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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(1): e022010, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599177

ABSTRACT

Background Myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 is associated with increased mortality during index hospitalization; however, the relationship to long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. This study assessed the relationship between myocardial injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T level) during index hospitalization for COVID-19 and longer-term outcomes. Methods and Results This is a prospective cohort of patients who were hospitalized at a single center between March and May 2020 with SARS-CoV-2. Cardiac biomarkers were systematically collected. Outcomes were adjudicated and stratified on the basis of myocardial injury. The study cohort includes 483 patients who had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T data during their index hospitalization. During index hospitalization, 91 (18.8%) died, 70 (14.4%) had thrombotic complications, and 126 (25.6%) had cardiovascular complications. By 12 months, 107 (22.2%) died. During index hospitalization, 301 (62.3%) had cardiac injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T≧14 ng/L); these patients had 28.6%, 32.2%, and 33.2% mortality during index hospitalization, at 6 months, and at 12 months, respectively, compared with 4.1%, 4.9%, and 4.9% mortality for those with low-level positive troponin and 0%, 0%, and 0% for those with undetectable troponin. Of 392 (81.2%) patients who survived the index hospitalization, 94 (24%) had at least 1 readmission within 12 months, of whom 61 (65%) had myocardial injury during the index hospitalization. Of 377 (96%) patients who were alive and had follow-up after the index hospitalization, 211 (56%) patients had a documented, detailed clinical assessment at 6 months. A total of 78 of 211 (37.0%) had ongoing COVID-19-related symptoms; 34 of 211 (16.1%) had neurocognitive decline, 8 of 211 (3.8%) had increased supplemental oxygen requirements, and 42 of 211 (19.9%) had worsening functional status. Conclusions Myocardial injury during index hospitalization for COVID-19 was associated with increased mortality and may predict who are more likely to have postacute sequelae of COVID-19. Among patients who survived their index hospitalization, the incremental mortality through 12 months was low, even among troponin-positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Troponin T/blood
2.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
3.
J Immunol Methods ; 497: 113108, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330965

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease has remained the world's biggest killer for 30 years. To aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients suffering cardiovascular-related disease accurate detection methods are essential. For over 20 years, the cardiac-specific troponins, I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), have acted as sensitive and specific biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis of various types of heart diseases. Various cardiovascular complications were commonly detected in patients with COVID-19, where cTn elevation is detectable, which suggested potential prognostic value of cTn in COVID-19-infected patients. Detection of these biomarkers circulating in the bloodstream is generally facilitated by immunoassays employing cTnI- and/or cTnT-specific antibodies. While several anti-troponin assays are commercially available, there are still obstacles to overcome to achieve optimal troponin detection. Such obstacles include the proteolytic degradation of N and C terminals on cTnI, epitope occlusion of troponin binding-sites by the cTnI/cTnT complex, cross reactivity of antibodies with skeletal troponins or assay interference caused by human anti-species antibodies. Therefore, further research into multi-antibody based platforms, multi-epitope targeting and rigorous validation of immunoassays is required to ensure accurate measurements. Moreover, in combination with various technical advances (e.g. microfluidics), antibody-based troponin detection systems can be more sensitive and rapid for incorporation into portable biosensor systems to be used at point-of care.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Troponin I/immunology , Troponin T/immunology
4.
Clin Biochem ; 95: 41-48, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has variable clinical presentation, from asymptomatic to severe disease leading to death. Biochemical markers may help with management and prognostication of COVID-19 patients; however, their utility is still under investigation. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate, and high sensitivity troponin T (TnT) levels in 67 patients who were admitted to a Canadian tertiary care centre for management of COVID-19. Logistic, cause-specific Cox proportional-hazards, and accelerated failure time regression modelling were performed to assess the associations of initial analyte concentrations with in-hospital death and length of stay in hospital; joint modelling was performed to assess the associations of the concentrations over the course of the hospital stay with in-hospital death. RESULTS: Initial TnT and CRP concentrations were associated with length of stay in hospital. Eighteen patients died (27%), and the median initial TnT concentration was higher in patients who died (55 ng/L) than those who lived (16 ng/L; P < 0.0001). There were no survivors with an initial TnT concentration > 64 ng/L. While the initial TnT concentration was predictive of death, later measurements were not. Only CRP had prognostic value with both the initial and subsequent measurements: a 20% increase in the initial CRP concentration was associated with a 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1-29%) increase in the odds of death, and the hazard of death increased 14% (95% CI: 5-25%) for each 20% increase in the current CRP value. While the initial lactate concentration was not predictive of death, subsequent measurements were. CONCLUSION: CRP, lactate and TnT were associated with poorer outcomes and appear to be useful biochemical markers for monitoring COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Hospitalization/trends , Lactic Acid/blood , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Troponin T/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biochemical Phenomena/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Blood Gas Analysis/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Circ J ; 85(6): 944-947, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported elevated troponin levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, so we investigated myocardial damage by measuring high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) levels and analyzed the relationship with comorbidities.Methods and Results:Of 209 patients who recently recovered from COVID-19, 65% had an elevated hsTnT level that was higher than levels in patients with acute phase infection despite most patients (79%) having a mild illness. The hsTnT levels correlated with disease severity, sex, comorbidities, and ACEi and ARB use. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial damage occurs in the recovery phase of COVID-19, and its evaluation, regardless of patient age, should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Heart Diseases/blood , Troponin T/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
7.
Clin Chem ; 67(8): 1080-1089, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) for risk-stratification in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational, US-based study of COVID-19 patients undergoing hs-cTnT. Outcomes included short-term mortality (in-hospital and 30-days post-discharge) and a composite of major adverse events, including respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrest, and shock within the index presentation and/or mortality during the index hospitalization or within 30-days post-discharge. RESULTS: Among 367 COVID-19 patients undergoing hs-cTnT, myocardial injury was identified in 46%. They had a higher risk for mortality (20% vs 12%, P < 0.0001; unadjusted HR 4.44, 95% CI 2.13-9.25, P < 0.001) and major adverse events (35% vs. 11%, P < 0.0001; unadjusted OR 4.29, 95% CI 2.50-7.40, P < 0.0001). Myocardial injury was associated with major adverse events (adjusted OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.00-7.36, P < 0.0001) but not mortality. Baseline (adjusted OR 1.003, 95% CI 1.00-1.007, P = 0.047) and maximum (adjusted OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001-1.009, P = 0.0012) hs-cTnT were independent predictors of major adverse events. Most (95%) increases were due to myocardial injury, with 5% (n = 8) classified as type 1 or 2 myocardial infarction. A single hs-cTnT <6 ng/L identified 26% of patients without mortality, with a 94.9% (95% CI 87.5-98.6) negative predictive value and 93.1% sensitivity (95% CI 83.3-98.1) for major adverse events in those presenting to the ED. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial injury is frequent and prognostic in COVID-19. While most hs-cTnT increases are modest and due to myocardial injury, they have important prognostic implications. A single hs-cTnT <6 ng/L at presentation may facilitate the identification of patients with a favorable prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Troponin T/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6515, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147151

ABSTRACT

High sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) is a strong predictor of adverse outcome during SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, its determinants remain partially unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between severity of inflammatory response/coagulation abnormalities and hsTnT in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We then explored the relevance of these pathways in defining mortality and complications risk and the potential effects of the treatments to attenuate such risk. In this single-center, prospective, observational study we enrolled 266 consecutive patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Primary endpoint was in-hospital COVID-19 mortality. hsTnT, even after adjustment for confounders, was associated with mortality. D-dimer and CRP presented stronger associations with hsTnT than PaO2. Changes of hsTnT, D-dimer and CRP were related; but only D-dimer was associated with mortality. Moreover, low molecular weight heparin showed attenuation of the mortality in the whole population, particularly in subjects with higher hsTnT. D-dimer possessed a strong relationship with hsTnT and mortality. Anticoagulation treatment showed greater benefits with regard to mortality. These findings suggest a major role of SARS-CoV-2 coagulopathy in hsTnT elevation and its related mortality in COVID-19. A better understanding of the mechanisms related to COVID-19 might pave the way to therapy tailoring in these high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Diseases/etiology , Hemodynamics , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin T/blood
9.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(6): 761-769, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138068

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critically ill Covid-19 pneumonia patients are likely to develop the sequence of acute pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular (RV) strain, and eventually RV failure due to known pathophysiology (endothelial inflammation plus thrombo-embolism) that promotes increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of acute pulmonary hypertension (aPH) as per established trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) criteria in Covid-19 patients receiving intensive care and to explore whether short-term outcomes are affected by the presence of aPH. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for patients treated in the intensive care units at a tertiary university hospital over a month. The presence of aPH on the TTE was noted, and plasma NTproBNP and troponin were measured as markers of cardiac failure and myocardial injury, respectively. Follow-up data were collected 21 d after the performance of TTE. RESULTS: In total, 26 of 67 patients (39%) had an assessed systolic pulmonary artery pressure of > 35 mmHg (group aPH), meeting the TTE definition of aPH. NTproBNP levels (median [range]: 1430 [102-30 300] vs. 470 [45-29 600] ng L-1 ; P = .0007), troponin T levels (63 [22-352] vs. 15 [5-407] ng L-1 ; P = .0002), and the 21-d mortality rate (46% vs. 7%; P < .001) were substantially higher in patients with aPH compared to patients not meeting aPH criteria. CONCLUSION: TTE-defined acute pulmonary hypertension was frequently observed in severely ill Covid-19 patients. Furthermore, aPH was linked to biomarker-defined myocardial injury and cardiac failure, as well as an almost sevenfold increase in 21-d mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sweden , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Troponin T/blood
10.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 20(1): 44-52, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135914

ABSTRACT

Due to the lack of prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies on inflammation and cardiovascular involvement, the exact mechanism of cardiac injury among patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains uncertain. It was demonstrated that there is a high and significantly positive linear correlation between troponin T and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, biomarkers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation, respectively. Cardiac injury and inflammation is a relatively common association among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and it is related to higher risk of in-hospital mortality. In our literature search, we identified several potential mechanisms of myocardial tissue damage, namely, coronavirus-associated acute myocarditis, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding affinity to the virus Spike protein, increased cytokine secretion, and hypoxia-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Elucidation of the disease pathogenesis and prospective histopathological studies are crucial for future proper treatment in case of renewed outbreaks. Of interest is that with hundred of thousands of bodies available for autopsy studies, no prospective investigation has been reported so far. Strong efforts and continued research of the cardiovascular complications and identification of risk factors for poor prognosis in COVID-19 are steadily needed. The high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, its monumental economic burden and social impact, the despair of a new pandemic outbreak, and the thread of potential utilization of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as biologic weapons make it a preponderant necessity to better comprehend the therapeutic management of this lethal disease. Emerging as an acute infectious disease, COVID-19 may become a chronic epidemic because of genetic recombination. Therefore, we should be ready for the reemergence of COVID-19 or other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocarditis/mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin T/blood
11.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(6): e13532, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is a common finding in COVID-19 strongly associated with severity. We analysed the prevalence and prognostic utility of myocardial injury, characterized by elevated cardiac troponin, in a large population of COVID-19 patients, and further evaluated separately the role of troponin T and I. METHODS: This is a multicentre, retrospective observational study enrolling patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized in 32 Spanish hospitals. Elevated troponin levels were defined as values above the sex-specific 99th percentile upper reference limit, as recommended by international guidelines. Thirty-day mortality was defined as endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 1280 COVID-19 patients were included in this study, of whom 187 (14.6%) died during the hospitalization. Using a nonspecific sex cut-off, elevated troponin levels were found in 344 patients (26.9%), increasing to 384 (30.0%) when a sex-specific cut-off was used. This prevalence was significantly higher (42.9% vs 21.9%; P < .001) in patients in whom troponin T was measured in comparison with troponin I. Sex-specific elevated troponin levels were significantly associated with 30-day mortality, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 3.00 for total population, 3.20 for cardiac troponin T and 3.69 for cardiac troponin I. CONCLUSION: In this multicentre study, myocardial injury was a common finding in COVID-19 patients. Its prevalence increased when a sex-specific cut-off and cardiac troponin T were used. Elevated troponin was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality, irrespective of cardiac troponin assay and cut-offs to detect myocardial injury. Hence, the early measurement of cardiac troponin may be useful for risk stratification in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Mortality , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099755

ABSTRACT

We report a case of cardiac injury in a 46-year-old man affected by COVID-19. The patient presented with shortness of breath and fever. ECG revealed sinus tachycardia with ventricular extrasystoles and T-wave inversion in anterior leads. Troponin T and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were elevated. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severely reduced systolic function with an estimated left ventricle ejection fraction of 30%. A nasopharingeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. On day 6, 11 days after onset of symptoms, the patient deteriorated clinically with new chest pain and type 1 respiratory failure. Treatment with colchicine 0.5 mg 8-hourly resulted in rapid clinical resolution. This case report highlights how cardiac injury can dominate the clinical picture in COVID-19 infection. The role of colchicine therapy should be further studied to determine its usefulness in reducing myocardial and possibly lung parenchymal inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/virology , Chest Pain/virology , Echocardiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Systole , Troponin T/blood
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 129-136, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091966

ABSTRACT

Cardiac Troponin (hs-TnT) elevation has been reported in unselected patients hospitalized with COVID-19 however the mechanism and relationship with mortality remain unclear. Consecutive patients admitted to a high-volume intensive care unit (ICU) in London with severe COVID-19 pneumonitis were included if hs-TnT concentration at admission was known. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis performed, with cohorts classified a priori by multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN). 277 patients were admitted during a 7-week period in 2020; 176 were included (90% received invasive ventilation). hs-TnT at admission was 16.5 (9.0 to 49.3) ng/L, 56% had concentrations >ULN. 56 patients (31.8%) died during the index admission. Admission hs-TnT level was lower in survivors (12.0 (8.0-27.8) vs 28.5 (14.0 to 81.0) ng/L, p = 0.001). Univariate predictors of mortality were age, APACHE-II Score and admission hs-TnT (HR 1.73, p = 0.007). By multivariate regression, only age (HR 1.33, CI: 1.16.to 1.51, p < 0.01) and admission hs-TnT (HR 1.94, CI: 1.22 to 3.10, p = 0.006) remained predictive. Survival was significantly lower when admission hs-TnT was >ULN (log-rank p-value<0.001). Peak hs-TnT was higher in those who died but was not predictive of death after adjustment for other factors. In conclusion, in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis, the hs-TnT level at admission is a powerful independent predictor of the likelihood of surviving to discharge from ICU. In most cases, hs-TnT elevation does not represent major myocardial injury but acts as a sensitive integrated biomarker of global stress. Whether stratification based on admission Troponin level could be used to guide prognostication and management warrants further evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Troponin T/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(9): e019756, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088348

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 may present with a variety of cardiovascular manifestations, and elevations of biomarkers reflecting myocardial injury and stress are prevalent. SARS-CoV-2 has been found in cardiac tissue, and myocardial dysfunction post-COVID-19 may occur. However, the association between SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma and cardiovascular biomarkers remains unknown. Methods and Results COVID MECH (COVID-19 Mechanisms) was a prospective, observational study enrolling consecutive, hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and symptoms of COVID-19. Biobank plasma samples used to measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA and cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers were collected in 123 patients at baseline, and in 96 patients (78%) at day 3. Patients were aged 60±15 (mean ± SD) years, 71 (58%) were men, 68 (55%) were White, and 31 (25%) received mechanical ventilation during hospitalization. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in plasma from 48 (39%) patients at baseline. Patients with viremia were more frequently men, had more diabetes mellitus, and lower oxygen saturation. Patients with viremia had higher concentrations of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and ferritin (all <0.001), but comparable levels of cTnT (cardiac troponin T; P=0.09), NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; P=0.27) and D-dimer (P=0.67) to patients without viremia. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in plasma at either baseline or day 3 in 50 (52%) patients, and these patients experienced increase from baseline to day 3 in NT-proBNP and D-dimer concentrations, while there was no change in cTnT. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 viremia was associated with increased concentrations of inflammatory, but not cardiovascular biomarkers. NT-proBNP and D-dimer, but not cTnT, increased from baseline to day 3 in patients with viremia. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Inflammation/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Norway/epidemiology , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Troponin T/blood , Viremia/diagnosis , Viremia/etiology , Viremia/immunology
16.
Infection ; 49(3): 491-500, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053123

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-COV-2 infection can develop into a multi-organ disease. Although pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19-associated myocardial injury have been studied throughout the pandemic course in 2019, its morphological characterisation is still unclear. With this study, we aimed to characterise echocardiographic patterns of ventricular function in patients with COVID-19-associated myocardial injury. METHODS: We prospectively assessed 32 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and presence or absence of elevated high sensitive troponin T (hsTNT+ vs. hsTNT-) by comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) and strain echocardiography. RESULTS: A minority (34.3%) of patients had normal ventricular function, whereas 65.7% had left and/or right ventricular dysfunction defined by impaired left and/or right ventricular ejection fraction and strain measurements. Concomitant biventricular dysfunction was common in hsTNT+ patients. We observed impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with myocardial injury (-13.9% vs. -17.7% for hsTNT+ vs. hsTNT-, p = 0.005) but preserved LV ejection fraction (52% vs. 59%, p = 0.074). Further, in these patients, right ventricular (RV) systolic function was impaired with lower RV ejection fraction (40% vs. 49%, p = 0.001) and reduced RV free wall strain (-18.5% vs. -28.3%, p = 0.003). Myocardial dysfunction partially recovered in hsTNT + patients after 52 days of follow-up. In particular, LV-GLS and RV-FWS significantly improved from baseline to follow-up (LV-GLS: -13.9% to -16.5%, p = 0.013; RV-FWS: -18.5% to -22.3%, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19-associated myocardial injury, comprehensive 3D and strain echocardiography revealed LV dysfunction by GLS and RV dysfunction, which partially resolved at 2-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID-19 Registry of the LMU University Hospital Munich (CORKUM), WHO trial ID DRKS00021225.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction/pathology
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020900

ABSTRACT

Here we present the case of a 37-year-old previously healthy man who developed fever, headache and a unilateral, painful neck swelling while working offshore. He had no known contact with anyone with COVID-19; however, due to the ongoing pandemic, a nasopharyngeal swab was performed, which was positive for the virus. After transfer to hospital for assessment his condition rapidly deteriorated, requiring admission to intensive care for COVID-19 myocarditis. One week after discharge he re-presented with unilateral facial nerve palsy. Our case highlights an atypical presentation of COVID-19 and the multifaceted clinical course of this still poorly understood disease.


Subject(s)
Alkalosis, Respiratory/blood , Bell Palsy/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Adult , Alkalosis, Respiratory/etiology , Blood Gas Analysis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography , Edema/etiology , Electrocardiography , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/physiopathology , Lymphadenitis/etiology , Lymphadenitis/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/therapy , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Neck , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin T/blood , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Circulation ; 142(22): 2128-2137, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a strong prognostic marker in sepsis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prognostic value of GDF-15 in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. METHODS: Consecutive, hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and symptoms of COVID-19 were enrolled in the prospective, observational COVID Mechanisms Study. Biobank samples were collected at baseline, day 3 and day 9. The primary end point was admission to the intensive care unit or death during hospitalization, and the prognostic performance of baseline and serial GDF-15 concentrations were compared with that of established infectious disease and cardiovascular biomarkers. RESULTS: Of the 123 patients enrolled, 35 (28%) reached the primary end point; these patients were older, more often had diabetes, and had lower oxygen saturations and higher National Early Warning Scores on baseline. Baseline GDF-15 concentrations were elevated (>95th percentile in age-stratified healthy individuals) in 97 (79%), and higher concentrations were associated with detectable SARS-CoV-2 viremia and hypoxemia (both P<0.001). Patients reaching the primary end point had higher concentrations of GDF-15 (median, 4225 [IQR, 3197-5972] pg/mL versus median, 2187 [IQR, 1344-3620] pg/mL, P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.70-0.86). The association between GDF-15 and the primary end point persisted after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, previous myocardial infarction, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation (P<0.001) and was superior and incremental to interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, D-dimer, cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Increase in GDF-15 from baseline to day 3 was also greater in patients reaching the primary end point (median, 1208 [IQR, 0-4305] pg/mL versus median, -86 [IQR, -322 to 491] pg/mL, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 is elevated in the majority of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and higher concentrations are associated with SARS-CoV-2 viremia, hypoxemia, and worse outcome. The prognostic value of GDF-15 was additional and superior to established cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Growth Differentiation Factor 15/analysis , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Troponin T/blood
19.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(5): 591-597, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The information on electrocardiographic features of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. Our aim was to determine if baseline electrocardiographic features of hospitalized COVID-19 patients are associated with markers of myocardial injury and clinical outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective, single center cohort study, we included 223 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Clinical, electrocardiographic and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Primary composite endpoint of mortality, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, or admission to the intensive care unit was assessed. RESULTS: Forty patients (17.9%) reached the primary composite endpoint. Patients with the primary composite endpoint were more likely to have wide QRS complex (>120 ms) and lateral ST-T segment abnormality. The multivariable Cox regression showed increasing odds of the primary composite endpoint associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio 7.76, 95% CI 2.67-22.59; p < 0.001), acute cardiac injury (odds ratio 3.14, 95% CI 1.26-7.99; p = 0.016), high flow oxygen therapy (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.05-5.62; p = 0.037) and QRS duration longer than >120 ms (odds ratio 3.62, 95% CI 1.39-9.380; p = 0.008) Patients with a wide QRS complex (>120 ms) had significantly higher median level of troponin T and pro-BNP than those without it. Patients with abnormality of lateral ST-T segment had significantly higher median level of troponin T and pro-BNP than patients without. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of QRS duration longer than 120 ms and lateral ST-T segment abnormality were associated with worse clinical outcomes and higher levels of myocardial injury biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Heart Injuries , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Troponin T/blood , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Injuries/blood , Heart Injuries/mortality , Heart Injuries/physiopathology , Heart Injuries/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
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