Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 252
Filter
1.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(6): 539-543, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145158

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a dramatic increase in acutely ill patients presenting to hospitals with life-threatening acute respiratory disease. There was an immediate need for effective triage systems to facilitate clinical decision making. This review assesses the performance of the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) in two contexts. Firstly, the ability to detect acute illness severity and likely clinical deterioration in patients presenting to hospitals with COVID-19. Secondly, the use of NEWS2 in the longitudinal monitoring to detect acute clinical deterioration in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. NEWS2 appeared to be at least comparable and, often, superior to other scoring systems (such as qSOFA and CURB-65), and provided an earlier alert of deterioration. A NEWS2 of 5 had high short-term sensitivity within and was unlikely to miss patients with COVID-19 who go on to deteriorate, but this comes with moderate specificity. However, the specificity of these systems is likely underestimated because preventing deterioration is their purpose.NEWS2 is an adjunct to clinical decision making and has served that purpose during the COVID-19 pandemic, playing an important role in communicating illness severity, clinical deterioration, triaging patients to appropriate levels of care and prompting completion of treatment escalation plans for those with high scores and at imminent risk of deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Humans , Pandemics , Triage/methods
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(11): 1779-1784, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144253

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Whether to send COVID-19 patients home with quarantine measures or to hospitalize and treat them on an inpatient basis is a very important decision in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to introduce a scoring system that will enable making decisions on inpatient or outpatient treatment of patients by scoring their symptoms, clinical, radiological, and laboratory results during the initial assessment. Materials and Methods: Data of patients over 18 years of age, examined for COVID-19 between March 11, 2020, and May 31, 2020, and who had a positive PCR result, and their radiological (computed tomography reports) and blood test (complete blood count, blood gas and laboratory results) results were recorded to develop our scoring system. Results: A comparison of COVID-19 patients, who received outpatient and inpatient treatments by age variable, revealed a significant result (P < 0.001). The comparison of laboratory results showed a significant difference between both groups (P < 0.001). The comparison of the groups by the presence of comorbidity also revealed a significant result (P < 0.001). According to the scoring system that we developed (Cebeci score), a score of 5 points and above had a specificity of 81% and a sensitivity of 88% for indicating the probability of receiving inpatient treatment. Conclusion: We believe that the scoring system we developed will be a simple, practical, and leading guide for physicians to avoid dilemmas regarding the issue of whether to quarantine patients at home or to hospitalize them in order to use medical resources effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triage , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Triage/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Decision Making , Ambulatory Care , Hospitalization
3.
Crit Care Med ; 50(12): 1714-1724, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Simulation and evaluation of a prioritization protocol at a German university hospital using a convergent parallel mixed methods design. DESIGN: Prospective single-center cohort study with a quantitative analysis of ICU patients and qualitative content analysis of two focus groups with intensivists. SETTING: Five ICUs of internal medicine and anesthesiology at a German university hospital. PATIENTS: Adult critically ill ICU patients ( n = 53). INTERVENTIONS: After training the attending senior ICU physicians ( n = 13) in rationing, an impending ICU congestion was simulated. All ICU patients were rated according to their likelihood to survive their acute illness (good-moderate-unfavorable). From each ICU, the two patients with the most unfavorable prognosis ( n = 10) were evaluated by five prioritization teams for triage. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients nominated for prioritization visit ( n = 10) had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and already a longer stay at the hospital and on the ICU compared with the other patients. The order within this worst prognosis group was not congruent between the five teams. However, an in-hospital mortality of 80% confirmed the reasonable match with the lowest predicted probability of survival. Qualitative data highlighted the tremendous burden of triage and the need for a team-based consensus-oriented decision-making approach to ensure best possible care and to support professionals. Transparent communication within the teams, the hospital, and to the public was seen as essential for prioritization implementation. CONCLUSIONS: To mitigate potential bias and to reduce the emotional burden of triage, a consensus-oriented, interdisciplinary, and collaborative approach should be implemented. Prognostic comparative assessment by intensivists is feasible. The combination of long-term ICU stay and consistently high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores resulted in a greater risk for triage in patients. It remains challenging to reliably differentiate between patients with very low chances to survive and requires further conceptual and empirical research.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Triage , Adult , Humans , Triage/methods , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Intensive Care Units
4.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 80, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to emergency medical communication centers (EMCCs) is pivotal to address potentially life-threatening conditions. Maintaining public access to EMCCs without delay is crucial in case of disease outbreak despite the significant increased activity and the difficulties to mobilize extra staff resources. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of two-level filtering on EMCC performance during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A before-after monocentric prospective study was conducted at the EMCC at the Nantes University Hospital. Using telephone activity data, we compared EMCC performance during 2 periods. In period one (February 27th to March 11th 2020), call takers managed calls as usual, gathering basic information from the caller and giving first aid instructions to a bystander on scene if needed. During period two (March 12th to March 25th 2020), calls were answered by a first-line call taker to identify potentially serious conditions that required immediate dispatch. When a serious condition was excluded, the call was immediately transferred to a second-line call taker who managed the call as usual so the first-line call taker could be rapidly available for other incoming calls. The primary outcome was the quality of service at 20 s (QS20), corresponding to the rate of calls answered within 20 s. We described activity and outcome measures by hourly range. We compared EMCC performance during periods one and two using an interrupted time series analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 45,451 incoming calls during the two study periods: 21,435 during period 1 and 24,016 during period 2. Between the two study periods, we observed a significant increase in the number of incoming calls per hour, the number of connected call takers and average call duration. A linear regression model, adjusted for these confounding variables, showed a significant increase in the QS20 slope (from - 0.4 to 1.4%, p = 0.01), highlighting the significant impact of two-level filtering on the quality of service. CONCLUSIONS: We found that rapid access to our EMCC was maintained during the COVID-19 pandemic via two-level filtering. This system helped reduce the time gap between call placement and first-line call-taker evaluation of a potentially life-threatening situation. We suggest implementing this system when an EMCC faces significantly increased activity with limited staff resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Triage/methods , COVID-19 , Controlled Before-After Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18126, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096796

ABSTRACT

The development of tools that provide early triage of COVID-19 patients with minimal use of diagnostic tests, based on easily accessible data, can be of vital importance in reducing COVID-19 mortality rates during high-incidence scenarios. This work proposes a machine learning model to predict mortality and risk of hospitalization using both 2 simple demographic features and 19 comorbidities obtained from 86,867 electronic medical records of COVID-19 patients, and a new method (LR-IPIP) designed to deal with data imbalance problems. The model was able to predict with high accuracy (90-93%, ROC-AUC = 0.94) the patient's final status (deceased or discharged), while its accuracy was medium (71-73%, ROC-AUC = 0.75) with respect to the risk of hospitalization. The most relevant characteristics for these models were age, sex, number of comorbidities, osteoarthritis, obesity, depression, and renal failure. Finally, to facilitate its use by clinicians, a user-friendly website has been developed ( https://alejandrocisterna.shinyapps.io/PROVIA ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Hospitalization , Triage/methods
6.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(9): e38364, 2022 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptom checkers are clinical decision support apps for patients, used by tens of millions of people annually. They are designed to provide diagnostic and triage advice and assist users in seeking the appropriate level of care. Little evidence is available regarding their diagnostic and triage accuracy with direct use by patients for urgent conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic and triage accuracy and usability of a symptom checker in use by patients presenting to an emergency department (ED). METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of English-speaking patients presenting for care in an urban ED. Each consenting patient used a leading symptom checker from Ada Health before the ED evaluation. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by comparing the symptom checker's diagnoses and those of 3 independent emergency physicians viewing the patient-entered symptom data, with the final diagnoses from the ED evaluation. The Ada diagnoses and triage were also critiqued by the independent physicians. The patients completed a usability survey based on the Technology Acceptance Model. RESULTS: A total of 40 (80%) of the 50 participants approached completed the symptom checker assessment and usability survey. Their mean age was 39.3 (SD 15.9; range 18-76) years, and they were 65% (26/40) female, 68% (27/40) White, 48% (19/40) Hispanic or Latino, and 13% (5/40) Black or African American. Some cases had missing data or a lack of a clear ED diagnosis; 75% (30/40) were included in the analysis of diagnosis, and 93% (37/40) for triage. The sensitivity for at least one of the final ED diagnoses by Ada (based on its top 5 diagnoses) was 70% (95% CI 54%-86%), close to the mean sensitivity for the 3 physicians (on their top 3 diagnoses) of 68.9%. The physicians rated the Ada triage decisions as 62% (23/37) fully agree and 24% (9/37) safe but too cautious. It was rated as unsafe and too risky in 22% (8/37) of cases by at least one physician, in 14% (5/37) of cases by at least two physicians, and in 5% (2/37) of cases by all 3 physicians. Usability was rated highly; participants agreed or strongly agreed with the 7 Technology Acceptance Model usability questions with a mean score of 84.6%, although "satisfaction" and "enjoyment" were rated low. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that a symptom checker can provide acceptable usability and diagnostic accuracy for patients with various urgent conditions. A total of 14% (5/37) of symptom checker triage recommendations were deemed unsafe and too risky by at least two physicians based on the symptoms recorded, similar to the results of studies on telephone and nurse triage. Larger studies are needed of diagnosis and triage performance with direct patient use in different clinical environments.


Subject(s)
Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Emergency Service, Hospital , Physicians , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Triage/methods , Young Adult
7.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(12): 2066-2074, 2022 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017983

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Symptom checkers can help address high demand for SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) testing and care by providing patients with self-service access to triage recommendations. However, health systems may be hesitant to invest in these tools, as their associated efficiency gains have not been studied. We aimed to quantify the operational efficiency gains associated with use of an online COVID-19 symptom checker as an alternative to a telephone hotline. METHODS: In our health system, ambulatory patients can either use an online symptom checker or a telephone hotline to be triaged and connected to COVID-19 care. We performed a retrospective analysis of adults who used either method between October 20, 2021 and January 10, 2022, using call logs, electronic health record data, and local wages to calculate labor costs. RESULTS: Of the 15 549 total COVID-19 triage encounters, 1820 (11.7%) used only the telephone hotline and 13 729 (88.3%) used the symptom checker. Only 271 (2%) of the patients who used the symptom checker also called the hotline. Hotline encounters required more clinician time compared to those involving the symptom checker (17.8 vs 0.4 min/encounter), resulting in higher average labor costs ($24.21 vs $0.55 per encounter). The symptom checker resulted in over 4200 clinician labor hours saved. CONCLUSION: When given the option, most patients completed COVID-19 triage and visit scheduling online, resulting in substantial efficiency gains. These benefits may encourage health system investment in such tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Triage/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Viral
8.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(7): e270-e276, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924365

ABSTRACT

Globally, there have been more than 285 million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with nearly 5.5 million deaths. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data report that in the United States alone, there have been more than 59 million cases of COVID-19 with more than 800,000 lives lost as of January 2022. Similar to other health care specialties, pediatric surgery departments have modified their treatment approach to delivering timely care while respecting resource allocation during the pandemic. In this review, we focus on the surgical management of pediatric patients, with specific attention to childhood cancer. The primary subject of this review is the development of triaging methods for patients with childhood cancer for surgical procedures and precautionary measures for operating on patients with COVID-19. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51():e270-e276.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Child , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods , United States/epidemiology
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 54: 111-116, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a modified emergency severity index (mESI)-based triage of cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the emergency department (ED) and determine the associations between mESI level and ED disposition, hospital length of stay, and overall survival. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients who presented to our institution's ED between March 22, 2020, and March 12, 2021, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 306 cancer patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, with 45% of patients triaged to level 2 (emergent) and 55% to level 3 (urgent). Among all patients, 61.8% were admitted to the hospital, 15.7% were admitted to the intensive care unit, 2.9% were sent for observation, and 19.6% were discharged. Although demographic and clinical characteristics did not significantly vary by triage level, we observed significant differences in ED length of stay (urgent = 6.67 h, emergent = 5.97 h; p < 0.01). Hospital and intensive care unit admission rates were also significantly higher among emergent patients than among urgent patients (p < 0.05). There were 75 deaths (urgent = 32; emergent = 43), and the 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher among emergent patients (urgent = 8%, emergent = 15%; p < 0.05). The mESI level persisted as a significant factor associated with overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.81) in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: The mESI level is associated with ED disposition, ED length of stay, and overall survival in cancer patients presenting with COVID-19. These results indicate that the mESI triage tool can be effectively used in cancer patients with COVID-19, whose condition can rapidly deteriorate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Triage/methods
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263688, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 surge in Taiwan, the Far East Memorial Hospital established a system including a centralized quarantine unit and triage admission protocol to facilitate acute care surgical inpatient services, prevent nosocomial COVID-19 infection and maintain the efficiency and quality of health care service during the pandemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients undergoing acute care surgery. The triage admission protocol was based on rapid antigen tests, Liat® PCR and RT-PCT tests. Type of surgical procedure, patient characteristics, and efficacy indices of the centralized quarantine unit and emergency department (ED) were collected and analyzed before (Phase I: May 11 to July 2, 2021) and after (Phase II: July 3 to July 31, 2021) the system started. RESULTS: A total of 287 patients (105 in Phase I and 182 in Phase II) were enrolled. Nosocomial COVID-19 infection occur in 27 patients in phase I but zero in phase II. More patients received traumatological, orthopedic, and neurologic surgeries in phase II than in phase I. The patients' surgical risk classification, median total hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and the number of patients requiring postoperative ICU care were similar in both groups. The duration of ED stay and waiting time for acute care surgery were longer in Phase II (397 vs. 532 minutes, p < 0.0001). The duration of ED stay was positively correlated with the number of surgical patients visiting the ED (median = 66 patients, Spearman's ρ = 0.207) and the occupancy ratio in the centralized quarantine unit on that day (median = 90.63%, Spearman's ρ = 0.191). CONCLUSIONS: The triage admission protocol provided resilient quarantine needs and sustainable acute care surgical services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The efficiency was related to the number of medical staff dedicated to the centralized quarantine unit and number of surgical patients visited in ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Triage/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission/standards , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Taiwan/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(5): e33505, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Web-based symptom checkers are promising tools that provide help to patients seeking guidance on health problems. Many health organizations have started using them to enhance triage. Patients use the symptom checker to report their symptoms online and submit the report to the health care center through the system. Health care professionals (registered nurse, practical nurse, general physician, physiotherapist, etc) receive patient inquiries with urgency rating, decide on actions to be taken, and communicate these to the patients. The success of the adoption, however, depends on whether the tools can efficiently support health care professionals' workflow and achieve their support. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the factors influencing health care professionals' support for a web-based symptom checker for triage. METHODS: Data were collected through a web-based survey of 639 health care professionals using either of the two most used web-based symptom checkers in the Finnish public primary care. Linear regression models were fitted to study the associations between the study variables and health care professionals' support for the symptom checkers. In addition, the health care professionals' comments collected via survey were qualitatively analyzed to elicit additional insights about the benefits and challenges of the clinical use of symptom checkers. RESULTS: Results show that the perceived beneficial influence of the symptom checkers on health care professionals' work and the perceived usability of the tools were positively associated with professionals' support. The perceived benefits to patients and organizational support for use were positively associated, and threat to professionals' autonomy was negatively associated with health care professionals' support. These associations were, however, not independent of other factors included in the models. The influences on professionals' work were both positive and negative; the tools streamlined work by providing preliminary information on patients and reduced the number of phone calls, but they also created extra work as the professionals needed to call patients and ask clarifying questions. Managing time between the use of symptom checkers and other tasks was also challenging. Meanwhile, according to health care professionals' experience, the symptom checkers benefited patients as they received help quickly with a lower threshold for care. CONCLUSIONS: The efficient use of symptom checkers for triage requires usable solutions that support health care professionals' work. High-quality information about the patients' conditions and an efficient way of communicating with patients are needed. Using a new eHealth tool also requires that health organizations and teams reorganize their workflows and work distributions to support clinical processes.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Triage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Surveys and Questionnaires , Triage/methods
12.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 114(2): 387-393, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872926

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to disrupt the provision of cardiac procedural services due to overwhelming interval surges in COVID-19 cases and the associated crisis of cardiac intervention deferment. Despite the availability of widespread testing, highly efficacious vaccines, and intensive public health efforts, the pandemic is entering its third year, where new severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 variants have increased the likelihood that patients scheduled for a cardiac intervention will contract COVID-19 in the perioperative period. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Workforce on Critical Care, the STS Workforce on Adult Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, and the Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons have developed this document, endorsed by the STS and affirmed by the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology, to provide guidance for cardiac procedure deferment and intervention timing for preoperative patients diagnosed with COVID-19. This document is intended for the perioperative cardiac surgical team and outlines the present state of the pandemic, the impact of COVID-19 on intervention outcome, and offers a recommended algorithm for individualized cardiac procedure triage and timing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Surgeons , Adult , Canada , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods
13.
Intern Med ; 61(14): 2135-2141, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847022

ABSTRACT

Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a collapse of the medical care system, with effective triage proving vital. The Kanagawa admission priority assessment score, version-1 (KAPAS-1) and version-2 (KAPAS-2), was developed to determine the need for hospitalization. Patients with a high KAPAS (≥5) are recommended for hospitalization. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the KAPAS and oxygen requirement during hospitalization. Methods We collected the clinical data of COVID-19 patients admitted between February 5 and December 6, 2020. Patients were divided into two groups: those who required oxygen therapy during hospitalization (OXY) and those who did not (NOXY). We assessed the correlations between the groups and KAPAS-1 and KAPAS-2. Results Overall, 117 COVID-19 patients were analyzed, including 20 OXY and 97 NOXY and 54 high KAPAS-1 and 63 high KAPAS-2. The median KAPAS-1 and KAPAS-2 were significantly higher in OXY than in NOXY (6.5 vs. 3, and 9 vs. 4, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of KAPAS-1 and KAPAS-2 for oxygen requirement were 0.777 and 0.825, respectively, and the maximum values of Youden's index were 4 and 6, respectively. The proportions of high KAPAS-1 and high KAPAS-2 were significantly higher in OXY than in NOXY (90.0% vs. 37.1%, and 90.0% vs. 46.4%, respectively). Conclusion The KAPAS was significantly correlated with oxygen requirement. Furthermore, the KAPAS may be useful for deciding which patients are most likely to require hospitalization and for selecting non-hospitalized patients who should be carefully monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Triage/methods
14.
Emerg Med Australas ; 34(6): 907-912, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A new virtual ED service was introduced into a hospital network in the northern suburbs of Melbourne in response to changing needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 'virtual ED' utilises a telehealth model as a means of assessment for appropriately selected patients to facilitate either complete care or navigation into streamlined pathways for ongoing care, in some cases bypassing the ED entirely where appropriate. The proposed study aims to evaluate the implementation of the model and identify future improvement opportunities, assess the impact on traditional health service delivery processes and patient experience, and determine the acceptability of the 'virtual ED' model of care. METHODS: The present study will consist of a pre-post- implementation evaluation using the RE-AIM framework. Routine health service data will be collected for 6 months post-implementation of the virtual ED model and compared to 24 months prior to implementation. Prospective data will be collected using routinely collected and survey data. Interviews and focus groups will be conducted to understand consumer and clinician perspectives on barriers and enablers to implementation and adoption of the virtual ED. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the study population and key outcomes, including changes in ED presentations and length of stay. Thematic analysis will be conducted on transcribed interviews and focus group data. This will be triangulated with data collected from patient feedback surveys. CONCLUSION: This project will support the delivery of care to ED patients by evaluating the 'virtual ED' model of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triage , Humans , Triage/methods , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital
15.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267052, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808568

ABSTRACT

National Health Service (NHS) 111 helpline was set up to improve access to urgent care in England, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of first-contact health services. Following trusted, authoritative advice is crucial for improved clinical outcomes. We examine patient and call-related characteristics associated with compliance with advice given in NHS 111 calls. The importance of health interactions that are not face-to-face has recently been highlighted by COVID-19 pandemic. In this retrospective cohort study, NHS 111 call records were linked to urgent and emergency care services data. We analysed data of 3,864,362 calls made between October 2013 and September 2017 relating to 1,964,726 callers across London. A multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between compliance with advice given and patient and call characteristics. Caller's action is 'compliant with advice given if first subsequent service interaction following contact with NHS 111 is consistent with advice given. We found that most calls were made by women (58%), adults aged 30-59 years (33%) and people in the white ethnic category (36%). The most common advice was for caller to contact their General Practitioner (GP) or other local services (18.2%) with varying times scales. Overall, callers followed advice given in 49% of calls. Compliance with triage advice was more likely in calls for children aged <16 years, women, those from Asian/Asian British ethnicity, and calls made out of hours. The highest compliance was among callers advised to self-care without the need to contact any other healthcare service. This is one of the largest studies to describe pathway adherence following telephone advice and associated clinical and demographic features. These results could inform attempts to improve caller compliance with advice given by NHS 111, and as the NHS moves to more hybrid way of working, the lessons from this study are key to the development of remote healthcare services going forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , State Medicine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Telephone , Triage/methods
16.
AJOB Empir Bioeth ; 13(3): 196-204, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Equitable protocols to triage life-saving resources must be specified prior to shortages in order to promote transparency, trust and consistency. How well proposed utilitarian protocols perform to maximize lives saved is unknown. We aimed to estimate the survival rates that would be associated with implementation of the New York State 2015 guidelines for ventilator triage, and to compare them to a first-come-first-served triage method. METHODS: We constructed a simulation model based on a modified version of the New York State 2015 guidelines compared to a first-come-first-served method under various hypothetical ventilator shortages. We included patients with SARs-CoV-2 infection admitted with respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation to three acute care hospitals in New York from 3/01/2020 and 5/27/2020. We estimated (1) survival rates, (2) number of excess deaths, (3) number of patients extubated early or not allocated a ventilator due to capacity constraints, (4) survival rates among patients not allocated a ventilator at triage or extubated early due to capacity constraints. RESULTS: 807 patients were included in the study. The simulation model based on a modified New York State policy did not decrease mortality, excess death or exclusion from ventilators compared to the first-come-first-served policy at every ventilator capacity we tested using COVID-19 surge cohort patients. Survival rates were similar at all the survival probabilities estimated. At the lowest ventilator capacity, the modified New York State policy has an estimated survival of 28.5% (CI: 28.4-28.6), compared to 28.1% (CI: 27.7-28.5) for the first-come-first-served policy. CONCLUSIONS: This simulation of a modified New York State guideline-based triage protocol revealed limitations in achieving the utilitarian goals these protocols are designed to fulfill. Quantifying these outcomes can inform a better balance among competing moral aims.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods , Ventilators, Mechanical
17.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105426, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773223

ABSTRACT

One of the most critical challenges in managing complex diseases like COVID-19 is to establish an intelligent triage system that can optimize the clinical decision-making at the time of a global pandemic. The clinical presentation and patients' characteristics are usually utilized to identify those patients who need more critical care. However, the clinical evidence shows an unmet need to determine more accurate and optimal clinical biomarkers to triage patients under a condition like the COVID-19 crisis. Here we have presented a machine learning approach to find a group of clinical indicators from the blood tests of a set of COVID-19 patients that are predictive of poor prognosis and morbidity. Our approach consists of two interconnected schemes: Feature Selection and Prognosis Classification. The former is based on different Matrix Factorization (MF)-based methods, and the latter is performed using Random Forest algorithm. Our model reveals that Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) O2 Saturation and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) are the most important clinical biomarkers determining the poor prognosis in these patients. Our approach paves the path of building quantitative and optimized clinical management systems for COVID-19 and similar diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Triage/methods
18.
CJEM ; 24(4): 382-389, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada, an Emergency Standard of Care for Major Surge was created to establish a uniform process for the "triage" of finite critical care resources. This proposed departure from usual clinical care highlighted the need for an educational tool to prepare physicians for making and communicating difficult triage decisions. We created a just-in-time, virtual, simulation-based curriculum and evaluated its impact for our group of academic Emergency Physicians. METHODS: Our curriculum was developed and evaluated following Stufflebeam's Context-Input-Process-Product model. Our virtual simulation sessions, delivered online using Microsoft Teams, addressed a range of clinical scenarios involving decisions about critical care prioritization (i.e., Triage). Simulation participants completed a pre-course multiple-choice knowledge test and rating scales pertaining to their attitudes about using the Emergency Standard of Care protocol before and 2-4 weeks after participating. Qualitative feedback about the curriculum was solicited through surveys. RESULTS: Nine virtual simulation sessions were delivered over 3 weeks, reaching a total of 47 attending emergency physicians (74% of our active department members). Overall, our intervention led to a 36% (95% CI 22.9-48.3%) improvement in participants' self-rated comfort and attitudes in navigating triage decisions and communicating with patients at the end of life. Scores on the knowledge test improved by 13% (95% CI 0.4-25.6%). 95% of participants provided highly favorable ratings of the course content and similarly indicated that the session was likely or very likely to change their practice. The curriculum has since been adopted at multiple sites around the province. CONCLUSION: Our novel virtual simulation curriculum facilitated rapid dissemination of the Emergency Standard of Care for Major Surge to our group of Emergency Physicians despite COVID-19-related constraints on gathering. The active learning afforded by this method improved physician confidence and knowledge with these difficult protocols.


RéSUMé: CONTEXTE: Au cours de la pandémie de COVID-19 en Ontario, au Canada, une norme de soins d'urgence pour les poussées majeures a été créée afin d'établir un processus uniforme pour le " triage " des ressources limitées en soins intensifs. Cette proposition d'écart par rapport aux soins cliniques habituels a mis en évidence la nécessité d'un outil éducatif pour préparer les médecins à prendre et à communiquer des décisions de triage difficiles. Nous avons créé un programme d'études virtuel, juste à temps, basé sur la simulation et avons évalué son impact sur notre groupe de médecins urgentistes universitaires. MéTHODES: Notre programme d'études a été développé et évalué selon le modèle Contexte-Intrant-Processus-Produit de Stufflebeam. Nos sessions de simulation virtuelle, réalisées en ligne à l'aide de Microsoft Teams, ont abordé une série de scénarios cliniques impliquant des décisions sur la priorisation des soins intensifs (c.-à-d. le triage). Les participants à la simulation ont rempli un test de connaissances à choix multiples avant le cours et des échelles d'évaluation concernant leurs attitudes à l'égard de l'utilisation du protocole de soins d'urgence standard avant et deux à quatre semaines après leur participation. Des commentaires qualitatifs sur le programme ont été sollicités par le biais d'enquêtes. RéSULTATS: Neuf sessions de simulation virtuelle ont été dispensées sur trois semaines, touchant au total 47 médecins urgentistes titulaires (74 % des membres actifs de notre service). Dans l'ensemble, notre intervention a conduit à une amélioration de 36 % (IC 95 % 22,9-48,3 %) de l'auto-évaluation du confort et des attitudes des participants en matière de décisions de triage et de communication avec les patients en fin de vie. Les scores au test de connaissances se sont améliorés de 13% (IC 95% 0,4-25,6%). 95 % des participants ont donné une évaluation très favorable du contenu du cours et ont également indiqué que la session était susceptible ou très susceptible de modifier leur pratique. Le programme d'études a depuis été adopté à plusieurs endroits dans la province. CONCLUSION: Notre nouveau programme de simulation virtuelle a facilité la diffusion rapide des normes de soins d'urgence en cas de crise majeure à notre groupe d'urgentistes, malgré les contraintes de rassemblement liées au COVID-19. L'apprentissage actif que permet cette méthode a amélioré la confiance et les connaissances des médecins concernant ces protocoles difficiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Curriculum , Humans , Ontario , Pandemics , Triage/methods
19.
CJEM ; 24(4): 390-396, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced emergency departments (EDs) to change operations to minimize nosocomial infection risk. Many EDs cohort patients using provincial screening tools at triage. Despite cohorting, staff exposures occurred in the 'cold zone' due to lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) use with patients deemed low risk, resulting in staff quarantines. The cohorting strategy was perceived to lengthen time to physician initial assessment and ED length of stay times in our ED without protecting staff well enough due to varying PPE use. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of hot/cold zones for patient cohorting during a viral pandemic on ED length of stay. METHODS: We conducted an interrupted time series analysis 3 weeks before and after the removal of hot/cold zone care space cohorting in our ED. In the before period, staff did not routinely wear full PPE to see cold zone patients. After removal, staff wore full PPE to see almost all patients. We collected data on ED length of stay, physician initial assessment times, arrival-to-room times, patient volumes, Canadian Triage Acuity Score (CTAS), admissions, staff hours of coverage, as well as proportions of patients on droplet/contact precautions and COVD-19 positive patients. The primary outcome was median ED length of stay. RESULTS: After the removal of the hot/cold divisions, there was a decrease in the adjusted median ED length of stay by 24 min (95% CI 14; 33). PPE use increased in the after arm of the study. The interrupted time series analysis suggested a decrease in median ED length of stay after removal, although the change in slope and difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Cohorted waiting areas may provide a safety benefit without operational compromise, but cohorting staff and care spaces is likely to compromise efficiency and create delays.


RéSUMé: CONTEXTE: La pandémie de COVID-19 a contraint les services d'urgence (SU) à modifier leur fonctionnement afin de minimiser le risque d'infection nosocomiale. De nombreux SU regroupaient des patients à l'aide d'outils de dépistage provinciaux au triage. Malgré la constitution de cohortes, les expositions du personnel se sont produites dans la "zone froide" en raison du manque d'utilisation d'équipements de protection individuelle (EPI) avec des patients jugés à faible risque, ce qui a entraîné la mise en quarantaine du personnel. Dans notre service d'urgence, la stratégie de cohorte a été perçue comme prolongeant l'évaluation initiale des médecins et la durée du séjour dans le service sans pour autant protéger suffisamment le personnel en raison de l'utilisation variable des EPI. L'objectif de cette étude était d'évaluer l'impact des zones chaudes/froides pour le regroupement de patients lors d'une pandémie virale sur la durée du séjour à l'urgence. MéTHODES: Nous avons réalisé une analyse de séries chronologiques interrompues trois semaines avant et après la suppression de la cohorte d'espace de soins en zone chaude/froide dans nos urgences. Au cours de la période précédente, le personnel ne portait pas systématiquement un EPI complet pour voir les patients des zones froides. Après le retrait, le personnel a porté un EPI complet pour voir presque tous les patients. Nous avons recueilli des données sur la durée du séjour aux urgences, les délais d'évaluation initiale par les médecins, les délais d'arrivée en salle, le volume de patients, L'échelle canadienne de triage et de gravité (ÉTG), les admissions, les heures de couverture du personnel, ainsi que les proportions de patients ayant reçu des précautions contre les gouttelettes et les contacts et de patients positifs au COVD-19. Le critère de jugement principal était la durée médiane du séjour aux urgences. RéSULTATS: Après la suppression des divisions chaudes/froides, la durée médiane ajustée du séjour aux urgences a diminué de 24 minutes (IC à 95 % : 14 ; 33). L'utilisation des EPI a augmenté dans le groupe suivant de l'étude. L'analyse des séries chronologiques interrompues suggère une diminution de la durée médiane de séjour aux urgences après le retrait, bien que le changement de la pente et de la différence n'ait pas atteint la signification statistique. CONCLUSION: Les zones d'attente en cohorte peuvent offrir un avantage en matière de sécurité sans compromis sur le plan opérationnel, mais le regroupement du personnel et des espaces de soins est susceptible de compromettre l'efficacité et de créer des retards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Infection Control , Length of Stay , Pandemics/prevention & control , Triage/methods
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4472, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747178

ABSTRACT

Since it emerged in December of 2019, COVID-19 has placed a huge burden on medical care in countries throughout the world, as it led to a huge number of hospitalizations and mortalities. Many medical centers were overloaded, as their intensive care units and auxiliary protection resources proved insufficient, which made the effective allocation of medical resources an urgent matter. This study describes learned survival prediction models that could help medical professionals make effective decisions regarding patient triage and resource allocation. We created multiple data subsets from a publicly available COVID-19 epidemiological dataset to evaluate the effectiveness of various combinations of covariates-age, sex, geographic location, and chronic disease status-in learning survival models (here, "Individual Survival Distributions"; ISDs) for hospital discharge and also for death events. We then supplemented our datasets with demographic and economic information to obtain potentially more accurate survival models. Our extensive experiments compared several ISD models, using various measures. These results show that the "gradient boosting Cox machine" algorithm outperformed the competing techniques, in terms of these performance evaluation metrics, for predicting both an individual's likelihood of hospital discharge and COVID-19 mortality. Our curated datasets and code base are available at our Github repository for reproducing the results reported in this paper and for supporting future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Machine Learning , Triage/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL