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1.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725891

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993-1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diet Records , Eating/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Meals/physiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom
2.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621938

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the relationship between handgrip strength per weight (HGS/W), triglyceride glucose index (TyG) and diabetes, and whether lower HGS levels precede TyG in the Chinese elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two linear regression models were used to explore the association of whether baseline HGS/W predicted follow-up variation of TyG or baseline TyG predicted follow-up variation of HGS/W. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between baseline HGS/W and future diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 4,561 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were enrolled, of which 47.0% were men, and the mean age was 58.7 years (standard deviation 8.68 years). A lower baseline HGS/W significantly correlated with a higher level of follow-up TyG (ß = -0.173, P = 0.002). The baseline level of HGS/W was significantly negatively associated with the incidence risk of diabetes (rate ratio 0.375, P = 0.004). However, in sex stratification, the statistical association between HGS/W and TyG and diabetes was only in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HGS/W was inversely associated with TyG and diabetes, and lower HGS/W levels preceded TyG levels in the elderly population. However, the effect was inconsistent between men and women, and the possible mechanism would require further clarification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hand Strength , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Body Weight , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
3.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e21, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a rare complication of SARS-CoV-2 associated with single or multiorgan dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk factors for kidney dysfunction in PIMS-TS, with reporting of 6-month renal follow-up data. We also evaluated renal involvement between first and second waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the UK, the latter attributed to the Alpha variant. DESIGN: A single-centre observational study was conducted through patient chart analysis. SETTING: Data were collected from patients admitted to Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK, between April 2020 and March 2021. PATIENTS: 110 patients <18 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: AKI during hospitalisation. AKI classification was based on upper limit of reference interval (ULRI) serum creatinine (sCr) values. RESULTS: AKI occurred in 33 (30%) patients. Hypotension/hypoperfusion was associated with almost all cases. In univariate analysis, the AKI cohort had higher peak levels of triglycerides (OR, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.6) per 1 mmol/L increase) and C reactive protein (OR, 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.12) per 10 mg/L increase), with higher requirement for mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.8 (95% CI, 1.46 to 10.4)) and inotropic support (OR, 15.4 (95% CI, 3.02 to 2.81)). In multivariate analysis, triglycerides were independently associated with AKI stages 2-3 (adjusted OR, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.6)). At follow-up, none had macroalbuminuria and all had sCr values

Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 269, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the number of COVID-19 deaths continues to rise worldwide, the identification of risk factors for the disease is an urgent issue, and it remains controversial whether atherogenic lipid-related traits including serum apolipoprotein B, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, are risk factors. The aim of this study was to estimate causal effects of lipid-related traits on COVID-19 risk in the European population using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: We used summary statistics from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included 441,016 participants from the UK Biobank as the exposure dataset of lipid-related traits and from COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative GWAS meta-analyses of European ancestry as the outcome dataset for COVID-19 susceptibility (32,494 cases and 1,316,207 controls), hospitalization (8316 cases and 1,549,095 controls), and severity (4792 cases and 1,054,664 controls). We performed two-sample MR analyses using the inverse variance weighted (IVW) method. As sensitivity analyses, the MR-Egger regression, weighted median, and weighted mode methods were conducted as were leave-one-out sensitivity analysis, the MR-PRESSO global test, PhenoScanner searches, and IVW multivariable MR analyses. A P value below 0.0055 with Bonferroni correction was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: This MR study suggested that serum apolipoprotein B or LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly associated with COVID-19 risk. On the other hand, we inferred that higher serum triglyceride levels were suggestively associated with higher risks of COVID-19 susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation increase in lifelong triglyceride levels, 1.065; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.13; P = 0.045) and hospitalization (OR, 1.174; 95% CI, 1.04-1.33; P = 0.012), and were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity (OR, 1.274; 95% CI, 1.08-1.50; P = 0.004). Sensitivity and bidirectional MR analyses suggested that horizontal pleiotropy and reverse causation were unlikely. CONCLUSIONS: Our MR study indicates a causal effect of higher serum triglyceride levels on a greater risk of COVID-19 severity in the European population using the latest and largest GWAS datasets to date. However, as the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and our study might be still biased due to possible horizontal pleiotropy, further studies are warranted to validate our findings and investigate underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein B-100 , COVID-19 , Cholesterol, LDL , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Quantitative Trait, Heritable , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Triglycerides , Apolipoprotein B-100/blood , Apolipoprotein B-100/genetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/genetics , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Triglycerides/blood , Triglycerides/genetics
5.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(6): 796-804, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Besides the well-accepted role in lipid metabolism, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) also seems to participate in host immune response against infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: We used a quantitative proteomic approach to test the hypothesis that alterations in HDL proteome associate with severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Based on clinical criteria, subjects (n=41) diagnosed with COVID-19 were divided into two groups: a group of subjects presenting mild symptoms and a second group displaying severe symptoms and requiring hospitalization. Using a proteomic approach, we quantified the levels of 29 proteins in HDL particles derived from these subjects. RESULTS: We showed that the levels of serum amyloid A 1 and 2 (SAA1 and SAA2, respectively), pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B (SFTPB), apolipoprotein F (APOF), and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4) were increased by more than 50% in hospitalized patients, independently of sex, HDL-C or triglycerides when comparing with subjects presenting only mild symptoms. Altered HDL proteins were able to classify COVID-19 subjects according to the severity of the disease (error rate 4.9%). Moreover, apolipoprotein M (APOM) in HDL was inversely associated with odds of death due to COVID-19 complications (odds ratio [OR] per 1-SD increase in APOM was 0.27, with 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.07 to 0.72, P=0.007). CONCLUSION: Our results point to a profound inflammatory remodeling of HDL proteome tracking with severity of COVID-19 infection. They also raise the possibility that HDL particles could play an important role in infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Adult , Apolipoproteins/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Middle Aged , Proteomics , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(17): 5525-5528, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417449

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is the first novel nucleoside-modified messenger ribonucleic acid (modRNA) vaccine to receive Emergency Use Authorization from the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. It is indicated to be used in patients ≥12 years-of-age as of May 25th, 2021, including populations with high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) burden. However, little is known about the potential impact this vaccine may have on serum lipoprotein levels in patients with familial hypercholesteremia (FH), who are predisposed to high ASCVD burden due to elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We present an interesting case where a patient with heterozygous FH (HeFH) and elevated triglycerides (TG)-controlled for years on medication and apheresis-experienced significantly elevated TG, one day after receiving his second Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine dose. It is not known whether this adverse event may be seen in other FH patients and may be worth assessing in such patients to determine the possibility of a rare adverse reaction from a COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/blood , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cholesterol/blood , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Triglycerides/blood , Vaccination
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1655-1665, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves protective functions in metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, and pulmonary diseases and is linked to COVID-19 pathology. The correlates of temporal changes in soluble ACE2 (sACE2) remain understudied. OBJECTIVES: We explored the associations of sACE2 with metabolic health and proteome dynamics during a weight loss diet intervention. METHODS: We analyzed 457 healthy individuals (mean ± SD age: 39.8 ± 6.6 y) with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 in the DIETFITS (Diet Intervention Examining the Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) study. Biochemical markers of metabolic health and 236 proteins were measured by Olink CVDII, CVDIII, and Inflammation I arrays at baseline and at 6 mo during the dietary intervention. We determined clinical and routine biochemical correlates of the diet-induced change in sACE2 (ΔsACE2) using stepwise linear regression. We combined feature selection models and multivariable-adjusted linear regression to identify protein dynamics associated with ΔsACE2. RESULTS: sACE2 decreased on average at 6 mo during the diet intervention. Stronger decline in sACE2 during the diet intervention was independently associated with female sex, lower HOMA-IR and LDL cholesterol at baseline, and a stronger decline in HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fat mass. Participants with decreasing HOMA-IR (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.03) and triglycerides (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.72, 4.26) had significantly higher odds for a decrease in sACE2 during the diet intervention than those without (P ≤ 0.0073). Feature selection models linked ΔsACE2 to changes in α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor, E-selectin, hydroxyacid oxidase 1, kidney injury molecule 1, tyrosine-protein kinase Mer, placental growth factor, thrombomodulin, and TNF receptor superfamily member 10B. ΔsACE2 remained associated with these protein changes in multivariable-adjusted linear regression. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in sACE2 during a weight loss diet intervention was associated with improvements in metabolic health, fat mass, and markers of angiotensin peptide metabolism, hepatic and vascular injury, renal function, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our findings may improve the risk stratification, prevention, and management of cardiometabolic complications.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01826591.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Body Composition , COVID-19/metabolism , Diet, Reducing , Obesity/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Weight Loss/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diet therapy , Oxidative Stress , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides/blood , Weight Reduction Programs
8.
Mol Immunol ; 138: 121-127, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347762

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infection threatening worldwide health as currently there exists no effective treatment strategy and vaccination programs are not publicly available yet. T lymphocytes play an important role in antiviral defenses. However, T cell frequency and functionality may be affected during the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total blood samples were collected from patients with mild and severe COVID-19, and the total lymphocyte number, as well as CD4+ and CD8 + T cells were assessed using flowcytometry. Besides, the expression of exhausted T cell markers was evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also investigated in the serum of all patients using enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the obtained results were analyzed along with laboratory serological reports. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lymphopenia and reduced CD4+ and CD8 + T cells, as well as high percentage of PD-1 expression by T cells, especially in severe cases. Serum secretion of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) were remarkably increased in patients with severe symptoms, as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, high levels of triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were correlated with the severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: Reduced number and function of T cells were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe patients. Meanwhile, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was increased as the disease developed. High level of serum IL-2R was also considered as a sign of lymphopenia. Additionally, hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia could be important prognostic factors in determining the severity of the infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Triglycerides/blood
9.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(3): 1055-1060, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300404

ABSTRACT

The role of triglycerides (TG) in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is controversial. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between TG levels and prognosis in COVID-19 patients and investigate the factors that affect TG. COVID-19 patients were divided into normal or high TG level groups. Their demographic data, medical history, signs and symptoms, laboratory results, and final clinical results were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 174 patients were included. TG level was 1.6 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.1-2.1) mmol/L for all patients; 2.2 (IQR: 1.8-2.7) mmol/L and 1.1 (IQR: 1.0-1.3) mmol/L in the high TG and control groups, respectively. Overall, 29 patients (16.7%) died during hospitalization, including 19 (23.1%) in the high TG group and 10 (11.5%) in the control group (absolute survival difference, 2.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2%-5.1%), log-rank χ 2 = 5.7, and p = .017). Serum ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were significantly higher in the high TG group compared to the control group. Pearson correlation analysis showed that TG was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose, leukocyte, serum ferritin, LDH, CRP, and IL-10 levels. Multiple regression showed that serum ferritin and IL-10 levels affected the TG level (R 2 = .095). The TG level in COVID-19 patients is correlated to serum ferritin and IL-10 levels, which reflects the activation of macrophages. It is suggested that COVID-19 patients be monitored for elevated TG as both a prognostic indicator and potential therapeutic target for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273495

ABSTRACT

Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are data aggregation tools based on computer technology that assist clinicians to promote healthy weight management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We carried out a randomised controlled 3-month trial to implement lifestyle modifications in breast cancer (BC) patients by means of CDSS during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 55 BC women at stages I-IIIA were enrolled. They were randomly assigned either to Control group, receiving general lifestyle advice (n = 28) or the CDSS group (n = 27), to whom the CDSS provided personalised dietary plans based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) together with physical activity guidelines. Food data, anthropometry, blood markers and quality of life were evaluated. At 3 months, higher adherence to MD was recorded in the CDSS group, accompanied by lower body weight (kg) and body fat mass percentage compared to control (p < 0.001). In the CDSS arm, global health/quality of life was significantly improved at the trial endpoint (p < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, LDL, triacylglycerols) of the CDSS arm remained unchanged (p > 0.05) but were elevated in the control arm at 3 months (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CDSS could be a promising tool to assist BC patients with lifestyle modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Diet, Mediterranean , Life Style , Obesity/prevention & control , Pandemics , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adult , Behavior Therapy , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Female , Health Status , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/etiology , Patient Compliance , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides/blood
11.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1291-1301, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258939

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The clinical and laboratory features of severe COVID-19 infection overlap with those of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hyperinflammatory disorder often associated with several viral infections. The clinical syndrome of HLH encompasses fever, organomegaly, cytopenias, hyperferritinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, raised transaminases, hypofibrinogenemia, absent natural killer (NK) cell activity, increased soluble CD25 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes. METHODS: We analyzed clinicopathological and laboratory features of thirteen patients with severe COVID-19 infection suspected to have HLH and found to have hemophagocytic histiocytosis on bone marrow examination (BME). RESULTS: Five of thirteen (38.46%) patients fulfilled five of eight HLH 2004 criteria and/or had a H-score ≥169. Three (23.08%) satisfied four of eight and remainder five (38.46%) satisfied three of eight HLH 2004 criteria. Fever, raised serum ferritin (13/13, 100%), transaminases (9/13, 69.23%), triglycerides (4/13, 30.76%), cytopenias (5/13, 38.46%), hypofibrinogenemia (2/13, 15.38%), and organomegaly (1/13, 7.69%) were observed in our patients. BME showed hemophagocytic histiocytosis without lymphocytosis in all. Contrary to HLH, lymphocytopenia (11/13, 84.61%), leukocytosis (7/13, 53.84%), neutrophilia (7/13, 53.84%), and hyperfibrinogenemia (7/13, 53.84%) were observed. Serum CRP, LDH, and plasma D-dimer were elevated in all, while serum albumin was decreased in 12 of 13 (92.3%) patients. Five patients recovered with high-dose pulsed corticosteroid therapy. CONCLUSION: The immune response associated with severe COVID-19 infection is similar to HLH with few differences. HLH should be suspected in severe COVID-19 infection although all patients may not fulfill required HLH diagnostic criteria. BME should be done in suspected cases so that appropriate therapy may be initiated early.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins/analysis , Bone Marrow Examination , COVID-19/immunology , Creatinine/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment , Triglycerides/blood
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 437-444, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe complications have shown comorbidities with cardiovascular-disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus; clinical disorders that share the common metabolic alterations of insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. A high triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tg/HDL c) ratio has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, metabolic syndrome and adverse cardiovascular events. Our aim in this study was to determine the association between different components of the lipid profile and particularly the Tg/HDL c ratio with severe complications like the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected demographic, clinical and biochemical data to conduct a cohort study in 43 adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at baseline and in the subsequent 15 days. Patients were subjected to a very similar treatment scheme with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. Descriptive statistics, variable association and logistic regression were applied to identify predictors of disease severity among elements and calculations from the lipid profile. RESULTS: Patients were aged 57 ± 14 years; 55.8% were male from which 75% required hospitalization and 44.2% were female who 58% were hospitalized. The most common comorbidities were type 2 diabetes mellitus (58%) and hypertension (40%). Hospitalized and critical care patients showed lower HDL c blood levels and increased Tg/HDL c ratio than those with outpatient management and mild/asymptomatic COVID-19. Tg/HDL c ratio correlated with variables of disease severity such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (r = 0.356; p < 0.05); National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS 2) (r = 0.495; p < 0.01); quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) (r = 0.538; p < 0.001); increased need of oxygen support (r = 0.447; p < 0.01) and requirement of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.378; p < 0.05). Tg/HDL c ratio had a negative correlation with partial oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SaO 2/FiO2) ratio (r = -0.332;p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis showed that Tg/HDL c ratio can predict increases in inflammatory factors like LDH (p < 0.01); ferritin (p < 0.01) and D-dimer (p < 0.001). Logistic regression model indicated that ≥7.45 Tg/HDL c ratio predicts requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 11.815, CI 1.832-76.186, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The Tg/HDLc ratio can be used as an early biochemical marker of COVID-19 severe prognosis with requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5474-5480, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219314

ABSTRACT

In this study, laboratorial parameters of hospitalized novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, who were complicated with severe pneumonia, were compared with the findings of cytokine storm developing in macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Severe pneumonia occurred as a result of cytokine storm in some patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and it is aimed to determine the precursive parameters in this situation. Also in this study, the aim is to identify laboratory criteria that predict worsening disease and ICU intensification, as well as the development of cytokine storm. This article comprises a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a single institution with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study includes 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. When they were considered as severe pneumonia patients, the clinic and laboratory parameters of this group are compared with H-score criteria. Patients are divided into two subgroups; patients with worsened symptoms who were transferred into tertiary ICU, and patients with stable symptoms followed in the clinic. For the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, after they become complicated with severe pneumonia, lymphocytopenia (55.3%), anemia (12.0%), thrombocytopenia (19.3%), hyperferritinemia (72.5%), hyperfibrinogenemia (63.7%) and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (90.8%), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) (31.3%), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) (20.7%) are detected. There were no significant changes in other parameters. Blood parameters between the pre-ICU period and the ICU period (in which their situation had been worsened and acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] was developed) were also compared. In the latter group lymphocyte levels were found significantly reduced (p = 0.01), and LDH, highly sensitive troponin (hs-troponin), procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no change in hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, ferritin, and liver function test levels, including patients who developed ARDS, similar to the cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. COVID-19 pneumonia has similar findings as hyperinflammatory syndromes but does not seem to have typical features as in cytokine storm developed in MAS/sHLH. In the severe patient group who has started to develop ARDS signs, a decrease in lymphocyte level in addition to the elevated LDH, hs-troponin, procalcitonin, and triglyceride levels can be a predictor in progression to ICU admission and could help in the planning of anti-cytokine therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/immunology , Anemia/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Hyperferritinemia/diagnosis , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/pathology , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/blood , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Triglycerides/blood , Troponin/blood
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7217, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160169

ABSTRACT

Lipids are indispensable in the SARS-CoV-2 infection process. The clinical significance of plasma lipid profile during COVID-19 has not been rigorously evaluated. We aim to ascertain the association of the plasma lipid profile with SARS-CoV-2 infection clinical evolution. Observational cross-sectional study including 1411 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and an available standard lipid profile prior (n: 1305) or during hospitalization (n: 297). The usefulness of serum total, LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol to predict the COVID-19 prognosis (severe vs mild) was analysed. Patients with severe COVID-19 evolution had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels before the infection. The lipid profile measured during hospitalization also showed that a severe outcome was associated with lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher triglycerides. HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were correlated with ferritin and D-dimer levels but not with CRP levels. The presence of atherogenic dyslipidaemia during the infection was strongly and independently associated with a worse COVID-19 infection prognosis. The low HDL cholesterol and high triglyceride concentrations measured before or during hospitalization are strong predictors of a severe course of the disease. The lipid profile should be considered as a sensitive marker of inflammation and should be measured in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621996445, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the factors associated with elevated fibrinogen (Fbg) levels in COVID-19 patients with and without diabetes (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: According to whether or not their glucose metabolism was impaired, COVID-19 patients were subdivided into 2 groups: 1) with DM and IFG, 2) control group. Their demographic data, medical history, signs and symptoms, laboratory results, and final clinical results were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: 28 patients (16.3%) died during hospitalization, including 21 (29.2%) in group 1 and 7 (7.0%) in group 2 (P < 0.001). Fbg levels in groups 1 and 2 were higher than the normal range, at 5.6 g/L (IQR 4.5-7.2 g/L) and 5.0 g/L (IQR 4.0-6.1 g/L), respectively (P = 0.009). Serum ferritin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), triglycerides (TG) were significantly increased in group 1 compared to those in the control. TG levels were 1.3 mmol/L in the control, while that in group 1 was 1.8 mmol/L. Multiple linear regression showed that the predicting factors of Fbg in the control group were serum ferritin and CRP, R2 = 0.295; in group 1, serum ferritin, CRP, and TG, R2 = 0.473. CONCLUSIONS: Fbg in all COVID-19 patients is related to serum ferritin and CRP involved in inflammation. Furthermore, in COVID-19 patients with insulin resistance, Fbg is linearly positively correlated with TG. This suggests that regulation of TG, insulin resistance, and inflammation may reduce hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients, especially those with insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Fasting/blood , Fibrinogen/analysis , Insulin Resistance , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/virology , Triglycerides/blood , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
16.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(2): 153-156, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus pneumonia (NCP, COVID-19) outbreak began in Wuhan in December 2019. The new coronavirus (2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)) can cause multiple organ damage, mainly to lung tissue, and induce inflammation in the body. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the changes of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level in patients with COVID-19 and assess its value in the evaluation and prognosis of this disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a cross-sectional retrospective study. Eighty-six severe COVID-19 patients, 132 non-severe COVID-19 patients and 76 healthy individuals (control group) were recruited to measure triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) using enzyme-coupled colorimetry. RESULTS: The serum HDL-C level in COVID-19 group was 1.02 ±0.28 mmol/L which was significantly lower than in control group (1.52 ±0.55 mmol/L) (p < 0.05). In addition, the serum HDL-C level in severe COVID-19 group was 0.83 ±1.67 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than that in non-severe COVID-19 group (1.15 ±0.27 mmol/L) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in HDL levels in patients with COVID-19 can reflect the severity of the disease and have a clinical significance in establishing the prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Triglycerides/blood
18.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(4): 431-436, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938570

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The strict rules applied in Italy during the recent COVID-19 pandemic, with the prohibition to attend any regular outdoor activity, are likely to influence the degree of metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We explored such putative effect immediately after the resolution of lockdown rules, in the absence of any variation of pharmacologic treatment. METHODS: One-hundred and fourteen patients with adequate metabolic control took part in this single-centre, prospective, observational study. The metabolic profile tested 1 week after the end of the lockdown was compared with the last value and the mean of the last three determinations performed before the pandemic emergency (from 6 months to 2 years before). RESULTS: After 8 weeks of lockdown, an increase of HbA1c > 0.3% (mean +0.7%) was observed in 26% of the participants; these were also characterized by a persistent elevation in serum triglycerides able to predict the worsening of glucose control. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown determined a relevant short-term metabolic worsening in approximately one-fourth of previously well-controlled type 2 diabetic individuals; pre-lockdown triglycerides were the only parameter able to predict such derangement of glucose control.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Quarantine , Adult , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Triglycerides/blood
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927563

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to nearly every continent, registering over 1,250,000 deaths worldwide. The effects of SARS-CoV-2 on host targets remains largely limited, hampering our understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis and the development of therapeutic strategies. The present study used a comprehensive untargeted metabolomic and lipidomic approach to capture the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that several circulating lipids acted as potential biomarkers, such as phosphatidylcholine 14:0_22:6 (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96), phosphatidylcholine 16:1_22:6 (AUC = 0.97), and phosphatidylethanolamine 18:1_20:4 (AUC = 0.94). Furthermore, triglycerides and free fatty acids, especially arachidonic acid (AUC = 0.99) and oleic acid (AUC = 0.98), were well correlated to the severity of the disease. An untargeted analysis of non-critical COVID-19 patients identified a strong alteration of lipids and a perturbation of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA degradation, arachidonic acid metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The severity of the disease was characterized by the activation of gluconeogenesis and the metabolism of porphyrins, which play a crucial role in the progress of the infection. In addition, our study provided further evidence for considering phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity as a potential key factor in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and a possible therapeutic target. To date, the present study provides the largest untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics analysis of plasma from COVID-19 patients and control groups, identifying new mechanisms associated with the host response to COVID-19, potential plasma biomarkers, and therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Metabolome , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acids/blood , Arachidonic Acid/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Citric Acid Cycle , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Gluconeogenesis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oleic Acid/blood , Pandemics , Phosphatidylcholines/blood , Phosphatidylethanolamines/blood , Phospholipases A2/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Triglycerides/blood
20.
Intern Med ; 59(22): 2945-2949, 2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789033

ABSTRACT

Treatment with tocilizumab (TCZ) to block interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling is predicted to mitigate cytokine release syndrome (CRS) caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the adverse effects of TCZ on patients with COVID-19 remain unclear. We herein report a patient with COVID-19 treated with TCZ who developed acute hypertriglyceridaemia. Despite favipiravir treatment, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in a 45-year-old patient with COVID-19; thus, TCZ was initiated. The triglyceride levels greatly increased after TCZ administration. Physicians should consider the negative impact of TCZ on the lipid profile in patients with COVID-19, although COVID-19-induced CRS itself may be an aggravating factor.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hypertriglyceridemia/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides/blood
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