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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 552, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Initial reports on US COVID-19 showed different outcomes in different races. In this study we use a diverse large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to determine predictors of mortality. METHODS: We analyzed data from hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 5852) between March 2020- August 2020 from 8 hospitals across the US. Demographics, comorbidities, symptoms and laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: The cohort contained 3,662 (61.7%) African Americans (AA), 286 (5%) American Latinx (LAT), 1,407 (23.9%), European Americans (EA), and 93 (1.5%) American Asians (AS). Survivors and non-survivors mean ages in years were 58 and 68 for AA, 58 and 77 for EA, 44 and 61 for LAT, and 51 and 63 for AS. Mortality rates for AA, LAT, EA and AS were 14.8, 7.3, 16.3 and 2.2%. Mortality increased among patients with the following characteristics: age, male gender, New York region, cardiac disease, COPD, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, history of cancer, immunosuppression, elevated lymphocytes, CRP, ferritin, D-Dimer, creatinine, troponin, and procalcitonin. Use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.001), shortness of breath (SOB) (p < 0.01), fatigue (p = 0.04), diarrhea (p = 0.02), and increased AST (p < 0.01), significantly correlated with death in multivariate analysis. Male sex and EA and AA race/ethnicity had higher frequency of death. Diarrhea was among the most common GI symptom amongst AAs (6.8%). When adjusting for comorbidities, significant variables among the demographics of study population were age (over 45 years old), male sex, EA, and patients hospitalized in New York. When adjusting for disease severity, significant variables were age over 65 years old, male sex, EA as well as having SOB, elevated CRP and D-dimer. Glucocorticoid usage was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 death in our cohort. CONCLUSION: Among this large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients enriched for African Americans, our study findings may reflect the extent of systemic organ involvement by SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent progression to multi-system organ failure. High mortality in AA in comparison with LAT is likely related to high frequency of comorbidities and older age among AA. Glucocorticoids should be used carefully considering the poor outcomes associated with it. Special focus in treating patients with elevated liver enzymes and other inflammatory biomarkers such as CRP, troponin, ferritin, procalcitonin, and D-dimer are required to prevent poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Aged , Biomarkers , Diarrhea , Ferritins , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
2.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E44, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954664

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Two studies in Pennsylvania aimed to determine whether community type and community socioeconomic deprivation (CSD) 1) modified associations between type 2 diabetes (hereinafter, diabetes) and COVID-19 hospitalization outcomes, and 2) influenced health care utilization among individuals with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The hospitalization study evaluated a retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 through 2020 for COVID-19 outcomes: death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, elevated D-dimer, and elevated troponin level. We used adjusted logistic regression models, adding interaction terms to evaluate effect modification by community type (township, borough, or city census tract) and CSD. The utilization study included patients with diabetes and a clinical encounter between 2017 and 2020. Autoregressive integrated moving average time-series models evaluated changes in weekly rates of emergency department and outpatient visits, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) laboratory tests, and antihyperglycemic medication orders from 2018 to 2020. RESULTS: In the hospitalization study, of 2,751 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 1,020 had diabetes, which was associated with ICU admission and elevated troponin. Associations did not differ by community type or CSD. In the utilization study, among 93,401 patients with diabetes, utilization measures decreased in March 2020. Utilization increased in July, and then began to stabilize or decline through the end of 2020. Changes in HbA1c tests and medication order trends during the pandemic differed by community type and CSD. CONCLUSION: Diabetes was associated with selected outcomes among individuals hospitalized for COVID-19, but these did not differ by community features. Utilization trajectories among individuals with diabetes during the pandemic were influenced by community type and CSD and could be used to identify individuals at risk of gaps in diabetes care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
3.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(7): 439-446, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several risk factors have been identified to predict worse outcomes in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Machine learning algorithms represent a novel approach to identifying a prediction model with a good discriminatory capacity to be easily used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to obtain a risk score for in-hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease infection (COVID-19) based on a limited number of features collected at hospital admission. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied an Italian cohort of consecutive adult Caucasian patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized in 13 cardiology units during Spring 2020. The Lasso procedure was used to select the most relevant covariates. The dataset was randomly divided into a training set containing 80% of the data, used for estimating the model, and a test set with the remaining 20%. A Random Forest modeled in-hospital mortality with the selected set of covariates: its accuracy was measured by means of the ROC curve, obtaining AUC, sensitivity, specificity and related 95% confidence interval (CI). This model was then compared with the one obtained by the Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) and with logistic regression. Finally, to understand if each model has the same performance in the training and test set, the two AUCs were compared using the DeLong's test. Among 701 patients enrolled (mean age 67.2 ±â€Š13.2 years, 69.5% male individuals), 165 (23.5%) died during a median hospitalization of 15 (IQR, 9-24) days. Variables selected by the Lasso procedure were: age, oxygen saturation, PaO2/FiO2, creatinine clearance and elevated troponin. Compared with those who survived, deceased patients were older, had a lower blood oxygenation, lower creatinine clearance levels and higher prevalence of elevated troponin (all P < 0.001). The best performance out of the samples was provided by Random Forest with an AUC of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.68-0.88) and a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.58-1.00). Moreover, Random Forest was the unique model that provided similar performance in sample and out of sample (DeLong test P = 0.78). CONCLUSION: In a large COVID-19 population, we showed that a customizable machine learning-based score derived from clinical variables is feasible and effective for the prediction of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Creatinine , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 59: 15-23, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to compare the prognostic value of a quantitative CT severity score with several laboratory parameters, particularly C-reactive protein, Procalcitonin, Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, troponin and B-type Natriuretic Peptide in predicting in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review study of COVID-19 patients who presented to the Emergency Department of a tertiary care center between February and December 2020. All patients ≥18 years old who tested positive for the COVID-19 real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and underwent CT imaging at presentation were included. The primary outcome was the prognostic ability of CT severity score versus biomarkers in predicting in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The AUCs were: D-dimer (AUC: 0.67 95% CI = 0.57-0.77), CT severity score (0.66, 95% CI = 0.55-0.77), LDH (0.66, 95% CI = 0.55-0.77), Pro-BNP (0.65, 95% CI = 0.55-0.76), NLR (0.64, 95% CI = 0.53-0.75) and troponin (0.64, 95% CI = 0.52-0.75). In the stepwise logistic regression, age (OR = 1.07 95% CI = 1.05-1.09), obesity (OR = 2.02 95% CI = 1.25-3.26), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (OR = 1.02 95% CI = 1.01-1.04), CRP (OR = 1.01 95% CI = 1.004-1.01), lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 1.003 95% CI = 1.001-1.004) and CT severity score (OR = 1.17 95% CI = 1.12-1.23) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: In summary, CT severity score outperformed several biomarkers as a prognostic tool for covid related mortality. In COVID-19 patients requiring lung imaging, such as patients requiring ICU admission, patients with abnormal vital signs and those requiring mechanical ventilation, the results suggest obtaining and calculating the CT severity score to use it as a prognostic tool. If a CT was not performed, the results suggest using LDH, CRP or NLR if already done as prognostic tools in COVID-19 as these biomarkers were also found to be prognostic in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
5.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(7): 766-772, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation (AF), is frequently reported in COVID-19 patients, more often in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, yet causality has not been virtually explored. Moreover, non-Covid ICU patients frequently present AF, sepsis being the major trigger. We aimed to examine whether sepsis or other factors-apart from Covid-19 myocardial involvement-contribute to elicit New Onset AF (NOAF) in intubated ICU patients. METHODS: Consecutive intubated, Covid-19ARDS patients, were prospectively studied for factors triggering NOAF. Demographics, data on Covid-19 infection duration, laboratory findings (troponin as well), severity of illness and ARDS were compared between NOAF and control group (no AF) on admission. In NOAF patients, echocardiographic findings, laboratory and secondary infection data on the AF day were compared to the preceding days and/or ICU admission data. RESULTS: Among 105 patients screened, 79 were eligible; nineteen presented NOAF (24%). Baseline characteristics did not differ between the NOAF and control groups. Troponin levels were mildly elevated upon ICU admission in both groups. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain was impaired (<16.5%) in 63% vs 78% in the two groups, respectively. The right ventricle was mildly dilated, and pericardial effusion was present in 52 vs 43%, respectively. NOAF occurred on the 18 ± 4.8 days from Covid-19 symptoms' onset, and the 8.5 ± 2.1 ICUday. A septic secondary infection episode occurred in 89.5% of the patients in the NOAF group ( vs 41.6% in the control group (p < 0.001). In fact, NOAF occurred concurrently with a secondary septic episode in 84.2% of the patients. Sepsis presence was the only factor associated to NOAF occurrence (OR 16.63, p = 0.002). Noradrenaline, lactate and inflammation biomarkers gradually increased in the days before AF (all p < 0.05). Echocardiographic findings did not change on NOAF occurrence. CONCLUSION: Secondary infections seem to be major contributors for NOAF occurrence in Covid-19 patients, probably playing the role of the "second hit" in an affected myocardium from Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/epidemiology , Troponin
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 177: 28-33, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885590

ABSTRACT

Preadmission statin therapy is associated with improved outcome in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Whether inhibition of inflammation and myocardial injury are in part responsible for this observation has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to relate preadmission statin usage to markers of inflammation, myocardial injury, and clinical outcome among patients with established atherosclerosis who were admitted with COVID-19. Adult patients with a diagnosis of coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and/or atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease who were hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 were included. Statin use was related to the primary composite clinical outcome, death, intensive care unit admission, or thrombotic complications in sequential multivariable logistic regression models. Of 3,584 adult patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, 1,360 patients met study inclusion criteria (mean age 73.8 years, 45% women, 68% White). Baseline troponin and C-reactive protein were lower in patients on statins before admission. In an unadjusted model, preadmission statin usage was associated with a significant reduction in the primary composite outcome (42.2% vs 53.7%, odds ratio 0.63 [95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.80], p <0.001). This association remained significant after age, gender, ethnicity, other patient clinical characteristics, and cardiovascular medications were added to the model but became null when troponin and C-reactive protein were also included (odds ratio 0.83 [95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.09] p = 0.18). In conclusion, among patients with established cardiovascular disease who were hospitalized with COVID-19, preadmission statin therapy was associated with improved in-hospital outcome, an association that was negated once inflammation and myocardial injury were considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Aged , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Male , Treatment Outcome , Troponin
7.
Anaesthesia ; 77(7): 772-784, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861190

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications due to COVID-19, such as right ventricular dysfunction, are common. The combination of acute respiratory distress syndrome, invasive mechanical ventilation, thromboembolic disease and direct myocardial injury creates conditions where right ventricular dysfunction is likely to occur. We undertook a prospective, multicentre cohort study in 10 Scottish intensive care units of patients with COVID-19 pneumonitis whose lungs were mechanically ventilated. Right ventricular dysfunction was defined as the presence of severe right ventricular dilation and interventricular septal flattening. To explore the role of myocardial injury, high-sensitivity troponin and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels were measured in all patients. We recruited 121 patients and 118 (98%) underwent imaging. It was possible to determine the primary outcome in 112 (91%). Severe right ventricular dilation was present in 31 (28%), with interventricular septal flattening present in nine (8%). Right ventricular dysfunction (the combination of these two parameters) was present in seven (6%, 95%CI 3-13%). Thirty-day mortality was 86% in those with right ventricular dysfunction as compared with 45% in those without (p = 0.051). Patients with right ventricular dysfunction were more likely to have: pulmonary thromboembolism (p < 0.001); higher plateau airway pressure (p = 0.048); lower dynamic compliance (p = 0.031); higher plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels (p = 0.006); and raised plasma troponin levels (p = 0.048). Our results demonstrate a prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction of 6%, which was associated with increased mortality (86%). Associations were also observed between right ventricular dysfunction and aetiological domains of: acute respiratory distress syndrome; ventilation; thromboembolic disease; and direct myocardial injury, implying a complex multifactorial pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Troponin , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
8.
Cardiol Rev ; 30(3): 145-157, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778952

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, it caused a global pandemic with 212,324,054 confirmed cases and 4,440,840 deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2021. The disease spectrum of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic subclinical infection to clinical manifestations predominantly affecting the respiratory system. However, it is now evident that COVID-19 is a multiorgan disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations leading to multiple organ injuries including the cardiovascular system. We review studies that have shown that the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and COVID-19 is indeed bidirectional, implicating that preexisting cardiovascular comorbidities increase the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, and newly emerging cardiac injuries occur in the settings of acute COVID-19 in patients with no preexisting cardiovascular disease. We present the most up-to-date literature summary to explore the incidence of new-onset cardiac complications of coronavirus and their role in predicting the severity of COVID-19. We review the association of elevated troponin with the severity of COVID-19 disease, which includes mild compared to severe disease, in nonintensive care unit compared to intensive care unit patients and in those discharged from the hospital compared to those who die. The role of serum troponin levels in predicting prognosis are compared in survivors and non-survivors. The association between COVID-19 disease and myocarditis, heart failure and coagulopathy are reviewed. Finally, an update on beneficial treatments is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Troponin
9.
Eur J Intern Med ; 98: 45-46, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778105

Subject(s)
Troponin T , Troponin , Humans , Prognosis
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221090227, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury has been linked to a poor prognosis during COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, the risk factors associated are yet to be thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare demographical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 with and without cardiac injury, to further investigate the prevalence of acute cardiac injury as well as its impact on their outcomes in COVID-19-patients. METHODS: We included in a retrospective analysis, all COVID-19 patients admitted between October first and December first, 2020, at the University Hospital Center of Oujda (Morocco) who underwent a troponin assay which was systematically measured on admission. The study population was divided into two groups: cardiac-injured patients and those without cardiac injury. Clinical, biological data and in-hospital outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: 298 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Our study found that compared to non-cardiac-injured, cardiac-injured patients are older, with higher possibilities of existing comorbidities including hypertension (68 [42.2%] vs 40 [29.2%], P = 0.02), diabetes (81 [50.3%] vs 53 [38.7%] P = 0.044), the need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and mortality. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis shows a significantly increased risk of death among cardiac-injured COVID-19-patients as compared to non-cardiac injured. (HR, 1.620 [CI 95%: 2.562-1.024]). CONCLUSION: Our retrospective cohort found that old age, comorbidities, a previous history of CAD, were significantly associated with acute cardiac injury. COVID-19 patients with acute cardiac injury are at a higher risk of ICU admission, and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Troponin , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/analysis
12.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 30(5): 350-357, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), lymphocyte infiltration in the lungs and a cytokine storm. In this study we examined inflammatory cell infiltrates and the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 in the lungs of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Eighteen COVID-19 autopsy cases, 9 non-COVID cases with DAD, and 11 controls without lung diseases were included. Immunostainings for STAT6, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, and broad-spectrum keratins were performed. RESULTS: The average age of COVID-19 patients was 64.4±2.1 years. The disease duration was 7 to 53 days. The number of pneumocytes, macrophages or CD3+ T cells was significantly increased in the lungs of patients with COVID-19. Patients' age above 67 years, blood troponin levels >0.2 ng/mL, platelet count >100×109/L, lung macrophages >130/high-power field (HPF), CD3+ T cells >145/HPF, CD8+ T cells <30/HPF, and CD8/CD4 ratio <1 were associated with shorter survival duration after onset of symptoms. In addition, STAT6 staining was much stronger in pneumocytes and lymphocytes in the lungs of patients with COVID-19 than non-COVID DAD patients or controls. CONCLUSION: Older age, high blood troponin level and platelet count, more macrophages and fewer CD8+ T cells in the lungs of COVID-19 were associated with poorer outcome. STAT6 expression was increased in pneumocytes and lymphocytes in the lungs of patients with COVID-19, implying a role of STAT6 in cytokine storms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT6 Transcription Factor , Troponin
13.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 9713326, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770053

ABSTRACT

The use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays has become part of the daily practice in most of the laboratories worldwide in the initial evaluation of the typical chest pain. Due to their early surge, the use of hs-cTn may reduce the time needed to recognise myocardial infarctions (MI), which is vital for the patients presenting in the emergency departments for chest pain. The latest European Society of Cardiology Guidelines did not only recognise their central role in the diagnosis algorithm but also recommended their use for rapid rule-in/rule-out of MI. High-sensitivity cardiac troponins are also powerful prognostic markers for long-term events and mortality, not only in a wide spectrum of other cardiovascular diseases (CVD) but also in several non-CVD pathologies. Moreover, these biomarkers became a powerful tool in special populations, such as paediatric patients and, most recently, COVID-19 patients. Although highly investigated, the assessment and interpretation of the hs-cTn changes are still challenging in the patients with basal elevation such as CKD or critically ill patients. Moreover, there are still various analytical characteristics not completely understood, such as circadian or sex variability, with major clinical implications. In this context, the present review focuses on summarizing the most recent research in the current use of hs-cTn, with a main consideration for its role in the diagnosis of MI but also its prognostic value. We have also carefully selected the most important studies regarding the challenges faced by clinicians from different specialties in the correct interpretation of this biomarker. Moreover, future perspectives have been proposed and analysed, as more research and cross-disciplinary collaboration are necessary to improve their performance.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Troponin , Biomarkers , Chest Pain , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Troponin/blood
14.
Lancet ; 399(10332): 1347-1358, 2022 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768602

ABSTRACT

Although substantial progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally, with nearly half of these deaths due to ischaemic heart disease. The broadening availability of high-sensitivity troponin assays has allowed for rapid rule-out algorithms in patients with suspected non-ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended for 12 months following an acute coronary syndrome in most patients, and additional secondary prevention measures including intensive lipid-lowering therapy (LDL-C <1·4 mmol/L), neurohormonal agents, and lifestyle modification, are crucial. The scientific evidence for diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndromes continues to evolve rapidly, including adapting to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has impacted all aspects of care. This Seminar provides a clinically relevant overview of the pathobiology, diagnosis, and management of acute coronary syndromes, and describes key scientific advances.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Secondary Prevention , Troponin
15.
Cardiol Clin ; 40(3): 287-300, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767946

ABSTRACT

Myocardial injury is common in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with an adverse prognosis. Cardiac troponin (cTn) is used to detect myocardial injury and assist with risk stratification in this population. SARS-CoV-2 infection can play a role in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial injury due to both direct and indirect damage to the cardiovascular system. Despite the initial concerns about an increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (MI), most cTn increases are related to chronic myocardial injury due to comorbidities and/or acute nonischemic myocardial injury. This review will discuss the latest findings on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , Myocardial Infarction , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Heart Injuries/diagnosis , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
16.
J Electrocardiol ; 72: 44-48, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the probability of de-novo fQRS in patients with mild COVID-19 disease, as an indicator of cardiac injury. METHODS: Data of 256 patients with normal admission electrocardiography and no comorbidities between 1.12.2020-31.12.2021, were examined retrospectively 6-month after mild COVID-19 disease. Patients were divided into two groups: fQRS+ group (n = 102) and non-fQRS group (n = 154). Relation between fQRS and other electrocardiography, echocardiographic and laboratory findings were investigated. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the groups among age and gender. Troponin-I and creatine kinase myocardial band values (retrospectively 9.10 ± 1.76 vs 0.74 ± 1.43, 34.05 ± 82.20 vs. 14.68 ± 4.42), COVID-19 IgG levels (45.78 ± 14.82 vs. 36.49 ± 17.68), diastolic dysfunction (39.21% vs. 15.07%), EF value (58.02 ± 1.95 vs. 64.27 ± 3.07), dyspnea (41.17% vs. 6.84%), post-COVID-19 tachycardia syndrome (19.6% vs. 2.74) were more frequent in fQRS+ group compared to non-fQRS group. The EF value was lower in the presence of fQRS in the high lateral leads (57.12 ± 1.99, 58.47 ± 1.79, p:0.018). There was a positive correlation between IgG value and endsystolic diameter, septum thickness and left atrium diameter. In multivariate analysis de-novo fQRS, dyspnea, high troponin and IgG values, diastolic dysfunction, low EF value and left atrial diameter were determined as independent risk factors for post-COVID-19 tachycardia syndrome in follow-up. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 disease de-novo fQRS, dyspnea, high IgG and troponin value, left atrial diameter, lower EF value, diastolic dysfunction were associated with post-COVID-19 tachycardia syndrome. The de-novo fQRS in SARS-COV-2 may be a predictor of future more important adverse cardiovascular outcomes and this should alert clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
17.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 14: e10517, 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1726772

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender as principais complicações ocasionadas pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 no sistema cardíaco do público idoso. Métodos: trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura de abordagem qualitativa e característica descritivo-exploratória realizada no ano de 2020. Resultados: as complicações cardíacas mais prevalentes na população idosa foram miocardite, arritmias, insuficiência cardíaca, infarto agudo, choque cardiogênico, lesão miocárdica aguda e parada cardiorrespiratória. O principal biomarcador cardíaco foi a troponina, apresentando elevação superior ao percentil 99°, evidenciando a necessidade de tratamento em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Considerações Finais: o aparecimento desse vírus causou grande prejuízo no campo da saúde, especialmente a população idosa, que apresenta risco elevado de óbito ao contrair essa doença. Destarte, é de extrema importância se ater a mensuração da troponina sérica no público alvo e realizar monitorização longitudinal, utilizando para tal a telecardiologia, uma vez que diminuem as chances de contaminação entre infectado e profissional de saúde


Objective: to understand the main complications of SARS-CoV-2 in the elderly cardiac system. Methods: systematic literature review conducted in 2020. Results: the most prevalent cardiac complications in the elderly population were myocarditis, arrhythmias, heart failure, acute infarction, cardiogenic shock, acute myocardial injury and cardiorespiratory arrest. The main cardiac biomarker was troponin, showing an elevation above the 99th percentile, evidencing the need for treatment in the Intensive Care Unit. Final Considerations: the appearance of this virus has caused great damage in the health field, especially the elderly population, who is at high risk of death when contracting this disease. Therefore, it is important to stick to the measurement of serum troponin in the target audience and perform longitudinal monitoring, using telecardiology for this purpose, since they reduce the chances of contamination between infected and health professionals


Objetivo: comprender las principales complicaciones del SARS-CoV-2 en el sistema cardíaco anciano. Métodos: revisión sistemática de la literatura realizada en 2020. Resultados: las complicaciones cardíacas más prevalentes en la población anciana fueron miocarditis, arritmias, insuficiencia cardíaca, infarto agudo, shock cardiogénico, lesión miocárdica aguda y parada cardiorrespiratoria. El principal biomarcador cardíaco fue la troponina, mostrando una elevación por encima del percentil 99, evidenciando la necesidad de tratamiento en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Consideraciones finales: la aparición de este virus ha provocado un gran daño en el campo de la salud, especialmente en la población anciana, que se encuentra en alto riesgo de muerte al contraer esta enfermedad. Por tanto, es importante ceñirse a la medición de troponina sérica en el público objetivo y realizar un seguimiento longitudinal, utilizando para ello la telecardiología, ya que reducen las posibilidades de contaminación entre los infectados y los profesionales sanitarios


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Troponin , Health of the Elderly , COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/etiology , Patient Care Team , Shock, Cardiogenic , Telecardiology , Heart Arrest , Heart Failure , Intensive Care Units , Myocarditis
18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 105: 108542, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638183

ABSTRACT

It remains important to investigate the changing and impact of routine blood values (RBVs) in order to predict mortality and follow an appropriate treatment in COVID-19 patients. In the study, the importance of RBVs in the mortality of patients with COVID-19 was investigated. The changes in the biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters of patients who recovered (n = 4364) and died (n = 233) from COVID-19 over time and their relationship with the mortality of the disease were evaluated retrospectively. Odds ratios of the parameters affecting one-month mortality were calculated by running multiple-logistic-regression analysis. The cut off values and diagnostic efficiencies of the parameters that posed a risk for mortality were obtained via receiver operating curve analysis. It was determined that the C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, procalcitonin, erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate (ESR), troponin values were at abnormal levels until death occurred in the patients who died. In addition, the procalcitonin levels were consistently high in patients who died. The patients who died generally had a sustained increase in their leukocyte and neutrophil levels and biochemical variables, and an ongoing decrease in lymphopenia and eosinopenia levels. Although significant changes were observed in liver function tests, cardiac troponin, hemogram values, kidney function tests and parameters related to inflammation in deceased patients, high ESR, international-normalized-ratio (INR), prothrombin-time (PT), CRP, D-dimer, ferritin and red-cell-distribution width (RDW) values, respectively, were the most effective predictive mortality risk biomarkers of COVID-19. In addition, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, erythrocytopenia were other risk predictors of mortality. Indicators was found in this study can be successfully used to predict mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/immunology , Erythrocyte Indices , Female , Ferritins , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Troponin
19.
J Card Fail ; 28(4): 675-681, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (HF) is an important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has been hypothesized to relate to inflammatory activation. METHODS: We evaluated consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) admissions for COVID-19 across 6 centers in the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network, identifying patients with vs without acute HF. Acute HF was subclassified as de novo vs acute-on-chronic, based on the absence or presence of prior HF. Clinical features, biomarker profiles and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Of 901 admissions to an ICU due to COVID-19, 80 (8.9%) had acute HF, including 18 (2.0%) with classic cardiogenic shock (CS) and 37 (4.1%) with vasodilatory CS. The majority (n = 45) were de novo HF presentations. Compared to patients without acute HF, those with acute HF had higher cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptide levels and similar inflammatory biomarkers; patients with de novo HF had the highest cardiac troponin levels. Notably, among patients critically ill with COVID-19, illness severity (median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, 8 [IQR, 5-10] vs 6 [4-9]; P = 0.025) and mortality rates (43.8% vs 32.4%; P = 0.040) were modestly higher in patients with vs those without acute HF. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients critically ill with COVID-19, acute HF is distinguished more by biomarkers of myocardial injury and hemodynamic stress than by biomarkers of inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Heart Failure , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Troponin
20.
BMJ ; 375: e068665, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and myocarditis or myopericarditis. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 4 931 775 individuals aged 12 years or older, followed from 1 October 2020 to 5 October 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome, myocarditis or myopericarditis, was defined as a combination of a hospital diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis, increased troponin levels, and a hospital stay lasting more than 24 hours. Follow-up time before vaccination was compared with follow-up time 0-28 days from the day of vaccination for both first and second doses, using Cox proportional hazards regression with age as an underlying timescale to estimate hazard ratios adjusted for sex, comorbidities, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 269 participants developed myocarditis or myopericarditis, of whom 108 (40%) were 12-39 years old and 196 (73%) were male. Of 3 482 295 individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), 48 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from the vaccination date compared with unvaccinated individuals (adjusted hazard ratio 1.34 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.00); absolute rate 1.4 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.8)). Adjusted hazard ratios among female participants only and male participants only were 3.73 (1.82 to 7.65) and 0.82 (0.50 to 1.34), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 1.3 (0.8 to 1.9) and 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 1.48 (0.74 to 2.98) and the absolute rate was 1.6 (1.0 to 2.6) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. Among 498 814 individuals vaccinated with mRNA-1273 (Moderna), 21 developed myocarditis or myopericarditis within 28 days from vaccination date (adjusted hazard ratio 3.92 (2.30 to 6.68); absolute rate 4.2 per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination (2.6 to 6.4)). Adjusted hazard ratios among women only and men only were 6.33 (2.11 to 18.96) and 3.22 (1.75 to 5.93), respectively, with corresponding absolute rates of 2.0 (0.7 to 4.8) and 6.3 (3.6 to 10.2) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio among 12-39 year olds was 5.24 (2.47 to 11.12) and the absolute rate was 5.7 (3.3 to 9.3) per 100 000 vaccinated individuals within 28 days of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with mRNA-1273 was associated with a significantly increased risk of myocarditis or myopericarditis in the Danish population, primarily driven by an increased risk among individuals aged 12-39 years, while BNT162b2 vaccination was only associated with a significantly increased risk among women. However, the absolute rate of myocarditis or myopericarditis after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination was low, even in younger age groups. The benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination should be taken into account when interpreting these findings. Larger multinational studies are needed to further investigate the risks of myocarditis or myopericarditis after vaccination within smaller subgroups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , Young Adult
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