Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264713, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745319

ABSTRACT

In most big cities, public transports are enclosed and crowded spaces. Therefore, they are considered as one of the most important triggers of COVID-19 spread. Most of the existing research related to the mobility of people and COVID-19 spread is focused on investigating highly frequented paths by analyzing data collected from mobile devices, which mainly refer to geo-positioning records. In contrast, this paper tackles the problem by studying mass mobility. The relations between daily mobility on public transport (subway or metro) in three big cities and mortality due to COVID-19 are investigated. Data collected for these purposes come from official sources, such as the web pages of the cities' local governments. To provide a systematic framework, we applied the IBM Foundational Methodology for Data Science to the epidemiological domain of this paper. Our analysis consists of moving averages with a moving window equal to seven days so as to avoid bias due to weekly tendencies. Among the main findings of this work are: a) New York City and Madrid show similar distribution on studied variables, which resemble a Gauss bell, in contrast to Mexico City, and b) Non-pharmaceutical interventions don't bring immediate results, and reductions to the number of deaths due to COVID are observed after a certain number of days. This paper yields partial evidence for assessing the effectiveness of public policies in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Transportation , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Data Science/methods , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Transportation/methods , Transportation/statistics & numerical data
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 370, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1617000

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreaks have had high mortality in low- and middle-income countries such as Ecuador. Human mobility is an important factor influencing the spread of diseases possibly leading to a high burden of disease at the country level. Drastic control measures, such as complete lockdown, are effective epidemic controls, yet in practice one hopes that a partial shutdown would suffice. It is an open problem to determine how much mobility can be allowed while controlling an outbreak. In this paper, we use statistical models to relate human mobility to the excess death in Ecuador while controlling for demographic factors. The mobility index provided by GRANDATA, based on mobile phone users, represents the change of number of out-of-home events with respect to a benchmark date (March 2nd, 2020). The study confirms the global trend that more men are dying than expected compared to women, and that people under 30 show less deaths than expected, particularly individuals younger than 20 with a death rate reduction between 22 and 27%. The weekly median mobility time series shows a sharp decrease in human mobility immediately after a national lockdown was declared on March 17, 2020 and a progressive increase towards the pre-lockdown level within two months. Relating median mobility to excess deaths shows a lag in its effect: first, a decrease in mobility in the previous two to three weeks decreases excess death and, more novel, we found an increase of mobility variability four weeks prior increases the number of excess deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Geography , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Dynamics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Young Adult
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 686, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Associations between community-level risk factors and COVID-19 incidence have been used to identify vulnerable subpopulations and target interventions, but the variability of these associations over time remains largely unknown. We evaluated variability in the associations between community-level predictors and COVID-19 case incidence in 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts from March to October 2020. METHODS: Using publicly available sociodemographic, occupational, environmental, and mobility datasets, we developed mixed-effect, adjusted Poisson regression models to depict associations between these variables and town-level COVID-19 case incidence data across five distinct time periods from March to October 2020. We examined town-level demographic variables, including population proportions by race, ethnicity, and age, as well as factors related to occupation, housing density, economic vulnerability, air pollution (PM2.5), and institutional facilities. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) associated with these predictors and compared these values across the multiple time periods to assess variability in the observed associations over time. RESULTS: Associations between key predictor variables and town-level incidence varied across the five time periods. We observed reductions over time in the association with percentage of Black residents (IRR = 1.12 [95%CI: 1.12-1.13]) in early spring, IRR = 1.01 [95%CI: 1.00-1.01] in early fall) and COVID-19 incidence. The association with number of long-term care facility beds per capita also decreased over time (IRR = 1.28 [95%CI: 1.26-1.31] in spring, IRR = 1.07 [95%CI: 1.05-1.09] in fall). Controlling for other factors, towns with higher percentages of essential workers experienced elevated incidences of COVID-19 throughout the pandemic (e.g., IRR = 1.30 [95%CI: 1.27-1.33] in spring, IRR = 1.20 [95%CI: 1.17-1.22] in fall). Towns with higher proportions of Latinx residents also had sustained elevated incidence over time (IRR = 1.19 [95%CI: 1.18-1.21] in spring, IRR = 1.14 [95%CI: 1.13-1.15] in fall). CONCLUSIONS: Town-level COVID-19 risk factors varied with time in this study. In Massachusetts, racial (but not ethnic) disparities in COVID-19 incidence may have decreased across the first 8 months of the pandemic, perhaps indicating greater success in risk mitigation in selected communities. Our approach can be used to evaluate effectiveness of public health interventions and target specific mitigation efforts on the community level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Social Environment , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Movement/physiology , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260969, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546975

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been influencing travel behaviour in many urban areas around the world since the beginning of 2020. As a consequence, bike-sharing schemes have been affected-partly due to the change in travel demand and behaviour as well as a shift from public transit. This study estimates the varying effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the London bike-sharing system (Santander Cycles) over the period March-December 2020. We employed a Bayesian second-order random walk time-series model to account for temporal correlation in the data. We compared the observed number of cycle hires and hire time with their respective counterfactuals (what would have been if the pandemic had not happened) to estimate the magnitude of the change caused by the pandemic. The results indicated that following a reduction in cycle hires in March and April 2020, the demand rebounded from May 2020, remaining in the expected range of what would have been if the pandemic had not occurred. This could indicate the resiliency of Santander Cycles. With respect to hire time, an important increase occurred in April, May, and June 2020, indicating that bikes were hired for longer trips, perhaps partly due to a shift from public transit.


Subject(s)
Bicycling/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , London/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Time Factors
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21707, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504388

ABSTRACT

We investigate the connection between the choice of transportation mode used by commuters and the probability of COVID-19 transmission. This interplay might influence the choice of transportation means for years to come. We present data on commuting, socioeconomic factors, and COVID-19 disease incidence for several US metropolitan areas. The data highlights important connections between population density and mobility, public transportation use, race, and increased likelihood of transmission. We use a transportation model to highlight the effect of uncertainty about transmission on the commuters' choice of transportation means. Using multiple estimation techniques, we found strong evidence that public transit ridership in several US metro areas has been considerably impacted by COVID-19 and by the policy responses to the pandemic. Concerns about disease transmission had a negative effect on ridership, which is over and above the adverse effect from the observed reduction in employment. The COVID-19 effect is likely to reduce the demand for public transport in favor of lower density alternatives. This change relative to the status quo will have implications for fuel use, congestion, accident frequency, and air quality. More vulnerable communities might be disproportionally affected as a result. We point to the need for additional studies to further quantify these effects and to assist policy in planning for the post-COVID-19 transportation future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Transportation/economics , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Cities , Employment/trends , Humans , Motor Vehicles/economics , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Population Density , Population Dynamics/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors , Transportation/methods , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(8): 314-315, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483687

ABSTRACT

The interaction of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and chemotherapy may result in worse outcomes. However, there may be more indirect effects of COVID. We report 3 cases in which treatment was delayed because of COVID-related inability or reluctance to travel. Oncology programs should consider such indirect effects when devising treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Osteosarcoma/drug therapy , Retinoblastoma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Bone Neoplasms/drug therapy , Bone Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Osteosarcoma/virology , Prognosis , Retinal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Retinal Neoplasms/virology , Retinoblastoma/virology
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18951, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437686

ABSTRACT

A spatial susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model is developed to analyze the effects of restricting interregional mobility on the spatial spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Japan. National and local governments have requested that residents refrain from traveling between prefectures during the state of emergency. However, the extent to which restricting interregional mobility prevents infection expansion is unclear. The spatial SEIR model describes the spatial spread pattern of COVID-19 infection when people commute or travel to a prefecture in the daytime and return to their residential prefecture at night. It is assumed that people are exposed to an infection risk during their daytime activities. The spatial spread of COVID-19 infection is simulated by integrating interregional mobility data. According to the simulation results, interregional mobility restrictions can prevent the geographical expansion of the infection. On the other hand, in urban prefectures with many infectious individuals, residents are exposed to higher infection risk when their interregional mobility is restricted. The simulation results also show that interregional mobility restrictions play a limited role in reducing the total number of infected individuals in Japan, suggesting that other non-pharmaceutical interventions should be implemented to reduce the epidemic size.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Epidemics , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Travel/trends
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30406, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on how SARS-CoV-2 enters and spreads in a population are essential for guiding public policies. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in small Brazilian towns during the early phase of the epidemic and to identify core groups that can serve as the initial source of infection as well as factors associated with a higher risk of COVID-19. METHODS: Two population-based seroprevalence studies, one household survey, and a case-control study were conducted in two small towns in southeastern Brazil between May and June 2020. In the population-based studies, 400 people were evaluated in each town; there were 40 homes in the household survey, and 95 cases and 393 controls in the case-control study. SARS-CoV-2 serology testing was performed on participants, and a questionnaire was applied. Prevalence, household secondary infection rate, and factors associated with infection were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Logistics worker was defined as an individual with an occupation focused on the transportation of people or goods and whose job involves traveling outside the town of residence at least once a week. RESULTS: Higher seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the town with a greater proportion of logistics workers. The secondary household infection rate was 49.1% (55/112), and it was observed that in most households (28/40, 70%) the index case was a logistics worker. The case-control study revealed that being a logistics worker (OR 18.0, 95% CI 8.4-38.7) or living with one (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.3-14.5) increases the risk of infection. In addition, having close contact with a confirmed case (OR 13.4, 95% CI 6.6-27.3) and living with more than four people (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.1) were also risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a strong association between logistics workers and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlights the key role of these workers in the viral spread in small towns. These findings indicate the need to focus on this population to determine COVID-19 prevention and control strategies, including vaccination and sentinel genomic surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cities/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341501

ABSTRACT

Behavioral epidemiology suggests that there is a tight dynamic coupling between the timeline of an epidemic outbreak, and the social response in the affected population (with a typical course involving physical distancing between individuals, avoidance of large gatherings, wearing masks, etc). We study the bidirectional coupling between the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 and the population social response in the state of New York, between March 1, 2020 (which marks the first confirmed positive diagnosis in the state), until June 20, 2020. This window captures the first state-wide epidemic wave, which peaked to over 11,000 confirmed cases daily in April (making New York one of the US states most severely affected by this first wave), and subsided by the start of June to a count of consistently under 1,500 confirmed cases per day (suggesting temporary state-wide control of the epidemic). In response to the surge in cases, social distancing measures were gradually introduced over two weeks in March, culminating with the PAUSE directive on March 22nd, which mandated statewide shutdown of all nonessential activity. The mandates were then gradually relaxed in stages throughout summer, based on how epidemic benchmarks were met in various New York regions. In our study, we aim to examine on one hand, whether different counties exhibited different responses to the PAUSE centralized measures depending on their epidemic situation immediately preceding PAUSE. On the other hand, we explore whether these different county-wide responses may have contributed in turn to modulating the counties' epidemic timelines. We used the public domain to extract county-wise epidemic measures (such as cumulative and daily incidence of COVID-19), and social mobility measures for different modalities (driving, walking, public transit) and to different destinations. Our correlation analyses between the epidemic and the mobility time series found significant correlations between the size of the epidemic and the degree of mobility drop after PAUSE, as well as between the mobility comeback patterns and the epidemic recovery timeline. In line with existing literature on the role of the population behavioral response during an epidemic outbreak, our results support the potential importance of the PAUSE measures to the control of the first epidemic wave in New York State.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior/physiology , Infection Control , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemics , History, 21st Century , Human Activities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Infection Control/methods , Mandatory Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Masks , New York/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Transportation/statistics & numerical data
10.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(2, Mar-Abr): 225-231, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310306

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de evidencia sobre la proba-bilidad de transmisión de enfermedades respiratorias agudas en el transporte público colectivo. Material y métodos. Se utilizó la metodología de revisiones rápidas de Cochrane. La estrategia de búsqueda abarcó una base de datos acadé-mica hasta el 10 de diciembre de 2020. Resultados. Se identificaron 16 manuscritos que cumplieron los criterios de selección. En estudios de cohorte agrupados se encontró que el momio de seroconversión por influenza A o B fue 54% mayor en personas con uso frecuente de transporte público colectivo en comparación con las personas con un uso poco frecuente (razón de momios: 1.54; IC95%:1.06-2.01). Conclusión. La probabilidad de contagio por enfermeda-des respiratorias agudas puede incrementar con el uso del transporte público colectivo. Algunas recomendaciones para reducir la probabilidad de contagio en el transporte público colectivo son el uso de cubrebocas y reducir el número de pasajeros y tiempo de traslado.


Subject(s)
Public Sector , Respiratory Tract Infections , Transportation , Humans , Probability , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Transportation/statistics & numerical data
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228300

ABSTRACT

As the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to proliferate across the globe, it is a struggle to predict and prevent its spread. The successes of mobility interventions demonstrate how policies can help limit the person-to-person interactions that are essential to infection. With significant community spread, experts predict this virus will continue to be a threat until safe and effective vaccines have been developed and widely deployed. We aim to understand mobility changes during the first major quarantine period in the United States, measured via mobile device tracking, by assessing how people changed their behavior in response to policies and to weather. Here, we show that consistent national messaging was associated with consistent national behavioral change, regardless of local policy. Furthermore, although human behavior did vary with outdoor air temperature, these variations were not associated with variations in a proxy for the rate of encounters between people. The independence of encounters and temperatures suggests that weather-related behavioral changes will, in many cases, be of limited relevance for SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics. Both of these results are encouraging for the potential of clear national messaging to help contain any future pandemics, and possibly to help contain COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/virology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Incidence , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Physical Distancing , Public Policy , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Risk Factors , Temperature , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020501, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. METHODS: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. RESULTS: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/history , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/history
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24730, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, new digital solutions have been developed for infection control. In particular, contact tracing mobile apps provide a means for governments to manage both health and economic concerns. However, public reception of these apps is paramount to their success, and global uptake rates have been low. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to identify the characteristics of individuals or factors potentially associated with voluntary downloads of a contact tracing mobile app in Singapore. METHODS: A cohort of 505 adults from the general community completed an online survey. As the primary outcome measure, participants were asked to indicate whether they had downloaded the contact tracing app TraceTogether introduced at the national level. The following were assessed as predictor variables: (1) participant demographics, (2) behavioral modifications on account of the pandemic, and (3) pandemic severity (the number of cases and lockdown status). RESULTS: Within our data set, the strongest predictor of the uptake of TraceTogether was the extent to which individuals had already adjusted their lifestyles because of the pandemic (z=13.56; P<.001). Network analyses revealed that uptake was most related to the following: using hand sanitizers, avoiding public transport, and preferring outdoor over indoor venues during the pandemic. However, demographic and situational characteristics were not significantly associated with app downloads. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to introduce contact tracing apps could capitalize on pandemic-related behavioral adjustments among individuals. Given that a large number of individuals is required to download contact tracing apps for contact tracing to be effective, further studies are required to understand how citizens respond to contact tracing apps. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04468581, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04468581.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Hand Disinfection , Hand Sanitizers/therapeutic use , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transportation/statistics & numerical data
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3109, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065947

ABSTRACT

The international spread of COVID-19 infection has attracted global attention, but the impact of local or domestic travel restriction on public transportation network remains unclear. Passenger volume data for the domestic public transportation network in Japan and the time at which the first confirmed COVID-19 case was observed in each prefecture were extracted from public data sources. A survival approach in which a hazard was modeled as a function of the closeness centrality on the network was utilized to estimate the risk of importation of COVID-19 in each prefecture. A total of 46 prefectures with imported cases were identified. Hypothetical scenario analyses indicated that both strategies of locking down the metropolitan areas and restricting domestic airline travel would be equally effective in reducing the risk of importation of COVID-19. While caution is necessary that the data were limited to June 2020 when the pandemic was in its initial stage and that no other virus spreading routes have been considered, domestic travel restrictions were effective to prevent the spread of COVID-19 on public transportation network in Japan. Instead of lockdown that might seriously damage the economy, milder travel restrictions could have the similar impact on controlling the domestic transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Travel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Transportation/statistics & numerical data
15.
Am J Public Health ; 110(12): 1837-1843, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067484

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To compare the epidemic prevention ability of COVID-19 of each province in China and to evaluate the existing prevention and control capacity of each province.Methods. We established a quasi-Poisson linear mixed-effects model using the case data in cities outside Wuhan in Hubei Province, China. We adapted this model to estimate the number of potential cases in Wuhan and obtained epidemiological parameters. We estimated the initial number of cases in each province by using passenger flowrate data and constructed the extended susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model to predict the future disease transmission trends.Results. The estimated potential cases in Wuhan were about 3 times the reported cases. The basic reproductive number was 3.30 during the initial outbreak. Provinces with more estimated imported cases than reported cases were those in the surrounding provinces of Hubei, including Henan and Shaanxi. The regions where the number of reported cases was closer to the predicted value were most the developed areas, including Beijing and Shanghai.Conclusions. The number of confirmed cases in Wuhan was underestimated in the initial period of the outbreak. Provincial surveillance and emergency response capabilities vary across the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data
16.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(12): e638-e649, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978473

ABSTRACT

Background: On March 17, 2020, French authorities implemented a nationwide lockdown to respond to the COVID-19 epidemic and curb the surge of patients requiring critical care. Assessing the effect of lockdown on individual displacements is essential to quantify achievable mobility reductions and identify the factors driving the changes in social dynamics that affected viral diffusion. We aimed to use mobile phone data to study how mobility in France changed before and during lockdown, breaking down our findings by trip distance, user age and residency, and time of day, and analysing regional data and spatial heterogeneities. Methods: For this population-based study, we used temporally resolved travel flows among 1436 administrative areas of mainland France reconstructed from mobile phone trajectories. Data were stratified by age class (younger than 18 years, 18-64 years, and 65 years or older). We distinguished between residents and non-residents and used population data and regional socioeconomic indicators from the French National Statistical Institute. We measured mobility changes before and during lockdown at both local and country scales using a case-crossover framework. We analysed all trips combined and trips longer than 100 km (termed long trips), and separated trips by daytime or night-time, weekdays or weekends, and rush hours. Findings: Lockdown caused a 65% reduction in the countrywide number of displacements (from about 57 million to about 20 million trips per day) and was particularly effective in reducing work-related short-range mobility, especially during rush hour, and long trips. Geographical heterogeneities showed anomalous increases in long-range movements even before lockdown announcement that were tightly localised in space. During lockdown, mobility drops were unevenly distributed across regions (eg, Île-de-France, the region of Paris, went from 585 000 to 117 000 outgoing trips per day). They were strongly associated with active populations, workers employed in sectors highly affected by lockdown, and number of hospitalisations per region, and moderately associated with the socioeconomic level of the regions. Major cities largely shrank their pattern of connectivity, reducing it mainly to short-range commuting (95% of traffic leaving Paris was contained in a 201 km radius before lockdown, which was reduced to 29 km during lockdown). Interpretation: Lockdown was effective in reducing population mobility across scales. Caution should be taken in the timing of policy announcements and implementation, because anomalous mobility followed policy announcements, which might act as seeding events. Conversely, risk aversion might be beneficial in further decreasing mobility in highly affected regions. We also identified socioeconomic and demographic constraints to the efficacy of restrictions. The unveiled links between geography, demography, and timing of the response to mobility restrictions might help to design interventions that minimise invasiveness while contributing to the current epidemic response. Funding: Agence Nationale de la Recherche, EU, REACTing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , France/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242990, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954207

ABSTRACT

One important concern around the spread of respiratory infectious diseases has been the contribution of public transportation, a space where people are in close contact with one another and with high-use surfaces. While disease clearly spreads along transportation routes, there is limited evidence about whether public transportation use itself is associated with the overall prevalence of contagious respiratory illnesses at the local level. We examine the extent of the association between public transportation and influenza mortality, a proxy for disease prevalence, using city-level data on influenza and pneumonia mortality and public transit use from 121 large cities in the United States (US) between 2006 and 2015. We find no evidence of a positive relationship between city-level transit ridership and influenza/pneumonia mortality rates, suggesting that population level rates of transit use are not a singularly important factor in the transmission of influenza.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/transmission , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Cities/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242476, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934335

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions led to major transit demand decline for many public transit systems in the United States. This paper is a systematic analysis of the dynamics and dimensions of this unprecedented decline. Using transit demand data derived from a widely used transit navigation app, we fit logistic functions to model the decline in daily demand and derive key parameters: base value, the apparent minimal level of demand and cliff and base points, representing the initial date when transit demand decline began and the final date when the decline rate attenuated. Regression analyses reveal that communities with higher proportions of essential workers, vulnerable populations (African American, Hispanic, Female, and people over 45 years old), and more coronavirus Google searches tend to maintain higher levels of minimal demand during COVID-19. Approximately half of the agencies experienced their decline before the local spread of COVID-19 likely began; most of these are in the US Midwest. Almost no transit systems finished their decline periods before local community spread. We also compare hourly demand profiles for each system before and during COVID-19 using ordinary Procrustes distance analysis. The results show substantial departures from typical weekday hourly demand profiles. Our results provide insights into public transit as an essential service during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19931, 2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926489

ABSTRACT

Behavioural responses to pandemics are less shaped by actual mortality or hospitalisation risks than they are by risk attitudes. We explore human mobility patterns as a measure of behavioural responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results indicate that risk-taking attitudes are a critical factor in predicting reductions in human mobility and social confinement around the globe. We find that the sharp decline in mobility after the WHO (World Health Organization) declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic can be attributed to risk attitudes. Our results suggest that regions with risk-averse attitudes are more likely to adjust their behavioural activity in response to the declaration of a pandemic even before official government lockdowns. Further understanding of the basis of responses to epidemics, e.g., precautionary behaviour, will help improve the containment of the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Locomotion , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk-Taking , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Crowding , Humans , Leisure Activities , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data
20.
Inj Prev ; 27(1): 3-9, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894885

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our health and safety is imperative. This study sought to examine the impact of COVID-19's stay-at-home order on daily vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and MVCs in Connecticut. METHODS: Using an interrupted time series design, we analysed daily VMT and MVCs stratified by crash severity and number of vehicles involved from 1 January to 30 April 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. MVC data were collected from the Connecticut Crash Data Repository; daily VMT estimates were obtained from StreetLight Insight's database. We used segmented Poisson regression models, controlling for daily temperature and daily precipitation. RESULTS: The mean daily VMT significantly decreased 43% in the post stay-at-home period in 2020. While the mean daily counts of crashes decreased in 2020 after the stay-at-home order was enacted, several types of crash rates increased after accounting for the VMT reductions. Single vehicle crash rates significantly increased 2.29 times, and specifically single vehicle fatal crash rates significantly increased 4.10 times when comparing the pre-stay-at-home and post-stay-at-home periods. DISCUSSION: Despite a decrease in the number of MVCs and VMT, the crash rate of single vehicles increased post stay-at-home order enactment in Connecticut after accounting for reductions in VMT.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL