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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 649760, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760280

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Occupational physicians, as an aspect of the periodic health surveillance of workers prescribed by law, must develop preventive programs against adverse health-related occurrences (Legislative Decree 81/2008, art.25) to reduce major risk factors for non-communicable/chronic diseases. Eating habits play an important role in defining risk trajectories in the workplace. Methods: We randomly and cross-sectionally evaluated 147 females, of which 59 were healthcare workers (HCWs) and 88 were non-HCWs. The assessment included a dietary screening for adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and a clinical baseline collection of major fluid biomarkers and anthropometric indicators for cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Results: The HCW group exhibited greater adherence to the MD than the non-HCW group. Nevertheless, they showed higher serum levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol. Menopause and type of work significantly and unfavorably affected triglyceride serum levels among HCWs. Conclusion: Greater preventive efforts are needed in the context of periodic health surveillance by occupational physicians. Disseminating additional information on a healthier lifestyle, particularly among female workers of perimenopausal age, is a key issue.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Triglycerides , Female , Health Personnel , Humans
2.
Diabetes Metab J ; 46(2): 260-272, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abrupt implementation of lockdowns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected the management of diabetes mellitus in patients worldwide. Limited access to health facilities and lifestyle changes potentially affected metabolic parameters in patients at risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine any differences in the control of metabolic parameters in patients with diabetes, before and during lockdown. METHODS: We performed searches of five databases. Meta-analyses were carried out using random- or fixed-effect approaches to glycaemic control parameters as the primary outcome: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), random blood glucose (RBG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), time-in-range (TIR), time-above-range (TAR), time-below-range (TBR). Mean difference (MD), confidence interval (CI), and P value were calculated. Lipid profile was a secondary outcome and is presented as a descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies enrolling a total of 3,992 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM or T2DM) were included in the study. Patients with T1DM showed a significant improvement of TIR and TAR (MD=3.52% [95% CI, 0.29 to 6.74], I2=76%, P=0.03; MD=-3.36% [95% CI, -6.48 to -0.25], I2=75%, P=0.03), while FBG among patients with T2DM significantly worsened (MD=3.47 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.22 to 5.73], I2=0%, P<0.01). No significant difference was found in HbA1c, RBG, and TBR. Use of continuous glucose monitoring in T1DM facilitated good glycaemic control. Significant deterioration of lipid parameters during lockdown, particularly triglyceride, was observed. CONCLUSION: Implementation of lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic did not worsen glycaemic control in patients with diabetes. Other metabolic parameters improved during lockdown, though lipid parameters, particularly triglyceride, worsened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Triglycerides
3.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725891

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993-1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diet Records , Eating/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Meals/physiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom
4.
J Int Med Res ; 50(2): 3000605221078699, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood lipid profiles in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to explore the association with disease severity. METHODS: This case-control study included patients with COVID-19, referred to two medical centers in Kermanshah, Iran (between July 2020 and December 2020), and healthy controls. Lipid profiles were evaluated in patients who were grouped according to severe (intensive care unit [ICU]), or less severe (outpatient), forms of COVID-19, and in healthy controls, and were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: A total of 132 participants were included, comprising ICU (n = 49), outpatient (n = 48) and control (n = 35) groups. Mean cholesterol levels were lower in the patient groups than in controls; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were higher in the ICU group versus outpatients, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were lower in the ICU group versus outpatients. The frequency of diabetes and hypertension was higher in the ICU group than in the outpatient group. Furthermore, LDL-C level was associated with disease severity (odds ratio 0.966, 95% confidence interval 0.944, 0.989). CONCLUSION: Lipid profiles differ between severe and less severe forms of COVID-19. LDL-C level may be a useful indicator of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol, HDL , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Lipids , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
5.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 80(1): 65-68, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674125

ABSTRACT

Management of triglyceride (TG) levels is essential in intensive care units (ICU), especially to manage the risk of pancreatitis induced by propofol. However, some therapeutics in ICU such as intravenous ascorbic acid protocol, especially used in the context of Covid-19 could lead to false decrease of triglycerides by analytical disruption of Trinder reaction. We report here the case of a sample with unmeasurable triglyceride levels partly due to high plasma ascorbic acid levels. However, repeated measure on the same sample four days later revealed that interference mechanism on TG was still present whereas the level of ascorbic acid was very reduced by oxidation degradation. Hence, additional interference mechanism was suspected. After clinical investigation, we found that the patient had also received high doses of tacrolimus due to a transplant. As previous studies reported that tacrolimus treatment lead to a decrease of the measured plasma activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), we hypothesized that tacrolimus or related metabolites could also interfere by direct inhibition of LPL involved in TG analytical method used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tacrolimus , Ascorbic Acid , Humans , Lipoprotein Lipase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Triglycerides
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625602

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and other metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes is still evolving. AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The PRISMA framework was the method used to conduct the systematic review and meta-analysis, and the search strategy was based on the population, intervention, control and outcome (PICO) model. The Health Sciences Research databases was accessed via EBSCO-host, and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles. Searches were conducted from inception of the databases until 17 September 2021. RESULTS: The results identified three distinct areas: glycaemic control, lipid parameters and body mass index. It was found that COVID-19 lockdown led to a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the levels of glycated haemoglobin (%) compared with pre-COVID group (gp) with a mean difference of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.38). Eleven studies contributed to the data for glycated haemoglobin analysis with a total of 16,895 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown gp, n = 8417; pre-COVID gp, n = 8478). The meta-analysis of fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) also showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in levels of post-COVID-19 lockdown gp compared with pre-COVID gp, with a mean difference of 7.19 (95% CI: 5.28, 9.10). Six studies contributed to fasting plasma glucose analysis involving a total of 2327 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown, n = 1159; pre-COVID gp, n = 1168). The body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) analysis also demonstrated that post-COVID-19 lockdown gp had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher BMI than the pre-COVID gp with a mean difference of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.99; 1.28), involving six studies and a total of 2363 participants (post-COVID-19 lockdown gp, n = 1186; pre-COVID gp, n = 1177). There were significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of total cholesterol (mmol/L), triglyceride (mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (mmol/L), and higher levels of HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) in the post-COVID-19 lockdown gp compared with pre-COVID gp, although these results were not consistent following sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: The findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis have demonstrated that COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the levels of glycated haemoglobin, fasting glucose and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the effect of the lockdown on lipid parameters, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL cholesterol was not consistent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Glycemic Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
7.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621938

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the relationship between handgrip strength per weight (HGS/W), triglyceride glucose index (TyG) and diabetes, and whether lower HGS levels precede TyG in the Chinese elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two linear regression models were used to explore the association of whether baseline HGS/W predicted follow-up variation of TyG or baseline TyG predicted follow-up variation of HGS/W. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between baseline HGS/W and future diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 4,561 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were enrolled, of which 47.0% were men, and the mean age was 58.7 years (standard deviation 8.68 years). A lower baseline HGS/W significantly correlated with a higher level of follow-up TyG (ß = -0.173, P = 0.002). The baseline level of HGS/W was significantly negatively associated with the incidence risk of diabetes (rate ratio 0.375, P = 0.004). However, in sex stratification, the statistical association between HGS/W and TyG and diabetes was only in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HGS/W was inversely associated with TyG and diabetes, and lower HGS/W levels preceded TyG levels in the elderly population. However, the effect was inconsistent between men and women, and the possible mechanism would require further clarification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hand Strength , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Body Weight , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
8.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e21, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a rare complication of SARS-CoV-2 associated with single or multiorgan dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk factors for kidney dysfunction in PIMS-TS, with reporting of 6-month renal follow-up data. We also evaluated renal involvement between first and second waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the UK, the latter attributed to the Alpha variant. DESIGN: A single-centre observational study was conducted through patient chart analysis. SETTING: Data were collected from patients admitted to Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK, between April 2020 and March 2021. PATIENTS: 110 patients <18 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: AKI during hospitalisation. AKI classification was based on upper limit of reference interval (ULRI) serum creatinine (sCr) values. RESULTS: AKI occurred in 33 (30%) patients. Hypotension/hypoperfusion was associated with almost all cases. In univariate analysis, the AKI cohort had higher peak levels of triglycerides (OR, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.6) per 1 mmol/L increase) and C reactive protein (OR, 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.12) per 10 mg/L increase), with higher requirement for mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.8 (95% CI, 1.46 to 10.4)) and inotropic support (OR, 15.4 (95% CI, 3.02 to 2.81)). In multivariate analysis, triglycerides were independently associated with AKI stages 2-3 (adjusted OR, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.6)). At follow-up, none had macroalbuminuria and all had sCr values

Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 269, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the number of COVID-19 deaths continues to rise worldwide, the identification of risk factors for the disease is an urgent issue, and it remains controversial whether atherogenic lipid-related traits including serum apolipoprotein B, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, are risk factors. The aim of this study was to estimate causal effects of lipid-related traits on COVID-19 risk in the European population using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: We used summary statistics from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included 441,016 participants from the UK Biobank as the exposure dataset of lipid-related traits and from COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative GWAS meta-analyses of European ancestry as the outcome dataset for COVID-19 susceptibility (32,494 cases and 1,316,207 controls), hospitalization (8316 cases and 1,549,095 controls), and severity (4792 cases and 1,054,664 controls). We performed two-sample MR analyses using the inverse variance weighted (IVW) method. As sensitivity analyses, the MR-Egger regression, weighted median, and weighted mode methods were conducted as were leave-one-out sensitivity analysis, the MR-PRESSO global test, PhenoScanner searches, and IVW multivariable MR analyses. A P value below 0.0055 with Bonferroni correction was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: This MR study suggested that serum apolipoprotein B or LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly associated with COVID-19 risk. On the other hand, we inferred that higher serum triglyceride levels were suggestively associated with higher risks of COVID-19 susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation increase in lifelong triglyceride levels, 1.065; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.13; P = 0.045) and hospitalization (OR, 1.174; 95% CI, 1.04-1.33; P = 0.012), and were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity (OR, 1.274; 95% CI, 1.08-1.50; P = 0.004). Sensitivity and bidirectional MR analyses suggested that horizontal pleiotropy and reverse causation were unlikely. CONCLUSIONS: Our MR study indicates a causal effect of higher serum triglyceride levels on a greater risk of COVID-19 severity in the European population using the latest and largest GWAS datasets to date. However, as the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and our study might be still biased due to possible horizontal pleiotropy, further studies are warranted to validate our findings and investigate underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein B-100 , COVID-19 , Cholesterol, LDL , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Quantitative Trait, Heritable , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Triglycerides , Apolipoprotein B-100/blood , Apolipoprotein B-100/genetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/genetics , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Triglycerides/blood , Triglycerides/genetics
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515266

ABSTRACT

Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a major risk factor for acute pancreatitis. In exceptional cases, it is caused by plasma components inhibiting lipoprotein lipase activity. This phenomenon is predominantly associated with autoimmune diseases. Here, we report a case of severe hypertriglyceridemia due to a transient reduction in lipoprotein lipase activity following an episode of COVID-19 in an otherwise healthy 45-year-old woman. The lipoprotein lipase activity of the patient was markedly reduced compared with a healthy control and did recover to 20% of the healthy control's lipoprotein lipase activity 5 months after the COVID-19 episode. Mixing tests substantiated reduced lipolytic capacity in the presence of the patient's plasma at presentation compared with a homozygous lipoprotein lipase-deficient control, which was no longer present at follow-up. Western blotting confirmed that the quantity of lipoprotein lipase was not aberrant. Fibrate treatment and a strict hypolipidemic diet improved the patient's symptoms and triglyceride levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertriglyceridemia , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Female , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
11.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(6): 796-804, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Besides the well-accepted role in lipid metabolism, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) also seems to participate in host immune response against infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: We used a quantitative proteomic approach to test the hypothesis that alterations in HDL proteome associate with severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Based on clinical criteria, subjects (n=41) diagnosed with COVID-19 were divided into two groups: a group of subjects presenting mild symptoms and a second group displaying severe symptoms and requiring hospitalization. Using a proteomic approach, we quantified the levels of 29 proteins in HDL particles derived from these subjects. RESULTS: We showed that the levels of serum amyloid A 1 and 2 (SAA1 and SAA2, respectively), pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SFTPB), apolipoprotein F (APOF), and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4) were increased by more than 50% in hospitalized patients, independently of sex, HDL-C or triglycerides when comparing with subjects presenting only mild symptoms. Altered HDL proteins were able to classify COVID-19 subjects according to the severity of the disease (error rate 4.9%). Moreover, apolipoprotein M (APOM) in HDL was inversely associated with odds of death due to COVID-19 complications (odds ratio [OR] per 1-SD increase in APOM was 0.27, with 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.07 to 0.72, P=0.007). CONCLUSION: Our results point to a profound inflammatory remodeling of HDL proteome tracking with severity of COVID-19 infection. They also raise the possibility that HDL particles could play an important role in infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Adult , Apolipoproteins/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Middle Aged , Proteomics , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, the negative effects of aging, physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases of older women. Exercise is considered fundamental for the treatment and prevention due to the benefits in the health of this population, but detraining periods after exercise can reverse them. Multicomponent exercise (ME) is a combined method of aerobic and resistance training that can improve the lipidic profile of older women with high cholesterol and triglycerides. METHODS: Seventeen older women (EG: 65.3 ± 4.7 years, 1.52 ± 4.12 m) followed a supervised ME program of nine months and three months of detraining (DT), and fifteen older women (CG: 66.4 ± 5.2 years, 1.54 ± 5.58 cm) continued their daily routine, without exercise. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), blood glucose (GL) and functional capacity (FC) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the program and after three months of DT. RESULTS: ME program improved (p < 0.05) lipidic profile: GL (-15.6%), TC (-15.3%), TG (-19.3%) and FC: agility (-13.3%), lower body strength (27.78%), upper body strength (26.3%), cardiorespiratory capacity (11.2%), lower body flexibility (66.67%) and upper body flexibility (85.72%). DT declined the lipidic profile and FC (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Lipidic profile and functional capacity can be improved with nine months of ME. Besides the negative effects of DT, three months were not enough to reverse the benefits of exercise in older women with high values of TG and TC.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Resistance Training , Aged , Cholesterol , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Triglycerides
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463705

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Sepsis is one of the most common critical care illnesses with increasing survivorship. The quality of life in sepsis survivors is adversely affected by several co-morbidities, including increased incidence of dementia, stroke, cardiac disease and at least temporary deterioration in cognitive dysfunction. One of the potential explanations for their progression is the persistence of lipid profile abnormalities induced during acute sepsis into recovery, resulting in acceleration of atherosclerosis. (2) Methods: This is a targeted review of the abnormalities in the long-term lipid profile abnormalities after sepsis; (3) Results: There is a well-established body of evidence demonstrating acute alteration in lipid profile (HDL-c ↓↓, LDL-C -c ↓↓). In contrast, a limited number of studies demonstrated depression of HDL-c levels with a concomitant increase in LDL-C -c in the wake of sepsis. VLDL-C -c and Lp(a) remained unaltered in few studies as well. Apolipoprotein A1 was altered in survivors suggesting abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism concomitant to overall lipoprotein abnormalities. However, most of the studies were limited to a four-month follow-up and patient groups were relatively small. Only one study looked at the atherosclerosis progression in sepsis survivors using clinical correlates, demonstrating an acceleration of plaque formation in the aorta, and a large metanalysis suggested an increase in the risk of stroke or acute coronary event between 3% to 9% in sepsis survivors. (4) Conclusions: The limited evidence suggests an emergence and persistence of the proatherogenic lipid profile in sepsis survivors that potentially contributes, along with other factors, to the clinical sequel of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Lipoproteins/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism , Apolipoproteins/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/complications , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Sepsis/complications , Triglycerides/metabolism
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(17): 5525-5528, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417449

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is the first novel nucleoside-modified messenger ribonucleic acid (modRNA) vaccine to receive Emergency Use Authorization from the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. It is indicated to be used in patients ≥12 years-of-age as of May 25th, 2021, including populations with high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) burden. However, little is known about the potential impact this vaccine may have on serum lipoprotein levels in patients with familial hypercholesteremia (FH), who are predisposed to high ASCVD burden due to elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We present an interesting case where a patient with heterozygous FH (HeFH) and elevated triglycerides (TG)-controlled for years on medication and apheresis-experienced significantly elevated TG, one day after receiving his second Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine dose. It is not known whether this adverse event may be seen in other FH patients and may be worth assessing in such patients to determine the possibility of a rare adverse reaction from a COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/blood , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cholesterol/blood , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Triglycerides/blood , Vaccination
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 705916, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399192

ABSTRACT

Lipid profile alterations have been observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in relation to disease severity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression of studies reporting total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, between January 2020 and January 2021, for studies describing lipid concentrations, COVID-19 severity, and survival status (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021253401). Twenty-two studies in 10,122 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that hospitalized patients with severe disease or non-survivor status had significantly lower total cholesterol (standardized mean difference, SMD = -0.29, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.16, p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (SMD = -0.30, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.18, p < 0.001), and HDL-cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.26, p < 0.001), but not triglyceride (SMD = 0.04, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.19, p = 0.57), concentrations compared to patients with milder disease or survivor status during follow up. Between-study heterogeneity was large-to-extreme. In sensitivity analysis, the effect size of different lipid fractions was not affected when each study was in turn removed. The Begg's and Egger's t-tests did not show evidence of publication bias, except for studies investigating LDL-cholesterol. In meta-regression, significant associations were observed between the SMD of LDL-cholesterol and age and hypertension, and between the SMD of triglycerides and study endpoint and aspartate aminotransferase. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, lower total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglyceride, concentrations were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Cholesterol concentrations might be useful, in combination with other clinical and demographic variables, for risk stratification and monitoring in this group. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021253401.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
16.
Ann Pharmacother ; 56(6): 637-644, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could develop severe disease requiring critical care admission. Case reports indicated high incidence of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, which might be related to the drugs. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the risk factors associated with HTG in this population and to investigate the relationship between HTG and lipase. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at our hospital between March 1 and June 30, 2020. Patients were included if they were ≥18 years old, admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and had triglycerides (TG) checked during their hospital stay. RESULTS: Of the 111 critically ill patients, 103 patients were included. Males comprised 88.3% of the sample. The median TG at baseline was 197.4 (IQR: 139.8-283) mg/dL. The lipase median level at baseline was 23.00 (IQR: 0.00-69.50) IU/L. The results of the mixed-effects logistic regression analysis indicated that patient-level variables, favipiravir use, blood glucose level, and propofol use were significantly associated with HTG. There was no relationship between lipase and TG levels over time. Furthermore, TG concentrations over time showed a similar trend to inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The incidence of clinically significant HTG was high and was associated with propofol and favipiravir use. HTG might reflect the high inflammatory state in these patients. Clinicians should look at the full picture before changing therapies based only on HTG. Our findings need to be replicated in a larger prospective study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertriglyceridemia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/complications , Hypertriglyceridemia/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Lipase , Male , Propofol , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1655-1665, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves protective functions in metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, and pulmonary diseases and is linked to COVID-19 pathology. The correlates of temporal changes in soluble ACE2 (sACE2) remain understudied. OBJECTIVES: We explored the associations of sACE2 with metabolic health and proteome dynamics during a weight loss diet intervention. METHODS: We analyzed 457 healthy individuals (mean ± SD age: 39.8 ± 6.6 y) with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 in the DIETFITS (Diet Intervention Examining the Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) study. Biochemical markers of metabolic health and 236 proteins were measured by Olink CVDII, CVDIII, and Inflammation I arrays at baseline and at 6 mo during the dietary intervention. We determined clinical and routine biochemical correlates of the diet-induced change in sACE2 (ΔsACE2) using stepwise linear regression. We combined feature selection models and multivariable-adjusted linear regression to identify protein dynamics associated with ΔsACE2. RESULTS: sACE2 decreased on average at 6 mo during the diet intervention. Stronger decline in sACE2 during the diet intervention was independently associated with female sex, lower HOMA-IR and LDL cholesterol at baseline, and a stronger decline in HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fat mass. Participants with decreasing HOMA-IR (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.03) and triglycerides (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.72, 4.26) had significantly higher odds for a decrease in sACE2 during the diet intervention than those without (P ≤ 0.0073). Feature selection models linked ΔsACE2 to changes in α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor, E-selectin, hydroxyacid oxidase 1, kidney injury molecule 1, tyrosine-protein kinase Mer, placental growth factor, thrombomodulin, and TNF receptor superfamily member 10B. ΔsACE2 remained associated with these protein changes in multivariable-adjusted linear regression. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in sACE2 during a weight loss diet intervention was associated with improvements in metabolic health, fat mass, and markers of angiotensin peptide metabolism, hepatic and vascular injury, renal function, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our findings may improve the risk stratification, prevention, and management of cardiometabolic complications.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01826591.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Body Composition , COVID-19/metabolism , Diet, Reducing , Obesity/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Weight Loss/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diet therapy , Oxidative Stress , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides/blood , Weight Reduction Programs
19.
Mol Immunol ; 138: 121-127, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347762

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infection threatening worldwide health as currently there exists no effective treatment strategy and vaccination programs are not publicly available yet. T lymphocytes play an important role in antiviral defenses. However, T cell frequency and functionality may be affected during the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total blood samples were collected from patients with mild and severe COVID-19, and the total lymphocyte number, as well as CD4+ and CD8 + T cells were assessed using flowcytometry. Besides, the expression of exhausted T cell markers was evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also investigated in the serum of all patients using enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the obtained results were analyzed along with laboratory serological reports. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lymphopenia and reduced CD4+ and CD8 + T cells, as well as high percentage of PD-1 expression by T cells, especially in severe cases. Serum secretion of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) were remarkably increased in patients with severe symptoms, as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, high levels of triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were correlated with the severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: Reduced number and function of T cells were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe patients. Meanwhile, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was increased as the disease developed. High level of serum IL-2R was also considered as a sign of lymphopenia. Additionally, hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia could be important prognostic factors in determining the severity of the infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Triglycerides/blood
20.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 603-606, 2021 Jun.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335564

ABSTRACT

The study compares two groups of patients with acute coronary syndrome, depending on the presence of COVID-19 in the anamnesis. The comparison groups analyzed the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including smoking, heredity, gender differences, age, diabetes, and obesity. The results of biochemical blood tests were analyzed. It was found that patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent COVID-19 were less likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent COVID-19 were found to have lower blood glucose, cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides. As a result of the study, it was revealed that COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for the development of acute coronary syndrome.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
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