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1.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 39(3): 105-113, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859575

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular compromise in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) does not necessarily present with the classic symptoms described in myocarditis. There is growing evidence demonstrating subclinical cardiovascular compromise in the context of the intense inflammation unleashed, the cytokine storm involved, the baseline prothrombotic state, and the consequent endothelial dysfunction. We set out to analyse whether Troponin-T (TT) and the amino-terminal fraction of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) determined at hospital admission, are related to mortality during the hospitalization of these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analytical, observational, retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study. It included subjects with COVID-19 hospitalized for moderate-severe illness, from 20/03/20 to 15/11/20. The TT and NT-proBNP obtained in the first 24 hours from admission were analysed. Altered TT was considered if ≥.014 ng/dl and altered NT-proBNP if ≥300 pg/ml. RESULTS: One hundred and eight subjects were included, 63.2% men, age 51.5 years (59-43), 28% were admitted to the Critical Unit and 25% died. The group with elevated TT presented higher mortality (OR = 3.1; 95%CI = 1.10-8.85; p = .02). The group with elevated NT-proBNP also show higher mortality (OR = 3.47; 95%CI = 1.21-9.97; p = .01). On multivariate analysis, only NT-proBNP ≥300 pg/ml remained an independent risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: NT-proBNP levels ≥300 pg/ml at admission in patients with moderate-severe COVID-19 were associated with higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Peptide Fragments , Troponin T , Biomarkers/blood , Brain , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Troponin T/blood
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667343

ABSTRACT

Cardiomyocyte injury and troponin T elevation has been reported within COVID-19 patients and are associated with a worse prognosis. Limited data report this association among COVID-19 pregnant patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the association between troponin T levels in severe COVID-19 pregnant women and risk of viral sepsis, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or maternal death. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort of all obstetrics emergency admissions from a Mexican National Institute. All pregnant women diagnosed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for SARS-CoV-2 infection between October 2020 and May 2021 were included. Clinical data were collected, and routine blood samples were obtained at hospital admission. Seric troponin T was measured at admission. RESULTS: From 87 included patients, 31 (35.63%) had severe COVID-19 pneumonia, and 6 (6.89%) maternal deaths. ROC showed a significant relationship between troponin T and maternal death (AUC 0.979, CI 0.500-1.000). At a cutoff point of 7 ng/mL the detection rate for severe pneumonia was 83.3% (95%CI: 0.500-0.100) at 10% false-positive rate. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pregnant women with elevated levels of troponin T present a higher risk of death and severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Maternal Mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Troponin T/blood , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 167: 125-132, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633476

ABSTRACT

Data concerning the combined prognostic role of natriuretic peptide (NP) and troponin in patients with COVID-19 are lacking. The aim of the study is to evaluate the combined prognostic value of NPs and troponin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. From March 1, 2020 to April 9, 2020, consecutive patients with COVID-19 and available data on cardiac biomarkers at admission were recruited. Patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome were excluded. Troponin levels were defined as elevated when greater than the 99th percentile of normal values. NPs were considered elevated if above the limit for ruling in acute heart failure (HF). A total of 341 patients were included in this study, mean age 68 ± 13 years, 72% were men. During a median follow-up period of 14 days, 81 patients (24%) died. In the Cox regression analysis, patients with elevated both NPs and troponin levels had higher risk of death compared with those with normal levels of both (hazard ratio 2.94; 95% confidence interval 1.31 to 6.64; p = 0.009), and this remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, oxygen saturation, HF history, and chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, NPs provided risk stratification also in patients with normal troponin values (hazard ratio 2.86; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 6.72; p = 0.016 with high NPs levels). These data show the combined prognostic role of troponin and NPs in COVID-19 patients. NPs value may be helpful in identifying patients with a worse prognosis among those with normal troponin values. Further, NPs' cut-point used for diagnosis of acute HF has a predictive role in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hospital Mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart Failure/blood , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(6): 980-993, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613453

ABSTRACT

Biomarkers are increasingly recognized to have significant clinical value in early identification and progression of various cardiovascular diseases. There are many heart conditions, such as congestive heart failure (CHF), ischemic heart diseases (IHD), and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), and cardiac remodeling, in which the severity of the cardiac pathology can be mirrored through these cardiac biomarkers. From the emergency department (ED) evaluation of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with cardiac marker Troponin to the diagnosis of chronic conditions like Heart Failure (HF) with natriuretic peptides, like B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-B- type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) and mid regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR- proANP), their use is continuously increasing. Their clinical importance has led to the discovery of newer biomarkers, such as the soluble source of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), galectin-3 (Gal-3), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), and various micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs). Since cardiac pathophysiology involves a complex interplay between inflammatory, genetic, neurohormonal, and biochemical levels, these biomarkers could be enzymes, hormones, and biologic substances showing cardiac injury, stress, and malfunction. Therefore, multi-marker approaches with different combinations of novel cardiac biomarkers, and continual assessment of cardiac biomarkers are likely to improve cardiac risk prediction, stratification, and overall patient wellbeing. On the other hand, these biomarkers may reflect coexisting or isolated disease processes in different organ systems other than the cardiovascular system. Therefore, knowledge of cardiac biomarkers is imperative. In this article, we have reviewed the role of cardiac biomarkers and their use in the diagnosis and prognosis of various cardiovascular diseases from different investigations conducted in recent years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Animals , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin T/blood
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(1): e022010, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599177

ABSTRACT

Background Myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 is associated with increased mortality during index hospitalization; however, the relationship to long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. This study assessed the relationship between myocardial injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T level) during index hospitalization for COVID-19 and longer-term outcomes. Methods and Results This is a prospective cohort of patients who were hospitalized at a single center between March and May 2020 with SARS-CoV-2. Cardiac biomarkers were systematically collected. Outcomes were adjudicated and stratified on the basis of myocardial injury. The study cohort includes 483 patients who had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T data during their index hospitalization. During index hospitalization, 91 (18.8%) died, 70 (14.4%) had thrombotic complications, and 126 (25.6%) had cardiovascular complications. By 12 months, 107 (22.2%) died. During index hospitalization, 301 (62.3%) had cardiac injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T≧14 ng/L); these patients had 28.6%, 32.2%, and 33.2% mortality during index hospitalization, at 6 months, and at 12 months, respectively, compared with 4.1%, 4.9%, and 4.9% mortality for those with low-level positive troponin and 0%, 0%, and 0% for those with undetectable troponin. Of 392 (81.2%) patients who survived the index hospitalization, 94 (24%) had at least 1 readmission within 12 months, of whom 61 (65%) had myocardial injury during the index hospitalization. Of 377 (96%) patients who were alive and had follow-up after the index hospitalization, 211 (56%) patients had a documented, detailed clinical assessment at 6 months. A total of 78 of 211 (37.0%) had ongoing COVID-19-related symptoms; 34 of 211 (16.1%) had neurocognitive decline, 8 of 211 (3.8%) had increased supplemental oxygen requirements, and 42 of 211 (19.9%) had worsening functional status. Conclusions Myocardial injury during index hospitalization for COVID-19 was associated with increased mortality and may predict who are more likely to have postacute sequelae of COVID-19. Among patients who survived their index hospitalization, the incremental mortality through 12 months was low, even among troponin-positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Troponin T/blood
6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(2): 274-286, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566302

ABSTRACT

Based on the recent reports, cardiovascular events encompass a large portion of the mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which drawn cardiologists into the management of the admitted ill patients. Given that common laboratory values may provide key insights into the illness caused by the life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 virus, it would be more helpful for screening, clinical management and on-time therapeutic strategies. Commensurate with these issues, this review article aimed to discuss the dynamic changes of the common laboratory parameters during COVID-19 and their association with cardiovascular diseases. Besides, the values that changed in the early stage of the disease were considered and monitored during the recovery process. The time required for returning biomarkers to basal levels was also discussed. Finally, of particular interest, we tended to abridge the latest updates regarding the cardiovascular biomarkers as prognostic and diagnostic criteria to determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular System/pathology , Cardiovascular System/virology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
7.
Rom J Intern Med ; 60(1): 6-13, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450785

ABSTRACT

Reliable biomarkers are necessary for the risk stratification of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. This novel coronavirus is now established to affect several organs in addition to the lungs, most prominently the heart. This is achieved through direct damage to the myocardium and indirect immune-associated effects during the cytokine storm. We performed a literature review aiming to identify the prognostic value of alterations of cardiac biomarkers in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cardiac biomarkers are significantly elevated in patients with severe COVID-19 and are independent predictors of mortality. High-sensitivity troponin I and T are correlated with multiple inflammatory indexes and poor outcomes. Although cut-off values have been established for most of cardiac biomarkers, lower limits for troponins may have better prognostic values and longitudinal monitoring of cardiac biomarkers can help the clinician assess the patient's course. Additional measurements of NT-proBNP, can detect the subgroup of patients with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases/virology , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cardiol J ; 28(6): 807-815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a worldwide health crisis, overwhelming healthcare systems. Elevated cardiac troponin T (cTn T) at admission was associated with increased in-hospital mortality. However, data addressing the role of cTn T in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in COVID-19 are scarce. Therefore, we assessed the role of baseline cTn T and cTn T kinetics for MACE and in-hospital mortality prediction in COVID-19. METHODS: Three hundred and ten patients were included prospectively. One hundred and eight patients were excluded due to incomplete records. Patients were divided into three groups according to cTn T kinetics: ascending, descending, and constant. The cTn T slope was defined as the ratio of the cTn T change over time. The primary and secondary endpoints were MACE and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred and two patients were included in the analysis (mean age 64.4 ± 16.7 years, 119 [58.9%] males). Mean duration of hospitalization was 14.0 ± 12.3 days. Sixty (29.7%) patients had MACE, and 40 (19.8%) patients died. Baseline cTn T predicted both endpoints (p = 0.047, hazard ratio [HR] 1.805, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.009-3.231; p = 0.009, HR 2.322, 95% CI 1.234-4.369). Increased cTn T slope predicted mortality (p = 0.041, HR 1.006, 95% CI 1.000-1.011). Constant cTn T was associated with lower MACE and mortality (p = 0.000, HR 3.080, 95% CI 1.914-4.954, p = 0.000, HR 2.851, 95% CI 1.828-4.447). CONCLUSIONS: The present study emphasizes the additional role of cTn T testing in COVID-19 patients for risk stratification and improved diagnostic pathway and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Troponin T , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Troponin T/blood
9.
Am Heart J ; 242: 61-70, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause myocardial injury and myocarditis, and reports of persistent cardiac pathology after COVID-19 have raised concerns of long-term cardiac consequences. We aimed to assess the presence of abnormal cardiovascular resonance imaging (CMR) findings in patients recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and its association with markers of disease severity in the acute phase. METHODS: Fifty-eight (49%) survivors from the prospective COVID MECH study, underwent CMR median 175 [IQR 105-217] days after COVID-19 hospitalization. Abnormal CMR was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% or myocardial scar by late gadolinium enhancement. CMR indices were compared to healthy controls (n = 32), and to circulating biomarkers measured during the index hospitalization. RESULTS: Abnormal CMR was present in 12 (21%) patients, of whom 3 were classified with major pathology (scar and LVEF <50% or LVEF <40%). There was no difference in the need of mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and vital signs between patients with vs without abnormal CMR after 6 months. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viremia and concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers during the index hospitalization were not associated with persistent CMR pathology. Cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations on admission, were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but these associations were not significant after adjusting for demographics and established cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: CMR pathology 6 months after moderate-to-severe COVID-19 was present in 21% of patients and did not correlate with severity of the disease. Cardiovascular biomarkers during COVID-19 were higher in patients with CMR pathology, but with no significant association after adjusting for confounders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID MECH Study ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04314232.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cicatrix/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cicatrix/etiology , Female , Gadolinium , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Survivors , Troponin T/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
10.
J Immunol Methods ; 497: 113108, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330965

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease has remained the world's biggest killer for 30 years. To aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients suffering cardiovascular-related disease accurate detection methods are essential. For over 20 years, the cardiac-specific troponins, I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), have acted as sensitive and specific biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis of various types of heart diseases. Various cardiovascular complications were commonly detected in patients with COVID-19, where cTn elevation is detectable, which suggested potential prognostic value of cTn in COVID-19-infected patients. Detection of these biomarkers circulating in the bloodstream is generally facilitated by immunoassays employing cTnI- and/or cTnT-specific antibodies. While several anti-troponin assays are commercially available, there are still obstacles to overcome to achieve optimal troponin detection. Such obstacles include the proteolytic degradation of N and C terminals on cTnI, epitope occlusion of troponin binding-sites by the cTnI/cTnT complex, cross reactivity of antibodies with skeletal troponins or assay interference caused by human anti-species antibodies. Therefore, further research into multi-antibody based platforms, multi-epitope targeting and rigorous validation of immunoassays is required to ensure accurate measurements. Moreover, in combination with various technical advances (e.g. microfluidics), antibody-based troponin detection systems can be more sensitive and rapid for incorporation into portable biosensor systems to be used at point-of care.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Troponin I/immunology , Troponin T/immunology
11.
Clin Biochem ; 95: 41-48, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has variable clinical presentation, from asymptomatic to severe disease leading to death. Biochemical markers may help with management and prognostication of COVID-19 patients; however, their utility is still under investigation. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate, and high sensitivity troponin T (TnT) levels in 67 patients who were admitted to a Canadian tertiary care centre for management of COVID-19. Logistic, cause-specific Cox proportional-hazards, and accelerated failure time regression modelling were performed to assess the associations of initial analyte concentrations with in-hospital death and length of stay in hospital; joint modelling was performed to assess the associations of the concentrations over the course of the hospital stay with in-hospital death. RESULTS: Initial TnT and CRP concentrations were associated with length of stay in hospital. Eighteen patients died (27%), and the median initial TnT concentration was higher in patients who died (55 ng/L) than those who lived (16 ng/L; P < 0.0001). There were no survivors with an initial TnT concentration > 64 ng/L. While the initial TnT concentration was predictive of death, later measurements were not. Only CRP had prognostic value with both the initial and subsequent measurements: a 20% increase in the initial CRP concentration was associated with a 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1-29%) increase in the odds of death, and the hazard of death increased 14% (95% CI: 5-25%) for each 20% increase in the current CRP value. While the initial lactate concentration was not predictive of death, subsequent measurements were. CONCLUSION: CRP, lactate and TnT were associated with poorer outcomes and appear to be useful biochemical markers for monitoring COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Hospitalization/trends , Lactic Acid/blood , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Troponin T/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biochemical Phenomena/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Blood Gas Analysis/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
12.
Circ J ; 85(6): 944-947, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported elevated troponin levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, so we investigated myocardial damage by measuring high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) levels and analyzed the relationship with comorbidities.Methods and Results:Of 209 patients who recently recovered from COVID-19, 65% had an elevated hsTnT level that was higher than levels in patients with acute phase infection despite most patients (79%) having a mild illness. The hsTnT levels correlated with disease severity, sex, comorbidities, and ACEi and ARB use. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial damage occurs in the recovery phase of COVID-19, and its evaluation, regardless of patient age, should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Heart Diseases/blood , Troponin T/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
14.
Clin Chem ; 67(8): 1080-1089, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) for risk-stratification in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational, US-based study of COVID-19 patients undergoing hs-cTnT. Outcomes included short-term mortality (in-hospital and 30-days post-discharge) and a composite of major adverse events, including respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrest, and shock within the index presentation and/or mortality during the index hospitalization or within 30-days post-discharge. RESULTS: Among 367 COVID-19 patients undergoing hs-cTnT, myocardial injury was identified in 46%. They had a higher risk for mortality (20% vs 12%, P < 0.0001; unadjusted HR 4.44, 95% CI 2.13-9.25, P < 0.001) and major adverse events (35% vs. 11%, P < 0.0001; unadjusted OR 4.29, 95% CI 2.50-7.40, P < 0.0001). Myocardial injury was associated with major adverse events (adjusted OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.00-7.36, P < 0.0001) but not mortality. Baseline (adjusted OR 1.003, 95% CI 1.00-1.007, P = 0.047) and maximum (adjusted OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001-1.009, P = 0.0012) hs-cTnT were independent predictors of major adverse events. Most (95%) increases were due to myocardial injury, with 5% (n = 8) classified as type 1 or 2 myocardial infarction. A single hs-cTnT <6 ng/L identified 26% of patients without mortality, with a 94.9% (95% CI 87.5-98.6) negative predictive value and 93.1% sensitivity (95% CI 83.3-98.1) for major adverse events in those presenting to the ED. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial injury is frequent and prognostic in COVID-19. While most hs-cTnT increases are modest and due to myocardial injury, they have important prognostic implications. A single hs-cTnT <6 ng/L at presentation may facilitate the identification of patients with a favorable prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Troponin T/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6515, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147151

ABSTRACT

High sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) is a strong predictor of adverse outcome during SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, its determinants remain partially unknown. We aimed to assess the relationship between severity of inflammatory response/coagulation abnormalities and hsTnT in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We then explored the relevance of these pathways in defining mortality and complications risk and the potential effects of the treatments to attenuate such risk. In this single-center, prospective, observational study we enrolled 266 consecutive patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Primary endpoint was in-hospital COVID-19 mortality. hsTnT, even after adjustment for confounders, was associated with mortality. D-dimer and CRP presented stronger associations with hsTnT than PaO2. Changes of hsTnT, D-dimer and CRP were related; but only D-dimer was associated with mortality. Moreover, low molecular weight heparin showed attenuation of the mortality in the whole population, particularly in subjects with higher hsTnT. D-dimer possessed a strong relationship with hsTnT and mortality. Anticoagulation treatment showed greater benefits with regard to mortality. These findings suggest a major role of SARS-CoV-2 coagulopathy in hsTnT elevation and its related mortality in COVID-19. A better understanding of the mechanisms related to COVID-19 might pave the way to therapy tailoring in these high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Diseases/etiology , Hemodynamics , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin T/blood
16.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(6): 761-769, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138068

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critically ill Covid-19 pneumonia patients are likely to develop the sequence of acute pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular (RV) strain, and eventually RV failure due to known pathophysiology (endothelial inflammation plus thrombo-embolism) that promotes increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of acute pulmonary hypertension (aPH) as per established trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) criteria in Covid-19 patients receiving intensive care and to explore whether short-term outcomes are affected by the presence of aPH. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for patients treated in the intensive care units at a tertiary university hospital over a month. The presence of aPH on the TTE was noted, and plasma NTproBNP and troponin were measured as markers of cardiac failure and myocardial injury, respectively. Follow-up data were collected 21 d after the performance of TTE. RESULTS: In total, 26 of 67 patients (39%) had an assessed systolic pulmonary artery pressure of > 35 mmHg (group aPH), meeting the TTE definition of aPH. NTproBNP levels (median [range]: 1430 [102-30 300] vs. 470 [45-29 600] ng L-1 ; P = .0007), troponin T levels (63 [22-352] vs. 15 [5-407] ng L-1 ; P = .0002), and the 21-d mortality rate (46% vs. 7%; P < .001) were substantially higher in patients with aPH compared to patients not meeting aPH criteria. CONCLUSION: TTE-defined acute pulmonary hypertension was frequently observed in severely ill Covid-19 patients. Furthermore, aPH was linked to biomarker-defined myocardial injury and cardiac failure, as well as an almost sevenfold increase in 21-d mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sweden , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Troponin T/blood
17.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 20(1): 44-52, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135914

ABSTRACT

Due to the lack of prospective, randomized, controlled clinical studies on inflammation and cardiovascular involvement, the exact mechanism of cardiac injury among patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remains uncertain. It was demonstrated that there is a high and significantly positive linear correlation between troponin T and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, biomarkers of cardiac injury and systemic inflammation, respectively. Cardiac injury and inflammation is a relatively common association among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and it is related to higher risk of in-hospital mortality. In our literature search, we identified several potential mechanisms of myocardial tissue damage, namely, coronavirus-associated acute myocarditis, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor binding affinity to the virus Spike protein, increased cytokine secretion, and hypoxia-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Elucidation of the disease pathogenesis and prospective histopathological studies are crucial for future proper treatment in case of renewed outbreaks. Of interest is that with hundred of thousands of bodies available for autopsy studies, no prospective investigation has been reported so far. Strong efforts and continued research of the cardiovascular complications and identification of risk factors for poor prognosis in COVID-19 are steadily needed. The high morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, its monumental economic burden and social impact, the despair of a new pandemic outbreak, and the thread of potential utilization of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as biologic weapons make it a preponderant necessity to better comprehend the therapeutic management of this lethal disease. Emerging as an acute infectious disease, COVID-19 may become a chronic epidemic because of genetic recombination. Therefore, we should be ready for the reemergence of COVID-19 or other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Myocarditis/mortality , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Troponin T/blood
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(6): e13532, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is a common finding in COVID-19 strongly associated with severity. We analysed the prevalence and prognostic utility of myocardial injury, characterized by elevated cardiac troponin, in a large population of COVID-19 patients, and further evaluated separately the role of troponin T and I. METHODS: This is a multicentre, retrospective observational study enrolling patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized in 32 Spanish hospitals. Elevated troponin levels were defined as values above the sex-specific 99th percentile upper reference limit, as recommended by international guidelines. Thirty-day mortality was defined as endpoint. RESULTS: A total of 1280 COVID-19 patients were included in this study, of whom 187 (14.6%) died during the hospitalization. Using a nonspecific sex cut-off, elevated troponin levels were found in 344 patients (26.9%), increasing to 384 (30.0%) when a sex-specific cut-off was used. This prevalence was significantly higher (42.9% vs 21.9%; P < .001) in patients in whom troponin T was measured in comparison with troponin I. Sex-specific elevated troponin levels were significantly associated with 30-day mortality, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 3.00 for total population, 3.20 for cardiac troponin T and 3.69 for cardiac troponin I. CONCLUSION: In this multicentre study, myocardial injury was a common finding in COVID-19 patients. Its prevalence increased when a sex-specific cut-off and cardiac troponin T were used. Elevated troponin was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality, irrespective of cardiac troponin assay and cut-offs to detect myocardial injury. Hence, the early measurement of cardiac troponin may be useful for risk stratification in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Mortality , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099755

ABSTRACT

We report a case of cardiac injury in a 46-year-old man affected by COVID-19. The patient presented with shortness of breath and fever. ECG revealed sinus tachycardia with ventricular extrasystoles and T-wave inversion in anterior leads. Troponin T and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were elevated. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severely reduced systolic function with an estimated left ventricle ejection fraction of 30%. A nasopharingeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2. On day 6, 11 days after onset of symptoms, the patient deteriorated clinically with new chest pain and type 1 respiratory failure. Treatment with colchicine 0.5 mg 8-hourly resulted in rapid clinical resolution. This case report highlights how cardiac injury can dominate the clinical picture in COVID-19 infection. The role of colchicine therapy should be further studied to determine its usefulness in reducing myocardial and possibly lung parenchymal inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/virology , Chest Pain/virology , Echocardiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Systole , Troponin T/blood
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 129-136, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091966

ABSTRACT

Cardiac Troponin (hs-TnT) elevation has been reported in unselected patients hospitalized with COVID-19 however the mechanism and relationship with mortality remain unclear. Consecutive patients admitted to a high-volume intensive care unit (ICU) in London with severe COVID-19 pneumonitis were included if hs-TnT concentration at admission was known. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis performed, with cohorts classified a priori by multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN). 277 patients were admitted during a 7-week period in 2020; 176 were included (90% received invasive ventilation). hs-TnT at admission was 16.5 (9.0 to 49.3) ng/L, 56% had concentrations >ULN. 56 patients (31.8%) died during the index admission. Admission hs-TnT level was lower in survivors (12.0 (8.0-27.8) vs 28.5 (14.0 to 81.0) ng/L, p = 0.001). Univariate predictors of mortality were age, APACHE-II Score and admission hs-TnT (HR 1.73, p = 0.007). By multivariate regression, only age (HR 1.33, CI: 1.16.to 1.51, p < 0.01) and admission hs-TnT (HR 1.94, CI: 1.22 to 3.10, p = 0.006) remained predictive. Survival was significantly lower when admission hs-TnT was >ULN (log-rank p-value<0.001). Peak hs-TnT was higher in those who died but was not predictive of death after adjustment for other factors. In conclusion, in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis, the hs-TnT level at admission is a powerful independent predictor of the likelihood of surviving to discharge from ICU. In most cases, hs-TnT elevation does not represent major myocardial injury but acts as a sensitive integrated biomarker of global stress. Whether stratification based on admission Troponin level could be used to guide prognostication and management warrants further evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Troponin T/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
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