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Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3910, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697036


SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, has rapidly spread across the world, highlighting its high transmissibility, but the underlying morphogenesis and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the replication dynamics, cell tropism and morphogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in organotypic human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently and infects both ciliated and secretory cells in HAE cultures. In comparison, HCoV-NL63 replicates to lower titers and is only detected in ciliated cells. SARS-CoV-2 shows a similar morphogenetic process as other coronaviruses but causes plaque-like cytopathic effects in HAE cultures. Cell fusion, apoptosis, destruction of epithelium integrity, cilium shrinking and beaded changes are observed in the plaque regions. Taken together, our results provide important insights into SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism, replication and morphogenesis.

Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Morphogenesis/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory System/pathology , Tropism , Virus Replication
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(1): 125-136.e7, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610467


SARS-CoV-2 has caused the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need for physiological models to study SARS-CoV-2 infection using human disease-relevant cells. COVID-19 pathophysiology includes respiratory failure but involves other organ systems including gut, liver, heart, and pancreas. We present an experimental platform comprised of cell and organoid derivatives from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). A Spike-enabled pseudo-entry virus infects pancreatic endocrine cells, liver organoids, cardiomyocytes, and dopaminergic neurons. Recent clinical studies show a strong association with COVID-19 and diabetes. We find that human pancreatic beta cells and liver organoids are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, further validated using adult primary human islets and adult hepatocyte and cholangiocyte organoids. SARS-CoV-2 infection caused striking expression of chemokines, as also seen in primary human COVID-19 pulmonary autopsy samples. hPSC-derived cells/organoids provide valuable models for understanding the cellular responses of human tissues to SARS-CoV-2 infection and for disease modeling of COVID-19.

Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Models, Biological , Organoids/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tropism , Animals , Autopsy , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Hepatocytes/pathology , Hepatocytes/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Liver/pathology , Mice , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreas/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Virus Internalization
J Emerg Med ; 59(1): 137-140, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209753


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been linked to ocular signs and symptoms in several case reports. Research has demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is spread primarily through close contact via respiratory droplets, but there is the possibility for ocular transmission, with the conjunctiva as a conduit as well as a source of infection. DISCUSSION: Ocular manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 include follicular conjunctivitis, and have been repeatedly noted as an initial or subsequent symptom of COVID-19-positive patients. Particularly in patients with ocular manifestations, there is evidence that the virus may present in tears, based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival swab samples via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The virus may therefore be transmittable from the ocular surface to a new host via contact with the ocular mucosa, tears, or subsequent fomites. CONCLUSIONS: All health care professionals should ask patients about ocular symptoms consistent with SARS-CoV-2, and use eye protection such as goggles or face shields as part of the standard personal protective equipment for high-risk patients in addition to wearing of masks by both the patient and provider, and should consider tears to be potentially infectious.

Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Tropism