, for a total flight time of 2 hours and a total travel time of 6 hours. Of these, 38 patients (88.4%) with a median age of 55 (46-65) years presented with ARF and were hospitalized in our ICU. Fifteen patients were screened for the SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 variant, all of whom tested positive. Thirteen patients (34.2%) developed an episode of severe hypoxemia during air transport, and the median paO2/FiO2 ratio was lower on ICU admission (140 [102-192] mmHg) than on departure (165 [150-200], P = .022). Factors associated with severe hypoxemia during air transport was lack of treatment with curare (P = .012) and lack of invasive mechanical ventilation (P = .003). Nine patients (23.7%) received veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in our ICU. Seven deaths (18.4%) occurred in hospital.Emergency air evacuation of patients with ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 was associated with severe hypoxemia but remained feasible. In cases of ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 requiring emergency air evacuation, sedated patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and curare should be prioritized over nonintubated patients. It is noteworthy that patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia related to the 501Y.V2 variant were very severe despite their young age.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Transportation of Patients , Aged , Aircraft , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comoros , Curare , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Reunion/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(4): 384-388, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we scaled up telemedicine and rideshare services for clinic and laboratory visits for pediatric and adolescent patients with HIV. SETTING: HIV subspecialty program for patients aged 0-24 years at Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC. METHODS: Using the χ2 and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, we compared demographics, visit and laboratory data, and rideshare usage among patients who scheduled telemedicine at least once (telemedicine) versus those who never scheduled telemedicine (no-telemedicine) during the pandemic (April-September 2020). We compared the number and proportion of scheduled and completed clinic visits before the pandemic (April-September 2019) with those during the pandemic. RESULTS: We analyzed 178 pediatric and adolescent patients with HIV (median age 17.9 years, 89.3% Black, 48.9% male patients, 78.7% perinatally infected), of whom 70.2% and 28.6% used telemedicine and rideshare, respectively. Telemedicine patients scheduled more visits (236 vs 179, P < 0.0001) and completed a similar proportion of visits (81.8% vs 86.0%, P = 0.3805) compared with no-telemedicine patients. Laboratory testing rates (81.3% versus 98.5%, P = 0.0005) were lower in telemedicine patients compared with no-telemedicine patients. Rideshare usage (12.4% versus 26.5%, P = 0.0068) was lower in telemedicine versus no-telemedicine patients. During the pandemic, most of the patients (81.0%) had HIV RNA <200 copies/mL. The total number of completed visits and the proportion of visits completed were similar before and during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Most of the pediatric and adolescent patients with HIV used telemedicine and maintained HIV RNA <200 copies/mL during the pandemic. Despite rideshare usage, laboratory testing rates were lower with telemedicine compared with in-person visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Telemedicine , Transportation of Patients , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e62524, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1518835

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo identificar medidas de prevenção da transmissão de COVID-19 para profissionais de saúde do atendimento pré-hospitalar. Métodos revisão integrativa por meio das bases de dados LILACS e BDENF via Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, CINAHL, MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library e SCOPUS. Resultados foram incluídas oito publicações que apresentaram recomendações referentes ao uso de equipamentos de segurança pelos profissionais de saúde e motoristas de ambulâncias e medidas de prevenção do risco de infecção durante procedimentos aéreos invasivos em pacientes suspeitos ou contaminados de COVID-19. Conclusão as medidas preventivas dirigidas aos profissionais do atendimento pré-hospitalar foram: uso adequado de equipamentos de proteção individual e; mudanças no manejo de pacientes suspeitos/contaminados pelo COVID-19 e em procedimentos invasivos ou no transporte desses pacientes. Além disso, é fundamental a limpeza e desinfecção das ambulâncias e seus equipamentos.


ABSTRACT Objective to identify measures to prevent transmission of COVID-19 for prehospital care health care workers. Methods integrative review using LILACS and BDENF databases via the Virtual Health Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS. Results eight publications were included that presented recommendations regarding the use of safety equipment by healthcare professionals and ambulance drivers and measures to prevent the risk of infection during invasive airborne procedures in suspected or contaminated COVID-19 patients. Conclusion the preventive measures directed to prehospital care professionals were proper use of personal protective equipment and changes in the management of suspected/contaminated patients by COVID-19 and in invasive procedures or transportation of these patients. In addition, it is essential the cleaning and disinfection of the ambulances and their equipment.


Subject(s)
Transportation of Patients , Coronavirus Infections , Prehospital Care , Personal Protective Equipment
9.
A A Pract ; 15(10): e01530, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484822

ABSTRACT

Bain H circuit is an innovatively modified breathing circuit designed for the transportation and resuscitation of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). For this circuit, the Heidbrink valve was replaced with a 15F inlet and 15M/22F outlet adjustable pressure-limiting (APL) valve, and a high-efficiency particulate air filter was placed over the APL outlet valve. The circuit is designed to filter the novel coronavirus without any increase in dead space or resistance. All benefits of the conventional Bain circuit were retained. Besides its use in dedicated COVID-19 areas, this circuit can be used in other emergency units of the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation of Patients
10.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To implement a unified non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) service across a large integrated healthcare delivery network. METHODS: We assessed needs among key organisational stakeholders, then reviewed proposals. We selected a single NEMT vendor best aligned with organisational priorities and implemented this solution system-wide. RESULTS: Our vendor's hybrid approach combined rideshares with contracted vehicles able to serve patients with equipment and other needs. After 6195 rides in the first year, we observed shorter wait times and lower costs compared with our prior state. DISCUSSION: Essential lessons included (1) understanding user and patient needs, (2) obtaining complete, accurate and comprehensive baseline data and (3) adapting existing workflows-rather than designing de novo-whenever possible. CONCLUSIONS: Our implementation of a single-vendor NEMT solution validates the need for NEMT at large healthcare organisations, geographical challenges to establishing NEMT organisation-wide, and the importance of baseline data and stakeholder engagement.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Transportation of Patients , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Humans , Transportation of Patients/organization & administration
12.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 98, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused changes in people's drinking habits and the emergency management system for various diseases. However, no studies have investigated the pandemic's impact on emergency transportation for acute alcoholic intoxication. This study examines the effect of the pandemic on emergency transportation due to acute alcoholic intoxication in Kochi Prefecture, Japan, a region with high alcohol consumption. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted using data of 180,747 patients from the Kochi-Iryo-Net database, Kochi Prefecture's emergency medical and wide-area disaster information system. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The association between emergency transportation and alcoholic intoxication was examined. The differences between the number of transportations during the voluntary isolation period in Japan (March and April 2020) and the same period for 2016-2019 were measured. RESULTS: In 2020, emergency transportations due to acute alcoholic intoxication declined by 0.2%, compared with previous years. Emergency transportation due to acute alcoholic intoxication decreased significantly between March and April 2020, compared with the same period in 2016-2019, even after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected the number of emergency transportations; in particular, those due to acute alcoholic intoxication decreased significantly.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Intoxication/epidemiology , Ambulances , Emergency Medical Dispatch/statistics & numerical data , Transportation of Patients/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Emergency Medical Dispatch/trends , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Transportation of Patients/trends
13.
CJEM ; 22(S2): S79-S83, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387052

ABSTRACT

Transporting patients with communicable diseases is common in critical care transport operations. At Ornge, Ontario's critical care transport provider, 13.7% of patients required contact, droplet, or airborne precautions during transport in 2019-2020. Ensuring that staff are protected while transporting patients with communicable diseases must remain a prime directive for medical transport administrators and operators. Success in safety requires a robust system of hazard identification and adherence to generally accepted methods of hazard control. This commentary will discuss some of the administrative and engineering controls, as well as the personal protective equipment (PPE) strategies deployed at Ornge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Infection Control/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Safety Management/standards , Transportation of Patients/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120728, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366205

ABSTRACT

Importance: Emergency department (ED) and emergency medical services (EMS) volumes decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the amount attributable to voluntary refusal vs effects of the pandemic and public health restrictions is unknown. Objective: To examine the factors associated with EMS refusal in relation to COVID-19 cases, public health interventions, EMS responses, and prehospital deaths. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Detroit, Michigan, from March 1 to June 30, 2020. Emergency medical services responses geocoded to Census tracts were analyzed by individuals' age, sex, date, and community resilience using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Social Vulnerability Index. Response counts were adjusted with Poisson regression, and odds of refusals and deaths were adjusted by logistic regression. Exposures: A COVID-19 outbreak characterized by a peak in local COVID-19 incidence and the strictest stay-at-home orders to date, followed by a nadir in incidence and broadly lifted restrictions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted difference in 2020 vs 2019 responses by incidence rate and refusals or deaths by odds. The Social Vulnerability Index was used to capture community social determinants of health as a risk factor for death or refusal. The index contains 4 domain subscores; possible overall score is 0 to 15, with higher scores indicating greater vulnerability. Results: A total of 80 487 EMS responses with intended ED transport, 2059 prehospital deaths, and 16 064 refusals (62 636 completed EMS to ED transports) from 334 Census tracts were noted during the study period. Of the cohort analyzed, 38 621 were women (48%); mean (SD) age was 49.0 (21.4) years, and mean (SD) Social Vulnerability Index score was 9.6 (1.6). Tracts with the highest per-population EMS transport refusal rates were characterized by higher unemployment, minority race/ethnicity, single-parent households, poverty, disability, lack of vehicle access, and overall Social Vulnerability Index score (9.6 vs 9.0, P = .002). At peak COVID-19 incidence and maximal stay-at-home orders, there were higher total responses (adjusted incident rate ratio [aIRR], 1.07; 1.03-1.12), odds of deaths (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.60; 95% CI, 1.20-2.12), and refusals (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.09-2.60) but fewer completed ED transports (aIRR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.86). With public health restrictions lifted and the nadir of COVID-19 cases, responses (aIRR, 1.01; 0.97-1.05) and deaths (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.81-1.41) returned to 2019 baselines, but differences in refusals (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.14-1.41) and completed transports (aIRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99) remained. Multivariable-adjusted 2020 refusal was associated with female sex (aOR, 2.71; 95% CI, 2.43-3.03 in 2020 at the peak; aOR 1.47; 95% CI, 1.32-1.64 at the nadir). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, EMS transport refusals increased with the COVID-19 outbreak's peak and remained elevated despite receding public health restrictions, COVID-19 incidence, total EMS responses, and prehospital deaths. Voluntary refusal was associated with decreased EMS transports to EDs, disproportionately so among women and vulnerable communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Transportation of Patients/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Artif Organs ; 45(10): 1168-1172, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285012

ABSTRACT

ECMO support is particularly resource-intensive and should be provided in highly specialized centers. Occasionally, ECMO needs to be initiated in non-ECMO centers by mobile ECMO retrieval teams. Subsequently, patients must be transferred on ECMO to the ECMO center. We report single-center data from out-of-center initiations of ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic. From March 2020 through February 2021, nine patients were connected to ECMO before transfer to our center. Median travel distance (IQR) from the referring hospital to our center was 66 km (20-92), median land travel time (IQR) was 51 minutes (26-92). Personal protective equipment was available for all team members and used throughout the missions. No infections of team members with SARS-CoV-2 occurred. Three patients survived until hospital discharge. Median duration of ECMO (IQR) was 18 days (2-78) in survivors and 19 days (9-42) in non-survivors, respectively. Out-of-center initiation of ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic was feasible and safe for patients and staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Mobile Health Units , Transportation of Patients , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200312, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1280680

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To build and validate a checklist for disinfecting ambulances transporting patients with Covid-19. Method Methodological study composed by the construction of a checklist and validation by 42 professionals, of which 35 professionals had expertise in patient transport/transfer and seven in hospital infection control. The item with a minimum agreement of 80% was considered valid, based on the Content Validation Index and binomial test. Results The checklist had the steps performed for terminal disinfection of ambulances. It had 54 items, which included the personal protective equipment and used materials, disinfection of the driver's cabin, equipment, and the patient care cabin. The minimum agreement obtained was 85% and the mean of the Content Validation Index was 0.96. Conclusion The checklist was considered valid in terms of content and can be used to disinfect ambulances transporting patients with Covid-19.


RESUMEN Objetivo Construir y validar checklist para desinfectar ambulancias que transportan pacientes con Covid-19. Método Un estudio metodológico compuesto por la construcción de un checklist y validación por 42 profesionales, de los cuales 35 profesionales tenían experiencia en transporte/transferencia de pacientes y siete en control de infecciones hospitalarias. El ítem con un acuerdo mínimo del 80% se consideró válido, según el índice de validación de contenido y la prueba binomial. Resultados El checklist tenía los pasos a seguir para la desinfección terminal de ambulancias. Tenía 54 artículos, que incluían el equipo de protección individual y los materiales utilizados, la desinfección de la cabina del conductor, el equipo y la cabina de atención al paciente. El acuerdo mínimo obtenido fue del 85% y el promedio del Índice de Validación de Contenido fue de 0,96. Conclusión El checklist se consideró válido en términos de contenido y puede usarse para desinfectar ambulancias que transportan pacientes con Covid-19.


RESUMO Objetivo Construir e validar checklist para desinfecção de ambulâncias que transportam pacientes com Covid-19. Método Estudo metodológico composto pela construção de checklist e validação por 42 profissionais, dos quais 35 profissionais possuíam expertise em transporte/transferência de pacientes e sete em controle de infecção hospitalar. Foi considerado válido o item com concordância mínima de 80%, a partir do Índice de Validação de Conteúdo e teste binomial. Resultados O checklist possuiu as etapas que devem ser realizadas para desinfecção terminal das ambulâncias. Possuiu 54 itens, que contemplaram os equipamentos de proteção individual e materiais utilizados, desinfecção da cabine do condutor, dos equipamentos e da cabine de atendimento ao paciente. A concordância mínima obtida foi de 85% e a média do Índice de Validação de Conteúdo foi de 0,96. Conclusão O checklist foi considerado válido quanto ao conteúdo e pode ser utilizado para desinfecção das ambulâncias que transportam pacientes com Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disinfection , Ambulances , Transportation of Patients/organization & administration , Checklist/methods , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment
18.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(7): 345-360, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269471

ABSTRACT

First responders may have high SARS-CoV-2 infection risks due to working with potentially infected patients in enclosed spaces. The study objective was to estimate infection risks per transport for first responders and quantify how first responder use of N95 respirators and patient use of cloth masks can reduce these risks. A model was developed for two Scenarios: an ambulance transport with a patient actively emitting a virus in small aerosols that could lead to airborne transmission (Scenario 1) and a subsequent transport with the same respirator or mask use conditions, an uninfected patient; and remaining airborne SARS-CoV-2 and contaminated surfaces due to aerosol deposition from the previous transport (Scenario 2). A compartmental Monte Carlo simulation model was used to estimate the dispersion and deposition of SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent infection risks for first responders, accounting for variability and uncertainty in input parameters (i.e., transport duration, transfer efficiencies, SARS-CoV-2 emission rates from infected patients, etc.). Infection risk distributions and changes in concentration on hands and surfaces over time were estimated across sub-Scenarios of first responder respirator use and patient cloth mask use. For Scenario 1, predicted mean infection risks were reduced by 69%, 48%, and 85% from a baseline risk (no respirators or face masks used) of 2.9 × 10-2 ± 3.4 × 10-2 when simulated first responders wore respirators, the patient wore a cloth mask, and when first responders and the patient wore respirators or a cloth mask, respectively. For Scenario 2, infection risk reductions for these same Scenarios were 69%, 50%, and 85%, respectively (baseline risk of 7.2 × 10-3 ± 1.0 × 10-2). While aerosol transmission routes contributed more to viral dose in Scenario 1, our simulations demonstrate the ability of face masks worn by patients to additionally reduce surface transmission by reducing viral deposition on surfaces. Based on these simulations, we recommend the patient wear a face mask and first responders wear respirators, when possible, and disinfection should prioritize high use equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Ambulances , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Emergency Responders , Equipment Contamination , Humans , Monte Carlo Method , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Transportation of Patients
19.
Air Med J ; 40(5): 331-336, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has altered the provision of health care, including interfacility transport of critically ill neonatal and pediatrics patients. Transport medicine faces unique challenges in the care of persons infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In particular, the multitude of providers, confined spaces for prolonged time periods, varying modes (ground, rotor wing, and fixed wing) of transport, and the need for frequent aerosol-generating procedures place transport personnel at high risk. This study describes the clinical practices, personal protective equipment, and potential exposure risks of a large cohort of neonatal and pediatric interfacility transport teams. METHODS: Data for this study came from a survey distributed to members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Transport Medicine. RESULTS: Fifty-four teams responded, and 47 reported transporting COVID-19-positive patients. Among the 47 teams, 25% indicated having at least 1 team member convert to COVID-19 positive. A small percentage of teams (40% ground, 40% fixed wing, and 18% rotor wing) reported allowing parental accompaniment during transport. There was no difference in teams with a positive team member among those that do (26%) and do not (25%) allow parents. There was a higher percentage of teams with a positive team member among teams that intubate (32% vs. 0%) and place laryngeal mask airways (34% vs. 0%) during transport. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that exceptional care during interfacility transport, including a family-centered approach, can continue during the COVID-19 pandemic. Teams must take steps to protect themselves, as well as the patients and families they serve, in order to mitigate the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatrics , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation of Patients , United States/epidemiology
20.
Air Med J ; 40(4): 220-224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245832

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are limited data regarding the typical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring interfacility transport or the clinical capabilities of the out-of-hospital transport clinicians required to provide safe transport. The objective of this study is to provide epidemiologic data and highlight the clinical skill set and decision making needed to transport critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of persons under investigation for COVID-19 transported during the first 6 months of the pandemic by Johns Hopkins Lifeline was performed. Patients who required interfacility transport and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by polymerase chain reaction assay were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (25.4%) required vasopressor support, 35 patients (13.1%) were pharmacologically paralyzed, 15 (5.60%) were prone, and 1 (0.75%) received an inhaled pulmonary vasodilator. At least 1 ventilator setting change occurred for 59 patients (22.0%), and ventilation mode was changed for 11 patients (4.10%) during transport. CONCLUSION: The safe transport of critically ill patients with COVID-19 requires experience with vasopressors, paralytic medications, inhaled vasodilators, prone positioning, and ventilator management. The frequency of initiated critical interventions and ventilator adjustments underscores the tenuous nature of these patients and highlights the importance of transport clinician reassessment, critical thinking, and decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Competence , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Critical Care/methods , Transportation of Patients/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Care/standards , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Maryland , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Patient Transfer/methods , Patient Transfer/standards , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Transportation of Patients/standards , Transportation of Patients/statistics & numerical data
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