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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28567, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625627

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Gyeonggi-do (Gyeonggi province) has the second highest number of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in the Republic of Korea after Seoul, with approximately 25% of the COVID-19 patients as of January 2021. Our center is a level I trauma center located in south Gyeonggi-do, and we aimed to evaluate whether the characteristics of trauma patients changed after the COVID-19 pandemic.We retrospectively reviewed the trauma patients registered with the Korea Trauma Database of the Center from February 2019 to January 2021. The patients were dichotomized into pre-coronavirus disease (pre-COVID) and coronavirus disease (COVID) groups, and their trauma volumes, injury characteristics, intentionality, and outcomes were compared.A total of 2628 and 2636 patients were included in the pre-COVID and COVID groups, respectively. During the COVID-19 period, motorcycle accidents, bicycle accidents, and penetrating injury cases increased, and pedestrian traffic accidents, slips, and injury by machines decreased. The average daily number of patients in the COVID group was lower in March (5.6 ±â€Š2.6/day vs 7.2 ±â€Š2.4/day, P = .014) and higher in September (9.9 ±â€Š3.2/day vs 7.7 ±â€Š2.0/day, P = .003) compared to the pre-COVID group. The COVID group also had a higher ratio of direct admissions (67.5% vs 57.2%, P < .001), proportion of suicidal patients (4.1% vs 2.7%, P = .005), and injury severity scores (14 [9-22] vs 12 [4-22], P < .001) than the pre-COVID group. The overall mortality (4.7% vs 4.9%, P = .670) and intensive care unit length of stay (2 [0-3] days vs 2 [0-4] days, P = .153) was not different between the 2 groups.Although the total number of patients did not change, the COVID-19 pandemic affected the number of monthly admissions and the injury mechanisms changed. More severely injured patients were admitted directly to the trauma center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
2.
J Surg Res ; 272: 139-145, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the age of COVID-19 and enforced social distancing, changes in patterns of trauma were observed but poorly understood. Our aim was to characterize traumatic injury mechanisms and acuities in 2020 and compare them with previous years at our level I trauma center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with trauma triaged in 2016 through 2020 from January to May were reviewed. Patient demographics, level of activation (1 versus 2), injury severity score, and mechanism of injury were collected. Data from 2016 through 2019 were combined, averaged by month, and compared with data from 2020 using chi-squared analysis. RESULTS: During the months of interest, 992 patients with trauma were triaged in 2020 and 4311 in 2016-2019. The numbers of penetrating and level I trauma activations in January-March of 2020 were similar to average numbers for the same months during 2016 through 2019. In April 2020, there was a significant increase in the incidence of penetrating trauma compared with the prior 4-year average (27% versus 16%, P < 0.002). Level I trauma activations in April 2020 also increased, rising from 17% in 2016 through 2019 to 32% in 2020 (P < 0.003). These findings persisted through May 2020 with similarly significant increases in penetrating and high-level trauma. CONCLUSIONS: In the months after the initial spread of COVID-19, there was a perceptible shift in patterns of trauma. The significant increase in penetrating and high-acuity trauma may implicate a change in population dynamics, demanding a need for thoughtful resource allocation at trauma centers nationwide in the context of a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Am J Surg ; 222(4): 832-841, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A community lockdown has a profound impact on its citizens. Our objective was to identify changes in trauma patient demographics, volume, and pattern of injury following the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at a Level-1 Trauma Center from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: A downward trend in volume is seen December-April in 2020 (R2 = 0.9907). February through April showed an upward trend in 2018 and 2019 (R2= 0.80 and R2 = 0.90 respectively), but a downward trend in 2020 (R2 = 0.97). In April 2020, there was 41.6% decrease in total volume, a 47.4% decrease in blunt injury and no decrease in penetrating injury. In contrast to previous months, in April the majority of injuries occurred in home zip codes. CONCLUSIONS: A community lockdown decreased the number of blunt trauma, however despite social distancing, did not decrease penetrating injury. Injuries were more likely to occur in home zip codes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Physical Distancing , Trauma Centers/trends , Violence/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers/standards , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/therapy , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/therapy , Young Adult
4.
Am Surg ; 88(3): 356-359, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an abrupt change to societal norms. We anecdotally noticed an increase in penetrating and violent trauma during the period of stay-at-home orders. Studying these changes will allow trauma centers to better prepare for future waves of COVID-19 or other global catastrophes. METHODS: We queried our institutional database for all level 1 and 2 trauma activations presenting from the scene within our local county from March 18 to May 21, 2020 and matched time periods from 2016 to 2019. Primary outcomes were overall trauma volume, rates of penetrating trauma, rates of violent trauma, and transfusion requirements. RESULTS: The number of penetrating and violent traumas at our trauma center during the period of societal quarantine for the COVID-19 pandemic was more than any historical total. During the COVID-19 time period, we saw 39 penetrating traumas, while the mean value for the same time period from 2016 to 2019 was 26 (P = .03). We saw 45 violent traumas during COVID; the mean value from 2016 to 2019 was 32 (P = .05). There was also a higher rate of trauma patients requiring transfusion in the COVID cohort (6.7% vs 12.2%). DISCUSSION: Societal quarantine increased the number of penetrating and violent traumas, with a concurrent increased percentage of patients transfused. Despite this, there was no change in outcomes. Given the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, quarantine measures could be re-implemented. Data from this study can help guide expectations and utilization of hospital resources in the future.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Arkansas/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Sex Distribution , Time Factors , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
Am Surg ; 88(3): 404-408, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467789

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is a growing concern that certain public health restrictions imposed to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could result in more violence against women (VAW). We sought to determine if the rates and types of VAW changed during the COVID-19 pandemic at our level 1 trauma center (L1TC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of female patients who presented to our L1TC because of violence from 2019 through 2020. Patients were grouped into a pre-COVID or COVID period. The primary aim of this study was to compare rates of VAW between groups. Secondary aims sought to evaluate for any difference in traumatic mechanism between periods and to determine if a temporal relationship existed between COVID-19 and VAW rates. RESULTS: There was no difference in rates of VAW between the pre-COVID and COVID period (3.1% vs 3.6%, P = .6); however, rates of penetrating trauma were greater during the COVID period (38.2% vs 10.3%, P = .01). After controlling for patient age and race, the odds of penetrating trauma increased during the pandemic (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.6-28.5, P < .01). From February 2020 through October 2020, there was a direct relationship between rates of COVID-19 and VAW (r2 .78, P < .01). CONCLUSION: Rates of VAW were unchanged between the pre-COVID and COVID periods, yet the odds of penetrating VAW were 5 times greater during the pandemic. Moving forward, trauma surgeons must remain vigilant for signs of violence and ensure that support services are available during future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gender-Based Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Gender-Based Violence/ethnology , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Intimate Partner Violence/ethnology , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Linear Models , Ohio/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/ethnology , Wounds, Penetrating/ethnology , Young Adult
6.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(5): 1060-1066, 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Very little is known about the effects of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and its associated social distancing practices on trauma presentations to the emergency department (ED). This study aims to assess the impact of a city-wide stay at home order on the volume, type, and outcomes of traumatic injuries at urban EDs. METHODS: The study was a retrospective chart review of all patients who presented to the ED of an urban Level I Trauma Center and its urban community affiliate in the time period during the 30 days before the institution of city-wide shelter-in-place (preSIP) order and 60 days after the shelter-in-place (SIP) order and the date-matched time periods in the preceding year. Volume and mechanism of traumatic injuries were compared using paired T-tests. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in overall ED volume. The volume of certain blunt trauma presentations (motor vehicle collisions) during the first 60 days of SIP compared to the same period from the year prior also significantly decreased. Importantly, the volume of penetrating injuries, including gunshot wounds and stab wounds, did not differ for the preSIP and SIP periods when compared to the prior year. The mortality of traumatic injuries was also unchanged during the SIP comparison period. CONCLUSION: While there were significant decreases in visits to the ED and overall trauma volume, penetrating trauma, including gun violence, and other severe traumatic injuries remain a public health crisis that affects urban communities despite social distancing recommendations enacted during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Population
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 708-713, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire global health care system. In California, because of a high burden of cases, a lockdown order was announced on March 19, 2020. This study investigated the impact of the lockdown on the epidemiology and outcomes of trauma admissions at the largest trauma center in Los Angeles. METHODS: A retrospective study comparing epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcomes of trauma admissions during the lockdown period (March 20, 2020, to June 30, 2020) to a similar period in the previous year (March 20, 2019, to June 30, 2019) was performed. Data collection included demographics, mechanism of injury, prehospital transportation, substance use, injury severity, resource utilization, and outcomes. FINDINGS: There were 1,202 admissions during the lockdown period in 2020 and 1,143 during the same calendar period in 2019. Following the lockdown, there was a reduction in the automobile versus pedestrian admissions by 42.5%, motorcycle injuries by 38.7%, and bicycle accidents by 28.4% but no significant effect on the number of motor vehicle accident admissions. There was an increase in ground level falls by 32.5%, especially in the elderly group. The absolute number of gunshot wounds increased by 6.2% and knife injuries by 39.3%. Suicides increased by 38.5%. Positive testing for substance use increased by 20.9%. During the lockdown, patients suffered less severe trauma, with Injury Severity Score of <9 (p < 0.001), as well as less severe head (p = 0.001) and severe chest trauma (p < 0.001). Trauma deaths were reduced by 27.9%, and the crude overall mortality was significantly lower during the lockdown period (4.1% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.046). Intensive care unit admission rates, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit length of stay were all reduced. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 had a significant effect on the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and critical care resource utilization of trauma admissions in a large academic trauma center. These findings may help in planning and optimization of hospital resources during the pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III; Retrospective observational, level III.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
8.
J Surg Res ; 269: 165-170, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent widespread stay-at-home advisories throughout early 2020, hospitals have noticed a decrease in illnesses unrelated to COVID-19. However, the impact on traumatic injury is relatively unknown. This study aims to characterize patterns of trauma during the COVID-19 pandemic at a Level I Trauma Center. MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of adult trauma patients from March to June, in the years 2018 through 2020. Primary outcome was the number of trauma activations (volume). Secondary outcomes included activation level, mechanism of injury, mortality rate, and length of stay, and other demographic background. Trauma patterns of the 2018 and 2019 periods were combined as historical control, and compared to patterns of the biweekly-matched period of 2020. RESULTS: A total of 2,187 patients were included in analysis (Pre-COVID n = 1,572; COVID n = 615). Results were significant for decreased trauma volume but longer length of stay during COVID cohort, and for an increased proportion of males. No significant difference was found for other demographic variables, trauma mechanisms, or severity. Trauma volume patterns mirrored COVID rates in the state. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a decline in trauma volume, other trauma patterns including severity and mechanism remained unchanged during the COVID-19 period. The decreased volume was not associated with a markedly lower clinical workload, change in team structure, or provider coverage re-distribution. Our data suggests that trauma volume and severity remained high enough during COVID-19 peak to necessitate full staffing, which may provide guidance in the event of a pandemic resurgence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , New England/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
10.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 39, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically strained the health systems worldwide, obligating the reassessment of how healthcare is delivered. In Lombardia, Italy, a Regional Emergency Committee (REC) was established and the regional health system reorganized, with only three hospitals designated as hubs for trauma care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of this reorganization of regional care, comparing the distribution of patients before and during the COVID-19 outbreak and to describe changes in the epidemiology of severe trauma among the two periods. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using retrospectively collected data from the Regional Trauma Registry of Lombardia (LTR). We compared the data of trauma patients admitted to three hub hospitals before the COVID-19 outbreak (September 1 to November 19, 2019) with those recorded during the pandemic (February 21 to May 10, 2020) in the same hospitals. Demographic data, level of pre-hospital care (Advanced Life Support-ALS, Basic Life Support-BLS), type of transportation, mechanism of injury (MOI), abbreviated injury score (AIS, 1998 version), injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), and ICU admission and survival outcome of all the patients admitted to the three trauma centers designed as hubs, were reviewed. Screening for COVID-19 was performed with nasopharyngeal swabs, chest ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, trauma patients admitted to the hubs increased (46.4% vs 28.3%, p < 0.001) with an increase in pre-hospital time (71.8 vs 61.3 min, p < 0.01), while observed in hospital mortality was unaffected. TRISS, ISS, AIS, and ICU admission were similar in both periods. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed substantial changes in MOI of severe trauma patients admitted to three hubs, with increases of unintentional (31.9% vs 18.5%, p < 0.05) and intentional falls (8.4% vs 1.2%, p < 0.05), whereas the pandemic restrictions reduced road- related injuries (35.6% vs 60%, p < 0.05). Deaths on scene were significantly increased (17.7% vs 6.8%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak affected the epidemiology of severe trauma patients. An increase in trauma patient admissions to a few designated facilities with high level of care obtained satisfactory results, while COVID-19 patients overwhelmed resources of most other hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Registries , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
11.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 37(10): 1409-1414, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The disruptive effects on society and medical systems due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are substantial and far-reaching. The effect of the pandemic on the quantity and quality of pediatric traumas is unclear and has a direct bearing on how scarce hospital resources should be allocated in a pandemic situation. METHODS: A retrospective review of the trauma registry was performed for trauma activations in the years 2018 through 2020 during the months of March, April, and May. Demographic and injury specific datapoints were compared across calendar years. RESULTS: There were 111, 100, and 52 trauma activations during the study interval in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. There were fewer highest severity level activations in 2020 compared to 2018 and 2019 (1 vs 5 and 9; p < 0.01). The median Injury Severity Score was 5 in 2020 compared to 4 in both 2018 and 2019 (p < 0.01). More patients went directly to the operating room in 2020 compared to prior years (21.2% vs 8% and 6.1%; p < 0.01). There were fewer discharges from the emergency department (ED) (12.1% vs 36.6% and 32.7%). No increase in the number of child abuse reports and investigations was noted. There was no difference in the proportion of blunt versus penetrating trauma between years (p = 0.57). No pedestrians were struck by automobiles in 2020 compared to 12 and 14 in 2018 and 2019. However, there were a greater proportion of injuries from falls during 2020 compared to prior years. CONCLUSIONS: There were fewer trauma activations during the peak of the COVID pandemic compared to prior years. Due to the decrease in trauma volume during the peak of the pandemic, hospital resources could potentially be reallocated toward areas of greater need. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV; Retrospective cohort study using historical controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pediatrics , Trauma Centers/organization & administration , Wounds and Injuries/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(3): 559-565, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic reshaped the health care system in 2020. COVID-19 infection has been associated with poor outcomes after orthopedic surgery and elective, general surgery, but the impact of COVID-19 on outcomes after trauma is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to Pennsylvania trauma centers from March 21 to July 31, 2020. The exposure of interest was COVID-19 (COV+) and the primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay and complications. We compared demographic and injury characteristics between positive, negative, and not-tested patients. We used multivariable regression with coarsened exact matching to estimate the impact of COV+ on outcomes. RESULTS: Of 15,550 included patients, 8,170 (52.5%) were tested for COVID-19 and 219 (2.7%) were positive (COV+). Compared with COVID-19-negative (COV-) patients, COV+ patients were similar in terms of age and sex, but were less often white (53.5% vs. 74.7%, p < 0.0001), and more often uninsured (10.1 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.002). Injury severity was similar, but firearm injuries accounted for 11.9% of COV+ patients versus 5.1% of COV- patients (p < 0.001). Unadjusted mortality for COV+ was double that of COV- patients (9.1% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and length of stay was longer (median, 5 vs. 4 days; p < 0.001). Using coarsened exact matching, COV+ patients had an increased risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.29-15.99), any complication (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.08-3.16), and pulmonary complications (OR, 5.79; 95% CI, 2.02-16.54) compared with COV- patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with concomitant traumatic injury and COVID-19 infection have elevated risks of morbidity and mortality. Trauma centers must incorporate an understanding of these risks into patient and family counseling and resource allocation during this pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, Prognostic Study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
13.
J Surg Res ; 266: 62-68, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether any specific acute care surgery patient populations are associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 infection. BACKGROUND: Acute care providers may be exposed to an increased risk of contracting the COVID-19 infection since many patients present to the emergency department without complete screening measures. However, it is not known which patients present with the highest incidence. METHODS: All acute care surgery (ACS) patients who presented to our level I trauma center between March 19, 2020, and September 20, 2020 and were tested for COVID-19 were included in the study. The patients were divided into two cohorts: COVID positive (+) and COVID negative (-). Patient demographics, type of consultation (emergency general surgery consults [EGS], interpersonal violence trauma consults [IPV], and non-interpersonal violence trauma consults [NIPV]), clinical data and outcomes were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare differences between the groups. RESULTS: In total, 2177 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 116 were COVID+ (5.3%) and 2061 were COVID- (94.7%). COVID+ patients were more frequently Latinos (64.7% versus 61.7%, P = 0.043) and African Americans (18.1% versus 11.2%, P < 0.001) and less frequently Caucasian (6.0% versus 14.1%, P < 0.001). Asian/Filipino/Pacific Islander (7.8% versus 7.2%, P = 0.059) and Native American/Other/Unknown (3.4% versus 5.8%, P = 0.078) groups showed no statistical difference in COVID incidence. Mortality, hospital and ICU lengths of stay were similar between the groups and across patient populations stratified by the type of consultation. Logistic regression demonstrated higher odds of COVID+ infection amongst IPV patients (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.62-7.56, P < 0.001) compared to other ACS consultation types. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that victims of interpersonal violence were more likely positive for COVID-19, while in hospital outcomes were similar between COVID-19 positive and negative patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 700-707, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The large-scale social distancing efforts to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission have dramatically changed human behaviors associated with traumatic injuries. Trauma centers have reported decreases in trauma volume, paralleled by changes in injury mechanisms. We aimed to quantify changes in trauma epidemiology at an urban Level I trauma center in a county that instituted one of the earliest shelter-in-place orders to inform trauma care during future pandemic responses. METHODS: A single-center interrupted time-series analysis was performed to identify associations of shelter-in-place with trauma volume, injury mechanisms, and patient demographics in San Francisco, California. To control for short-term trends in trauma epidemiology, weekly level data were analyzed 6 months before shelter-in-place. To control for long-term trends, monthly level data were analyzed 5 years before shelter-in-place. RESULTS: Trauma volume decreased by 50% in the week following shelter-in-place (p < 0.01), followed by a linear increase each successive week (p < 0.01). Despite this, trauma volume for each month (March-June 2020) remained lower compared with corresponding months for all previous 5 years (2015-2019). Pediatric trauma volume showed similar trends with initial decreases (p = 0.02) followed by steady increases (p = 0.05). Reductions in trauma volumes were due entirely to changes in nonviolent injury mechanisms, while violence-related injury mechanisms remained unchanged (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Although the shelter-in-place order was associated with an overall decline in trauma volume, violence-related injuries persisted. Delineating and addressing underlying factors driving persistent violence-related injuries during shelter-in-place orders should be a focus of public health efforts in preparation for future pandemic responses. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Correlation of Data , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
15.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 665-675, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195138

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In Dec 2019, COVID-19 was first recognized and led to a worldwide pandemic. The German government implemented a shutdown in Mar 2020, affecting outpatient and hospital care. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 shutdown on patient volumes and surgical procedures of a Level I trauma center in Germany. METHODS: All emergency patients were recorded retrospectively during the shutdown and compared to a calendar-matched control period (CTRL). Total emergency patient contacts including trauma mechanisms, injury patterns and operation numbers were recorded including absolute numbers, incidence proportions and risk ratios. RESULTS: During the shutdown period, we observed a decrease of emergency patient cases (417) compared to CTRL (575), a decrease of elective cases (42 vs. 13) and of the total number of operations (397 vs. 325). Incidence proportions of emergency operations increased from 8.2 to 12.2% (shutdown) and elective surgical cases decreased (11.1 vs. 4.3%). As we observed a decrease for most trauma mechanisms and injury patterns, we found an increasing incidence proportion for severe open fractures. Household-related injuries were reported with an increasing incidence proportion from 26.8 to 47.5% (shutdown). We found an increasing tendency of trauma and injuries related to psychological disorders. CONCLUSION: This analysis shows a decrease of total patient numbers in an emergency department of a Level I trauma center and a decrease of the total number of operations during the shutdown period. Concurrently, we observed an increase of severe open fractures and emergency operations. Furthermore, trauma mechanism changed with less traffic, work and sports-related accidents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infection Control/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Organizational Innovation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/organization & administration , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
16.
Surgery ; 170(3): 962-968, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 in the United States led to a variety of mandates intended to decrease population movement and "flatten the curve." However, there is evidence some are not able to stay-at-home due to certain disadvantages, thus remaining exposed to both coronavirus disease 2019 and trauma. We therefore sought to identify any unequal effects of the California stay-at-home orders between races and insurance statuses in a multicenter study utilizing trauma volume data. METHODS: A posthoc multicenter retrospective analysis of trauma patients presenting to 11 centers in Southern California between the dates of January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, and January 1, 2019, and June 30, 2019, was performed. The number of trauma patients of each race/insurance status was tabulated per day. We then calculated the changes in trauma volume related to stay-at-home orders for each race/insurance status and compared the magnitude of these changes using statistical resampling. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, there was a 40.1% drop in total trauma volume, which occurred 20 days after stay-at-home orders. During stay-at-home orders, the average daily trauma volume of patients with Medicaid increased by 13.7 ± 5.3%, whereas the volume of those with Medicare, private insurance, and no insurance decreased. The average daily trauma volume decreased for White, Black, Asian, and Latino patients with the volume of Black and Latino patients dropping to a similar degree compared to White patients. CONCLUSION: This retrospective multicenter study demonstrated that patients with Medicaid had a paradoxical increase in trauma volume during stay-at-home orders, suggesting that the most impoverished groups remain disproportionately exposed to trauma during a pandemic, further exacerbating existing health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/ethnology , California/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 128-134, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176834

ABSTRACT

Early COVID-19-targeted legislations reduced public activity and elective surgery such that local neurosurgical care greatly focused on emergent needs. This study examines neurosurgical trauma patients' dispositions through two neighboring trauma centers to inform resource allocation. We conducted a retrospective review of the trauma registries for two Level 1 Trauma Centers in Santa Clara County, one academic and one community center, between February 1st and April 15th, 2018-2020. Events before a quarantine, implemented on March 16th, 2020, and events from 2018 to 19 were used for reference. Encounters were characterized by injuries, services, procedures, and disposition. Categorical variables were analyzed by the χ2 test, proportions of variables by z-score test, and non-parametric variables by Fisher's exact test. A total of 1,336 traumas were identified, with 31% from the academic center and 69% from the community center. During the post-policy period, relative to matching periods in years prior, there was a decrease in number of TBI and spinal fractures (24% versus 41%, p < 0.001) and neurosurgical consults (27% versus 39%, p < 0.003), but not in number of neurosurgical admissions or procedures. There were no changes in frequency of neurosurgery consults among total traumas, patients triaged to critical care services, or patients discharged to temporary rehabilitation services. Neurosurgical services were similarly rendered between the academic and community hospitals. This study describes neurosurgical trauma management in a suburban healthcare network immediately following restrictive quarantine during a moderate COVID-19 outbreak. Our data shows that neurosurgery remains a resource-intensive subspeciality, even during restrictive periods when overall trauma volume is decreased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery/trends , Pandemics , Quarantine , Trauma Centers/trends , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , California/epidemiology , Child , Community Health Centers , Female , Humans , Male , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
19.
Acta Orthop ; 91(5): 556-561, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153041

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose - The COVID-19 pandemic has been recognized as an unprecedented global health crisis. This is the first observational study to evaluate its impact on the orthopedic workload in a London level 1 trauma center (i.e., a major trauma center [MTC]) before (2019) and during (2020) the "golden month" post-COVID-19 lockdown.Patients and methods - We performed a longitudinal observational prevalence study of both acute orthopedic trauma referrals, operative and anesthetic casemix for the first "golden" month from March 17, 2020. We compared the data with the same period in 2019. Statistical analyses included median (median absolute deviation), risk and odds ratios, as well as Fisher's exact test to calculate the statistical significance, set at p ≤ 0.05.Results - Acute trauma referrals in the post-COVID period were almost halved compared with 2019, with similar distribution between pediatric and adult patients, requiring a significant 19% more admissions (RR 1.3, OR 2.6, p = 0.003). Hip fractures and polytrauma cases accounted for an additional 11% of the modal number of injuries in 2020, but with 19% reduction in isolated limb injuries that were modal in 2019. Total operative cases fell by a third during the COVID-19 outbreak. There was a decrease of 14% (RR 0.85, OR 0.20, p = 0.006) in aerosol-generating anesthetic techniques used.Interpretation - The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a decline in the number of acute trauma referrals, admissions (but increased risk and odds ratio), operations, and aerosolizing anesthetic procedures since implementing social distancing and lockdown measures during the "golden month."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal System/injuries , Workload/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , London , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Young Adult
20.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 51, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that the reallocation of health care resources during the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts health care system. This study describes the epidemiology and the outcome of major trauma patients admitted to centers in France during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included all consecutive trauma patients aged 15 years and older admitted into 15 centers contributing to the TraumaBase® registry during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in France. This COVID-19 trauma cohort was compared to historical cohorts (2017-2019). RESULTS: Over a 4 years-study period, 5762 patients were admitted between the first week of February and mid-June. This cohort was split between patients admitted during the first 2020 pandemic wave in France (pandemic period, 1314 patients) and those admitted during the corresponding period in the three previous years (2017-2019, 4448 patients). Trauma patient demographics changed substantially during the pandemic especially during the lockdown period, with an observed reduction in both the absolute numbers and proportion exposed to road traffic accidents and subsequently admitted to traumacenters (348 annually 2017-2019 [55.4% of trauma admissions] vs 143 [36.8%] in 2020 p < 0.005). The in-hospital observed mortality and predicted mortality during the pandemic period were not different compared to the non-pandemic years. CONCLUSIONS: During this first wave of COVID-19 in France, and more specifically during lockdown there was a significant reduction of patients admitted to designated trauma centers. Despite the reallocation and reorganization of medical resources this reduction prevented the saturation of the trauma rescue chain and has allowed maintaining a high quality of care for trauma patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Disease Management , Pandemics/prevention & control , Registries , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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