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1.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785837

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis from a semi-arid region of Morocco were investigated. Fifteen compounds, including triterpenoids (1, 2, 7-12), macrocyclic diterpenes of ingol type (3-6) and aromatic derivatives (13-15), were isolated by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chiroptical methods. Compounds 1 and 3 are new natural compounds, and 2, 4-6, and 9-11 are newly isolated from propolis. Moreover, the full nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments of three of the known compounds (2, 4 and 5) were reported for the first time. Most of the compounds tested, especially the diterpenes 3, 4, and 6, exhibited very good activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the strongest activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4-64 µg/mL. The combination of isolated triterpenoids and ingol diterpenes was found to be characteristic for Euphorbia spp., and Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus could be suggested as a probable and new plant source of propolis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Diterpenes , Euphorbia , Propolis , Triterpenes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry , Euphorbia/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Morocco , Propolis/pharmacology , Triterpenes/chemistry
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534090

ABSTRACT

Twenty lupane type A-ring azepano-triterpenoids were synthesized from betulin and its related derivatives and their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mono-resistant MTB strains, and nontuberculous strains Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium avium were investigated in the framework of AToMIc (Anti-mycobacterial Target or Mechanism Identification Contract) realized by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID, National Institute of Health. Of all the tested triterpenoids, 17 compounds showed antitubercular activity and 6 compounds were highly active on the H37Rv wild strain (with MIC 0.5 µM for compound 7), out of which 4 derivatives also emerged as highly active compounds on the three mono-resistant MTB strains. Molecular docking corroborated with a machine learning drug-drug similarity algorithm revealed that azepano-triterpenoids have a rifampicin-like antitubercular activity, with compound 7 scoring the highest as a potential M. tuberculosis RNAP potential inhibitor. FIC testing demonstrated an additive effect of compound 7 when combined with rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol. Most compounds were highly active against M. avium with compound 14 recording the same MIC value as the control rifampicin (0.0625 µM). The antitubercular ex vivo effectiveness of the tested compounds on THP-1 infected macrophages is correlated with their increased cell permeability. The tested triterpenoids also exhibit low cytotoxicity and do not induce antibacterial resistance in MTB strains.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/chemistry , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Triterpenes/chemistry , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Design , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Rifampin/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/microbiology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463709

ABSTRACT

Cancer persists as a global challenge due to the extent to which conventional anticancer therapies pose high risks counterbalanced with their therapeutic benefit. Naturally occurring substances stand as an important safer alternative source for anticancer drug development. In the current study, a series of modified lupane and ursane derivatives was subjected to in vitro screening on the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel. Compounds 6 and 7 have been identified as highly active with GI50 values ranging from 0.03 µM to 5.9 µM (compound 6) and 0.18-1.53 µM (compound 7). Thus, these two compounds were further assessed in detail in order to identify a possible antiproliferative mechanism of action. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining revealed that both compounds induced nuclei condensation and overall cell morphological changes consistent with apoptotic cell death. rtPCR analysis showed that both compounds induced upregulation of proapoptotic Bak and Bad genes while downregulating Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 antiapoptotic genes. Molecular docking analysis revealed that both compounds exhibited high scores for Bcl-XL inhibition, while compound 7 showed higher in silico Bcl-XL inhibition potential as compared to the native inhibitor ATB-737, suggesting that compounds may induce apoptotic cell death through targeted antiapoptotic protein inhibition, as well.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Biological Products/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes/chemistry
4.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 45: 116329, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372898

ABSTRACT

Agrimonia pilosa (AP), Galla rhois (RG), and their mixture (APRG64) strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 by interfering with multiple steps of the viral life cycle including viral entry and replication. Furthermore, among 12 components identified in APRG64, three displayed strong antiviral activity, ursolic acid (1), quercetin (7), and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-ß-d-glucose (12). Molecular docking analysis showed these components to bind potently to the spike receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 and its variant B.1.1.7. Taken together, these findings indicate APRG64 as a potent drug candidate to treat SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
Agrimonia/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Quercetin/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Triterpenes/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
5.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(5): 956-972, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243283

ABSTRACT

An ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now the greatest threat to global public health. Herbal medicines and their derived natural products have drawn much attention in the treatment of COVID-19, but the detailed mechanisms by which natural products inhibit SARS-CoV-2 have not been elucidated. Here, we show that platycodin D (PD), a triterpenoid saponin abundant in Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), a dietary and medicinal herb commonly used in East Asia, effectively blocks the two main SARS-CoV-2 infection routes via lysosome- and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2)-driven entry. Mechanistically, PD prevents host entry of SARS-CoV-2 by redistributing membrane cholesterol to prevent membrane fusion, which can be reinstated by treatment with a PD-encapsulating agent. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of PD are recapitulated by the pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of NPC1, which is mutated in patients with Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) displaying disrupted membrane cholesterol distribution. Finally, readily available local foods or herbal medicines containing PG root show similar inhibitory effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study proposes that PD is a potent natural product for preventing or treating COVID-19 and that briefly disrupting the distribution of membrane cholesterol is a potential novel therapeutic strategy for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Humans , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Platycodon/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes/chemistry
6.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224074

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV-2 pandemic is still considered a global health disaster, and newly emerged variants keep growing. A number of promising vaccines have been recently developed as a protective measure; however, cost-effective treatments are also of great importance to support this critical situation. Previously, betulinic acid has shown promising antiviral activity against SARS CoV via targeting its main protease. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory potential of this compound together with three other triterpene congeners (i.e., ursolic acid, maslinic acid, and betulin) derived from olive leaves against the viral main protease (Mpro) of the currently widespread SARS CoV-2. Interestingly, betulinic, ursolic, and maslinic acids showed significant inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.22-14.55 µM), while betulin was far less active (IC50 = 89.67 µM). A comprehensive in-silico analysis (i.e., ensemble docking, molecular dynamic simulation, and binding-free energy calculation) was then performed to describe the binding mode of these compounds with the enzyme catalytic active site and determine the main essential structural features required for their inhibitory activity. Results presented in this communication indicated that this class of compounds could be considered as a promising lead scaffold for developing cost-effective anti-SARS CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Olea/chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Triterpenes/chemistry
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965309

ABSTRACT

We describe the potential anti coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) action of the methide quinone inhibitor, celastrol. The related methide quinone dexamethasone is, so far, among COVID-19 medications perhaps the most effective drug for patients with severe symptoms. We observe a parallel redox biology behavior between the antioxidant action of celastrol when scavenging the superoxide radical, and the adduct formation of celastrol with the main COVID-19 protease. The related molecular mechanism is envisioned using molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations. It proposes a covalent bond between the S(Cys145) amino acid thiolate and the celastrol A ring, assisted by proton transfers by His164 and His41 amino acids, and a π interaction from Met49 to the celastrol B ring. Specifically, celastrol possesses two moieties that are able to independently scavenge the superoxide radical: the carboxylic framework located at ring E, and the methide-quinone ring A. The latter captures the superoxide electron, releasing molecular oxygen, and is the feature of interest that correlates with the mechanism of COVID-19 inhibition. This unusual scavenging of the superoxide radical is described using density functional theory (DFT) methods, and is supported experimentally by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray diffraction.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tripterygium/chemistry , Triterpenes/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pentacyclic Triterpenes , Plant Roots/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Superoxides/metabolism , Triterpenes/chemistry
8.
Biomolecules ; 10(11)2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921178

ABSTRACT

Plants have been used as drugs to treat human disease for centuries. Ursonic acid (UNA) is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid extracted from certain medicinal herbs such as Ziziphus jujuba. Since the pharmacological effects and associated mechanisms of UNA are not well-known, in this work, we attempt to introduce the therapeutic potential of UNA with a comparison to ursolic acid (ULA), a well-known secondary metabolite, for beneficial effects. UNA has a keto group at the C-3 position, which may provide a critical difference for the varied biological activities between UNA and ULA. Several studies previously showed that UNA exerts pharmaceutical effects similar to, or stronger than, ULA, with UNA significantly decreasing the survival and proliferation of various types of cancer cells. UNA has potential to exert inhibitory effects in parasitic protozoa that cause several tropical diseases. UNA also exerts other potential effects, including antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. Of note, a recent study highlighted the suppressive potential of UNA against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Molecular modifications of UNA may enhance bioavailability, which is crucial for in vivo and clinical studies. In conclusion, UNA has promising potential to be developed in anticancer and antiprotozoan pharmaceuticals. In-depth investigations may increase the possibility of UNA being developed as a novel reagent for chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Plants/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Triterpenes/chemistry , Triterpenes/metabolism
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17090, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-867590

ABSTRACT

The triterpene oil squalene is an essential component of nanoemulsion vaccine adjuvants. It is most notably in the MF59 adjuvant, a component in some seasonal influenza vaccines, in stockpiled, emulsion-based adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccines, and with demonstrated efficacy for vaccines to other pandemic viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2. Squalene has historically been harvested from shark liver oil, which is undesirable for a variety of reasons. In this study, we have demonstrated the use of a Synthetic Biology (yeast) production platform to generate squalene and novel triterpene oils, all of which are equally as efficacious as vaccine adjuvants based on physiochemical properties and immunomodulating activities in a mouse model. These Synthetic Biology adjuvants also elicited similar IgG1, IgG2a, and total IgG levels compared to marine and commercial controls when formulated with common quadrivalent influenza antigens. Injection site morphology and serum cytokine levels did not suggest any reactogenic effects of the yeast-derived squalene or novel triterpenes, suggesting their safety in adjuvant formulations. These results support the advantages of yeast produced triterpene oils to include completely controlled growth conditions, just-in-time and scalable production, and the capacity to produce novel triterpenes beyond squalene.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Triterpenes/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Synthetic Biology/methods
10.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696191

ABSTRACT

Lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenes such as betulin and betulinic acid play an important role in the search for new therapies that would be effective in controlling viral infections. The aim of this study was the synthesis and evaluation of in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity for phosphate derivatives of 3-carboxyacylbetulin 3-5 as well as an in silico study of new compounds as potential ligands of the C-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid-spacer peptide 1 (CA-CTD-SP1) as a molecular target of HIV-1 maturation inhibitors. In vitro studies showed that 28-diethoxyphosphoryl-3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl)betulin (compound 3), the phosphate analog of bevirimat (betulinic acid derivative, HIV-1 maturation inhibitor), has IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) equal to 0.02 µM. Compound 3 inhibits viral replication at a level comparable to bevirimat and is also more selective (selectivity indices = 1250 and 967, respectively). Molecular docking was used to examine the probable interaction between the phosphate derivatives of 3-carboxyacylbetulin and C-terminal domain (CTD) of the HIV-1 capsid (CA)-spacer peptide 1 (SP1) fragment of Gag protein, designated as CTD-SP1. Compared with interactions between bevirimat (BVM) and the protein, an increased number of strong interactions between ligand 3 and the protein, generated by the phosphate group, were observed. These compounds might have the potential to also inhibit SARS-CoV2 proteins, in as far as the intrinsically imprecise docking scores suggest.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/chemical synthesis , Molecular Docking Simulation , Triterpenes/chemistry , gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Phosphates/chemistry , Protein Binding , Succinates/chemistry , Succinates/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry
11.
Comput Biol Med ; 124: 103936, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679767

ABSTRACT

Virtual screening of phytochemicals was performed through molecular docking, simulations, in silico ADMET and drug-likeness prediction to identify the potential hits that can inhibit the effects of SARS-CoV-2. Considering the published literature on medicinal importance, 154 phytochemicals with analogous structure from limonoids and triterpenoids were selected to search potential inhibitors for the five therapeutic protein targets of SARS-CoV-2, i.e., 3CLpro (main protease), PLpro (papain-like protease), SGp-RBD (spike glycoprotein-receptor binding domain), RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). The in silico computational results revealed that the phytochemicals such as glycyrrhizic acid, limonin, 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgedunin, maslinic acid, corosolic acid, obacunone and ursolic acid were found to be effective against the target proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The protein-ligand interaction study revealed that these phytochemicals bind with the amino acid residues at the active site of the target proteins. Therefore, the core structure of these potential hits can be used for further lead optimization to design drugs for SARS-CoV-2. Also, the medicinal plants containing these phytochemicals like licorice, neem, tulsi, citrus and olives can be used to formulate suitable therapeutic approaches in traditional medicines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Limonins/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Limonins/chemistry , Limonins/pharmacokinetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacokinetics , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Triterpenes/chemistry , Triterpenes/pharmacokinetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/drug effects , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/drug effects
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