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1.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 24: 277-291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262713

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Remdesivir, a drug originally developed against Ebola virus, is currently recommended for patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). In spite of United States Food and Drug Administration's recent assent of remdesivir as the only approved agent for COVID-19, there is limited information available about the physicochemical, metabolism, transport, pharmacokinetic (PK), and drug-drug interaction (DDI) properties of this drug. The objective of this in silico simulation work was to simulate the biopharmaceutical and DDI behavior of remdesivir and characterize remdesivir PK properties in special populations which are highly affected by COVID-19. METHODS: The Spatial Data File format structures of remdesivir prodrug (GS-5734) and nucleoside core (GS-441524) were obtained from the PubChem database to upload into the GastroPlus software 9.8 version (Simulations Plus Inc., USA). The Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADMET) Predictor and PKPlus modules of GastroPlus were used to simulate physicochemical and PK properties, respectively, in healthy and predisposed patients. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of GastroPlus was used to simulate different patient populations based on age, weight, liver function, and renal function status. Subsequently, these data were used in the Drug-Drug Interaction module to simulate drug interaction potential of remdesivir with other COVID-19 drug regimens and with agents used for comorbidities. RESULTS: Remdesivir nucleoside core (GS-441524) is more hydrophilic than the inactive prodrug (GS-5734) with nucleoside core demonstrating better water solubility. GS-5734, but not GS-441524, is predicted to be metabolized by CYP3A4. Remdesivir is bioavailable and its clearance is achieved through hepatic and renal routes. Differential effects of renal function, liver function, weight, or age were observed on the PK profile of remdesivir. DDI simulation study of remdesivir with perpetrator drugs for comorbidities indicate that carbamazepine, phenytoin, amiodarone, voriconazole, diltiazem, and verapamil have the potential for strong interactions with victim remdesivir, whereas agents used for COVID-19 treatment such as chloroquine and ritonavir can cause weak and strong interactions, respectively, with remdesivir. CONCLUSIONS: GS-5734 (inactive prodrug) appears to be a superior remdesivir derivative due to its hepatic stability, optimum hydrophilic/lipophilic balance, and disposition properties. Remdesivir disposition can potentially be affected by different physiological and pathological conditions, and by drug interactions from COVID-19 drug regimens and agents used for comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Chemical , Drug Interactions , Furans/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Prodrugs/administration & dosage , Prodrugs/adverse effects , Pyrroles/pharmacokinetics , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Triazines/pharmacokinetics
2.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(2): e00743, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130677

ABSTRACT

Both antiviral treatment with remdesivir and hemoadsorption using a CytoSorb® adsorption device are applied in the treatment of severe COVID-19. The CytoSorb® adsorber consists of porous polymer beads that adsorb a broad range of molecules, including cytokines but also several therapeutic drugs. In this study, we evaluated whether remdesivir and its main active metabolite GS-441524 would be adsorbed by CytoSorb® . Serum containing remdesivir or GS-441524 was circulated in a custom-made system containing a CytoSorb® device. Concentrations of remdesivir and GS-441524 before and after the adsorber were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Measurements of remdesivir in the outgoing tube after the adsorber indicated almost complete removal of remdesivir by the device. In the reservoir, concentration of remdesivir showed an exponential decay and was not longer detectable after 60 mins. GS-441524 showed a similar exponential decay but, unlike remdesivir, it reached an adsorption-desorption equilibrium at ~48 µg/L. Remdesivir and its main active metabolite GS-441524 are rapidly eliminated from the perfusate by the CytoSorb® adsorber device in vitro. This should be considered in patients for whom both therapies are indicated, and simultaneous application should be avoided. In general, plasma levels of therapeutic drugs should be closely monitored under concurrent CytoSorb® therapy.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/therapy , Hemoperfusion/instrumentation , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, Liquid , Combined Modality Therapy , Furans/blood , Furans/pharmacokinetics , Hemoperfusion/adverse effects , Humans , Pyrroles/blood , Pyrroles/pharmacokinetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triazines/blood , Triazines/pharmacokinetics
3.
J Pharm Sci ; 110(3): 1316-1322, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943677

ABSTRACT

Under pandemic-caused emergency, evaluation of the potential of existing antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 is relevant. Triazavirin, an antiviral drug developed in Russia for per-oral administration, is involved in clinical trials against SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. This virus has affinity to epithelial cells in respiratory tract, so drug delivery directly in lungs may enhance therapeutic effect and reduce side effects for stomach, liver, kidneys. We elaborated ultrasonic method of triazavirin aerosol generation and investigated the inhalation delivery of this drug in mice. Mean particle size and number concentration of aerosol used in inhalation experiments are 560 nm and 4 × 105 cm-3, respectively. Aerosol mass concentration is 1.6 × 10-4 mg/cm3. Inhalation for 20 min in a nose-only chamber resulted in 2 mg/kg body delivered dose and 2.6 µg/mL triazavirin concentration in blood plasma. Elimination rate constant determined in aerosol administration experiments was ke = 0.077 min-1, which agrees with the value measured after intravenous delivery, but per-oral administration resulted in considerably lower apparent elimination rate constant of pseudo-first order, probably due to non-linear dependence of absorption rate on triazavirin concentration in gastrointestinal tract. The bioavailability of triazavirin aerosol is found to be 85%, which is about four times higher than for per-oral administration.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azoles/administration & dosage , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Triazines/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Administration, Oral , Aerosols/pharmacokinetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Azoles/blood , Azoles/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Elimination Routes , Equipment Design , Humans , Male , Mice , Triazines/blood , Triazines/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles
4.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 157: 105631, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective antiviral drugs for COVID-19 are still lacking. This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes and plasma concentrations of baloxavir acid and favipiravir in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Favipiravir and baloxavir acid were evaluated for their antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro before the trial initiation. We conducted an exploratory trial with 3 arms involving hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. Patients were randomized assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio into baloxavir marboxil group, favipiravir group, and control group. The primary outcome was the percentage of subjects with viral negative by Day 14 and the time from randomization to clinical improvement. Virus load reduction, blood drug concentration and clinical presentation were also observed. The trial was registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR 2000029544). RESULTS: Baloxavir acid showed antiviral activity in vitro with the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 5.48 µM comparable to arbidol and lopinavir, but favipiravir didn't demonstrate significant antiviral activity up to 100 µM. Thirty patients were enrolled. The percentage of patients who turned viral negative after 14-day treatment was 70%, 77%, and 100% in the baloxavir marboxil, favipiravir, and control group respectively, with the medians of time from randomization to clinical improvement was 14, 14 and 15 days, respectively. One reason for the lack of virological effect and clinical benefits may be due to insufficient concentrations of these drugs relative to their antiviral activities. One of the limitations of this study is the time from symptom onset to randomization, especially in the baloxavir marboxil and control groups, which is higher than the favipiravir group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could not prove a benefit of addition of either baloxavir marboxil or favipiravir under the trial dosages to the existing standard treatment.


Subject(s)
Amides , COVID-19 , Dibenzothiepins , Morpholines , Pyrazines , Pyridones , Triazines , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/blood , Amides/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dibenzothiepins/administration & dosage , Dibenzothiepins/blood , Dibenzothiepins/pharmacokinetics , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Male , Middle Aged , Morpholines/administration & dosage , Morpholines/blood , Morpholines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/blood , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/blood , Pyridones/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Triazines/administration & dosage , Triazines/blood , Triazines/pharmacokinetics , Viral Load/drug effects
5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(9): 1461-1468, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612048

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A method based on liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection using 50 µL of plasma was developed and fully validated for quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolites GS-441524. Methods: A simple protein precipitation was carried out using 75 µL of methanol containing the internal standard (IS) remdesivir-13C6 and 5 µL ZnSO4 1 M. After separation on Kinetex® 2.6 µm Polar C18 100A LC column (100 × 2.1 mm i.d.), both compounds were detected by a mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization in positive mode. The ion transitions used were m/z 603.3 â†’ m/z 200.0 and m/z 229.0 for remdesivir, m/z 292.2 â†’ m/z 173.1 and m/z 147.1 for GS-441524 and m/z 609.3 â†’ m/z 206.0 for remdesivir-13C6. Results: Calibration curves were linear in the 1-5000 µg/L range for remdesivir and 5-2500 for GS-441524, with limit of detection set at 0.5 and 2 µg/L and limit of quantification at 1 and 5 µg/L, respectively. Precisions evaluated at 2.5, 400 and 4000 µg/L for remdesivir and 12.5, 125, 2000 µg/L for GS-441524 were lower than 14.7% and accuracy was in the [89.6-110.2%] range. A slight matrix effect was observed, compensated by IS. Higher stability of remdesivir and metabolite was observed on NaF-plasma. After 200 mg IV single administration, remdesivir concentration decrease rapidly with a half-life less than 1 h while GS-441524 appeared rapidly and decreased slowly until H24 with a half-life around 12 h. Conclusions: This method would be useful for therapeutic drug monitoring of these compounds in Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/blood , Betacoronavirus , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Furans/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pyrroles/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Triazines/blood , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19 , Drug Stability , Female , Furans/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pyrroles/pharmacokinetics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazines/pharmacokinetics
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