Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 649
Filter
1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy decreases adult vaccination coverage and has been recognized by WHO as a major health threat. Primary care physicians (PCP) play a key role in vaccination by giving vaccine counselling to their patients. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and barriers (KBAB) associated with own vaccination and patient recommendation in primary care physicians. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were used to search and identify relevant studies based on their title and abstract. In the next step, the full text of each previously selected article was read for eligibility. Articles were selected by two independent reviewers and data extraction was performed using tables. The following information was extracted: methodological characteristics, demographic factors, professional characteristics, and intrinsic or extrinsic factors influencing vaccination or recommendation. RESULTS: Our search yielded 41 eligible papers, data-sources, previous practices, belief in the effectiveness or safety of the vaccine, perceived risk, and trust in health authorities were all shown to be related to own vaccination and patient recommendation. CONCLUSION: Internet is the main source of information for PCP related to vaccine hesitancy. It is therefore essential to increase the presence and access to pro-vaccination content in this area. In addition, involving PCP in the establishment of vaccination recommendations could improve their credibility in the institutions. On the other hand, training in communication skills and establishing reminder systems could reflect higher vaccination coverage among their patients.


Subject(s)
Physicians, Primary Care , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Vaccination , Trust , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278060, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140682

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the relationship between trust and COVID-19 vaccination intentions. Vaccinating a large share of the population is essential for containing the COVID-19 pandemic. However, many individuals refuse to get vaccinated, which might be related to a lack of trust. Using unique survey data from Lithuania during the COVID-19 pandemic, we show that trust in government authorities, science, and pharmaceutical companies are important predictors of individual vaccination intentions. We do not find evidence that trust in strangers, the healthcare system, or the media predict intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Trust , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Lithuania/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2137, 2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: What leads healthy people to enter in a volunteer register for clinical trials? This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the decision to volunteer in clinical trials for a COVID-19 vaccine and social capital, in a sample of healthy volunteers in Italy. Since social capital is characterized by trust, reciprocity, and social and political participation, we claim that it is key in leading individuals to actively take action to protect public health, and to take a risk for the (potential) benefit not only of themselves but for the entire community. METHODS: This study was conducted through the administration of a questionnaire to healthy volunteers registered for a phase 1 clinical trial for a COVID-19 vaccine in the Unit Research Centre of ASST-Monza, in September 2020. The primary purpose of a phase 1 study is to evaluate the safety of a new drug candidate before it proceeds to further clinical studies. To approximate a case-control study, we randomly matched the 318 respondents to healthy volunteers (cases) with 318 people randomly selected by Round 9 of the European Social Survey (controls), using three variables, which we considered to be associated with the decision to volunteer: gender, age, and education level. To execute this matching procedure, we used the "ccmatch" module in STATA. RESULTS: The findings highlight the positive impact of social capital in the choice of healthy individuals to volunteer in COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials. Controlling for possible confounding factors, some exemplary results show that people with a high level of general trust have a greater likelihood of volunteering compared to people with low trust (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.58-4.77); we also found that it is more probable that volunteers are people who have actively taken action to improve things compared with people who have not (for individuals who did three or more actions: OR = 7.54, CI = 4.10-13.86). People who reported voting (OR = 3.91, CI = 1.70-8.99) and participating in social activities more than other people of their age (OR = 2.89, CI = 1.82-4.60) showed a higher probability to volunteer. CONCLUSIONS: Together with the adoption of urgent health measures in response to COVID-19, government policymakers should also promote social capital initiatives to encourage individuals to actively engage in actions aimed at protecting collective health. Our findings make an empirical contribution to the research on vaccines and its intersection with social behaviour, and they provide useful insights for policymakers to manage current and future disease outbreaks and to enhance the enrolment in vaccine trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Trust
4.
J R Soc Med ; 115(9): 331, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138537

Subject(s)
Trust , Humans
5.
Health Promot Int ; 37(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135207

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, news and social media outlets have played a major role in dissemination of information. This analysis aimed to study the association between trust in social and traditional media and experiences of mental distress among a representative sample of US adults. Data for this study came from National Pandemic Pulse, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey that sampled participants on the Dynata platform. Participants included 6435 adults surveyed between 15-23 December 2020. Ordinal logistic regression analyses examined the associations of trust in (i) social media, (ii) print media, (iii) broadcast TV and (iv) cable TV, for COVID-19-related information with self-reported mental distress (4-item Patient Health Questionnaire), controlling for sociodemographics and census region. Compared with those who distrusted social media, those who trusted social media had 2.09 times (95% CI = 1.84-2.37) greater adjusted odds of being in a more severe category of mental distress. In contrast, compared with those who distrusted print media, those who trusted print media had 0.80 times (95% CI = 0.69-0.93) lower adjusted odds of being in a more severe category of mental distress. No significant associations were found between mental distress and trust in broadcast or cable TV for accessing news about COVID-19. Trust in different news outlets may be associated with mental distress during public health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies should explore mechanisms behind these associations, including adherence to best practices for crisis reporting among different media sources and exposure of individuals to misinformation.


During the COVID-19 pandemic, both, traditional channels like print, TV and cable news, as well as social media, have been major sources to obtain news about the pandemic. In this manuscript, we study the association between trust in social and traditional media and symptoms of mental distress among a nationally representative sample of 6435 US adults surveyed in December 2020. Our findings show that those who reported trusting traditional print media were less likely to report more severe mental distress. Conversely, those who reported trusting social media were more likely to report more severe levels of mental distress. This highlights the urgent need for understanding the diffusion patterns of misinformation and rumors that circulate on social media, and consumers' reactions to them. It is important that during a public health emergency, we follow best practices for crisis communication to reduce panic, address uncertainty, promote protective behaviors and mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trust , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self Report
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19987, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133628

ABSTRACT

Despite the efficacy, safety, and availability of COVID-19 vaccines, a lack of awareness and trust of vaccine safety research remains an important barrier to public health. The goal of this research was to design and test online meta-summaries-transparent, interactive summaries of the state of relevant studies-to improve people's awareness and opinion of vaccine safety research. We used insights from a set of co-design interviews (n = 22) to develop meta-summaries to highlight metascientific information about vaccine safety research. An experiment with 863 unvaccinated participants showed that our meta-summaries increased participants' perception of the amount, consistency, and direction of vaccine safety research relative to the U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC) webpage, and that participants found them more trustworthy than the CDC page as well. They were also more likely to discuss it with others in the week following. We conclude that direct summaries of scientific research can be a useful communication tool for controversial scientific topics.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Trust , Communication
7.
Prev Med ; 164: 107311, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132707

ABSTRACT

One's personal physician, national and state or local public health officials, and the broader medical profession play important roles in encouraging vaccine uptake for COVID-19. However, the relationship between trust in these experts and vaccine hesitancy has been underexplored, particularly among racial/minority groups where historic medical mistrust may reduce uptake. Using an April 2021 online sample of US adults (n = 3041) that explored vaccine hesitancy, regression models estimate levels of trust in each of these types of experts and between trust in each of these experts and the odds of being COVID-19 vaccine takers vs refusers or hesitaters. Interaction terms assess how levels of trust in the medical profession by race/ethnicity are associated with vaccine hesitancy. Trust in each expert is positively associated with trust in other experts, except for trust in the medical profession. Only trust in one's own doctor was associated with trust in the medical profession, as measured by factor scores derived from a validated scale. Lower levels of trust in experts were significantly associated with being either a hesitater or a refuser compared to being a taker. Black respondents had higher odds of being either a hesitater or a refuser compared to white respondents but the interaction with trust was insignificant. For Hispanic respondents only, the odds of being a hesitater declined significantly when trust in the medical profession rose. Mistrust in the medical profession, one's doctor and national experts contributes to vaccine hesitancy. Mobilizing personal physicians to speak to their own patients may help.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trust , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccination
8.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(12): 1429-1438, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for adults and children varies depending on societal factors, race, and trust ascribed to the source of vaccine information. OBJECTIVE: To assess COVID-19 vaccination rates and trust levels for vaccine information by race at 2 time points. METHODS: Online cross-sectional data from US adults were collected in February/March 2021 (T1) and November 2021 (T2). Questions included vaccination status, reasons for vaccine refusal, trust levels for vaccine information and the Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale. At T2, parents were asked about vaccination status of children aged 12-18 years and intent for children aged 5-11 years. Vaccination rates and trust levels for vaccine information were measured. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify characteristics predictive of receiving COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Vaccination rates were 20.2% and 70.8% at T1 and T2, respectively. At T1 and T2, higher proportions of White (23.2% and 72.0%) and Other race (14.4% and 75.2%) respondents were vaccinated relative to Black respondents (9.6% and 64.4%) (P < 0.05). In descending order, respondents' doctors, family members, and pharmacists were the most trusted information sources. Black parents, relative to White and Other parents with unvaccinated children aged 12-18 years or who were not very likely to vaccinate younger children, reported lowest physician trust (P < 0.01). At T1, being married, college educated, and older and having greater Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale scores and a higher number of comorbidities predicted a higher likelihood of being vaccinated. Being Black, having a median household income less than $100,000, and residing in the Northeast or Midwest, relative to the West, predicted a decreased likelihood of being vaccinated. At T2, race and comorbidities were no longer predictive of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Racial variation in vaccination status decreased from T1 to T2. Physician trust predicted vaccination status and intent regardless of race. Respondents' doctors, family members, and pharmacists are trusted sources of vaccine information, and targeting these influencers may reduce vaccination hesitancy. DISCLOSURES: Dr Brown reports personal fees from Taiho Oncology, outside the submitted work. Dr Morlock reports personal fees from Johnson and Johnson, Heron Therapeutics, Evofem Biosciences, Horizon Therapeutics, and Taiho Oncology, outside the submitted work. Amy Morlock reports personal fees from both AbbVie (formerly Allergan) and Ironwood, outside the submitted work. Drs Blakolmer and Heidari have nothing to disclose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Adult , Child , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119322

ABSTRACT

Social capital (SC) has been documented to effectively reduce the spread of diseases, including COVID-19; however, research pertaining to SC and COVID-19 vaccination in Korea is lacking. This cross-sectional study conducted in the city of Wonju, Gangwon Province, Korea (n = 1,096) examined the differences in COVID-19 vaccine trust and hesitancy considering individual characteristics and investigated the effects of SC on COVID-19 vaccine trust and hesitancy. SC was measured based on 14 items pertaining to social trust, network, and norms. Responses regarding COVID-19 screening history, vaccine trust, and vaccine hesitancy were also assessed. SC scores did not differ between sexes, but differed significantly according to age and household income; thus, adults aged 70-79 years had the highest SC scores, and mean SC score increased significantly with income. COVID-19 vaccine trust differed significantly according to age, average household income, social organization involvement, and SC score. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy differed significantly with age, SC score, and COVID-19 screening history. In univariate logistic regression, age, average household income, social organization involvement, and SC score were significant predictors of vaccine trust; in multivariable analysis, however, the identified predictors were age and SC. In particular, people with an SC score ≥50 were 2.660 times more likely to trust COVID-19 vaccines than those with lower scores. In multivariable analysis, age and SC were significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy. In particular, people with an SC score ≥50 were 1.400 times more likely not to be hesitant about receiving COVID-19 vaccines than people with lower scores. These results indicate that prioritizing policies to increase SC and trust in the government could boost the COVID-19 vaccination rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Trust , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Parents , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115949

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to assess the level of trust in health services during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study, carried out between 2020 and 2021, among Brazilians over 18. Nonprobabilistic sampling was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied, using the local bivariate Moran's technique to verify the existence of spatial dependence between the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 and trust in health services. Furthermore, multinomial regression was also used to analyze the factors associated with the confidence level, with the calculation of the odds ratio and with a confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: A total of 50.6% reported trust in hospital services, while 41.4% did not trust primary health care services. With the application of the local bivariate Moran, both for the incidence and mortality of COVID-19, the trust in tertiary care and primary care services showed a statistically significant spatial association predominant in the Midwest (high-low) and North (low-high) regions of Brazil. The level of trust was associated with education, religion, region of the country and income. CONCLUSIONS: The level of trust in hospital services, more than primary health care services, may be related to the population's culture of prioritizing the search for hospital care at the detriment of health promotion and disease prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Trust
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110101

ABSTRACT

Willingness to get a vaccine was important during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies suggest that vaccine hesitation during the pandemic could have been related to truth discernment, belief in information, exposure to misinformation, attitudes to vaccines, and conspiracy beliefs. Previous studies were mostly with younger adults, and studies with older adults are lacking. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the trust or belief in fake online news (print news was not included), truth discernment, attitudes, and willingness to be vaccinated during the COVID-19 pandemic while controlling for some significant factors/variables that could affect vaccination in a sample of older adults. There were 504 pre-retirees and retirees participating in this study. Participants from Lithuania age ranged from 50 to 90 years old (M = 64.37, SD = 9.10), 58.3 percent were females. Results from several path models predicting the participants willingness to get a vaccine suggested that stronger conspiracy beliefs and skeptical attitudes toward vaccination would be related to lower willingness to get vaccinated. Participants who disbelieved in the headlines were already vaccinated. Therefore, it seems that discernment (the ability to distinguish which information is true and which is not) is not related to the willingness to vaccinate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinformation , Vaccination , Trust
12.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 166(6): 1144-1146, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115868

ABSTRACT

The "tonsil riots" of 1906 were panics that developed at several public schools in historically immigrant-dominated neighborhoods of New York City (NYC). Per archived newspaper articles, several NYC public schools asked for parental consent to have Board of Health physicians come and perform tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy on their students. When children subsequently returned home from school "drooling mouthfuls of blood and barely able to speak," mothers reacted with panic and flocked to the schools demanding the safe return of their children. Police, ultimately, had to be called in to manage the crowds, and the events of 1906 largely faded from the public eye. However, these events can offer important lessons in communication and cultural humility as the United States continues its mass vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Palatine Tonsil , Child , Humans , Riots , Trust , United States
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1012374, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119558

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese media played a significant role in dispelling the public panic, establishing the public confidence and stabilizing the society during the COVID-19 pandemic. This corpus-based discourse study explored the discursive construction of news values by Chinese media to reveal how the COVID-19 pandemic was packaged and sold to the public to establish confidence in the news reporting. Adopting corpus linguistic method and the Discursive news values analysis (DNVA) framework, this study examines news values through key words, news quotations, and images in the Chinese domestic mainstream media (http://www.people.com.cn/) during two different phases of the pandemic. The results show that during the first pandemic phase (2019.12.27-2020.4.28) when there had been no treatment protocol or understanding of the medical ramifications, Chinese media dominantly constructed political Eliteness through multimodal resources to portray a people-oriented government, a transparent notification mechanism and an immediate response capability to crises, and to give the public psychological support and to cultivate positive attitudes toward the government's policy. This news reporting way exposes the universal trust of Chinese society in the political authorities. During the second phase (2020.4.29-2020.8.31) when the cognition about the COVID-19 virus had been greatly improved and more medical treatment and prevention methods had been developed, the political Eliteness was replaced by medical Eliteness which was more vital to people's safety during the health crisis. We propose actionable recommendations for scholars to use this in-depth DNVA framework to examine the social trend of thoughts during major public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Trust , China/epidemiology
14.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 154, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound consequences for the world's population, particularly for vulnerable groups like migrants who face barriers to healthcare access. Trust in authorities is crucial to any crisis management strategy implemented by a government. However, trust in authorities is linked to trust in other areas of life and it evolves during a crisis. This study explores migrants' trust in the Norwegian government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews from April to May 2020 with migrants from Somalia (10), Syria (15), Sri Lanka (10), Chile (10) and Poland (10) who were living in Norway. Interviews were conducted via telephone and in participants' mother tongue. Data were analysed thematically using the systematic text condensation method. RESULTS: Trust was established at four levels: (i) in the personal sphere, (ii) in Norwegian society in general, (iii) in the Norwegian authorities' management of the pandemic, and (iv) in the transnational sphere. Trust was deeply rooted in relationships with individuals, groups and entities, across countries. High trust in authorities emerged in the accounts of participants who felt they were taken care of in the diverse relationships they established in Norway, particularly during the crisis. CONCLUSION: Pandemics create more vulnerability but also opportunities for trust-building. Trust-building can be fostered through relationships in the host country that provide the foundation for migrants to feel included. Healthcare providers are in a position from which they can nurture trust as they can build relationships with migrants over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Transients and Migrants , Trust , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Transients and Migrants/psychology , Trust/psychology
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2033, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108758

ABSTRACT

To facilitate maximum uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine, the roles of medical trust and mistrust of healthcare professionals must be examined. Previous work suggests that trust and mistrust may have differential impacts on vaccination intention via vaccine necessity and concerns. Multigroup structural equation modeling was utilized to test whether vaccine necessity and concerns mediated the associations between trust in providers and health information, mistrust of providers, and willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine. The model was found to be invariant across Black and White respondents. Trust in providers and trust in healthcare information exerted indirect effects on intentions through vaccine necessity, while mistrust of providers exerted indirect effects through vaccine concerns. Unlike previous work, the forms of trust did not influence vaccine concerns. The findings have implications for future communication efforts from healthcare professionals and health messengers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , African Americans , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110067

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on factors that shape vaccine attitudes and behaviours in the context of a low-trust society. Our analysis focuses on the Polish vaccination programme against COVID-19, primarily on (1) the evaluation of the information campaign, (2) trust in the institutions, (3) trust in other people, (4) attitudes toward vaccine safety and efficacy, (5) attitudes toward restrictions related to vaccination (e.g., restricted access to certain services for unvaccinated persons) and the introduction of mandatory vaccination, (6) the evaluation of the government's actions during the pandemic, and (7) political preferences. The study was conducted with a sample of 1143 adult residents in Poland (CATI). The explanation of the factors determining the COVID-19 vaccine was based on structural equation modelling (SEM). The model showed that the declared fact of vaccination was largely determined by a positive attitude toward restrictions related to vaccination and trust in vaccines. The formation of the provaccine attitude was to an extent determined by the assessment of the government's campaign and actions during pandemic. While institutional trust had a positive effect on support for the ruling coalition (0.56), the latter on its own had the opposite effect (-0.61) on the formation of provaccine attitude. In the group who both trust institutions and support the parties currently in power, there are more of those who simultaneously reject the restrictions and mandatory vaccination and remain sceptical about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines than those who both trust in the vaccine safety and efficacy and accept the restrictions and mandatory vaccination. This indicates that in the context of strong political polarisation, ideological affiliations may play a greater role in shaping vaccine attitudes and behaviours than institutional trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines , Poland , COVID-19/prevention & control , Latent Class Analysis , Vaccination , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18947, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106467

ABSTRACT

COVID vaccination protects individuals and helps end the pandemic, but a sizable minority in Western countries rejects the vaccine. Vaccination status should serve as a group membership, critical communication between groups undermines trust, and we accordingly suggest that calls to get vaccinated by vaccinated sources lead to defensive rejection instead of desired behavior change. We term this the vaccination rift effect. A unique collaboration with national print, online and TV news media yielded a large (N = 1170), age-representative sample of Austrian citizens for our fully randomized experiment. Participants exhibited the vaccination rift: They ascribed less constructive motives, d = 0.28, 95% CI [0.17; 0.40], experienced more threat, d = - 0.30, 95% CI [- 0.42; - 0.19], and ascribed worse personality characteristics to vaccinated (vs. unvaccinated) commenters, d = 0.17, 95% CI [0.06; 0.29]. Constructiveness consistently predicted behavioral measures of counterarguing and vaccination planning (indirect effects B = 0.033, SE = 0.013 and B = - 0.056, SE = 0.014). The vaccination rift was substantially stronger among the critical group of unvaccinated participants, ds = |0.39-0.52|, than among those fully vaccinated, ds = |0.08-0.17|. We discuss how to apply these psychological mechanics of the vaccination rift to public campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Vaccination/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Trust , Austria
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has considerably influenced all domains of people's lives worldwide, determining a high increase in overall psychological distress and several clinical conditions. The study attempted to shed light on the relationship between the strategies adopted to manage the pandemic, vaccine hesitancy, and distinct features of personality and mental functioning. METHODS: The sample consisted of 367 Italian individuals (68.1% women, 31.9% men; M age = 37, SD = 12.79) who completed an online survey, including an instrument assessing four response styles to the pandemic and lockdown(s), the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form, the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales-Self-Report-30, the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire, and the Epistemic Trust, Mistrust, Credulity Questionnaire. RESULTS: Maladaptive response patterns to pandemic restrictions were related to dysfunctional personality traits, immature defense mechanisms, poor mentalization, and epistemic mistrust or credulity. Moreover, more severe levels of personality pathology were predictive of an extraverted-maladaptive response style to health emergency through the full mediation of low overall defensive functioning, poor certainty of others' mental states, and high epistemic credulity. CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing and understanding dysfunctional psychological pathways associated with individuals' difficulties in dealing with the pandemic are crucial for developing tailored mental-health interventions and promoting best practices in healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mentalization , Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Trust , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Personality
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e40558, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital contact tracing (DCT) apps have been implemented as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Research has focused on understanding acceptance and adoption of these apps, but more work is needed to understand the factors that may contribute to their sustained use. This is key to public health because DCT apps require a high uptake rate to decrease the transmission of the virus within the general population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand changes in the use of the National Health Service Test & Trace (T&T) COVID-19 DCT app and explore how public trust in the app evolved over a 1-year period. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal mixed methods study consisting of a digital survey in December 2020 followed by another digital survey and interview in November 2021, in which responses from 9 participants were explored in detail. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. This paper focuses on the thematic analysis to unpack the reasoning behind participants' answers. RESULTS: In this paper, 5 themes generated through thematic analysis are discussed: flaws in the T&T app, usefulness and functionality affecting trust in the app, low trust in the UK government, varying degrees of trust in other stakeholders, and public consciousness and compliance dropping over time. Mistrust evolved from participants experiencing sociotechnical flaws in the app and led to concerns about the app's usefulness. Similarly, mistrust in the government was linked to perceived poor pandemic handling and the creation and procurement of the app. However, more variability in trust in other stakeholders was highlighted depending on perceived competence and intentions. For example, Big Tech companies (ie, Apple and Google), large hospitality venues, and private contractors were seen as more capable, but participants mistrust their intentions, and small hospitality venues, local councils, and the National Health Service (ie, public health system) were seen as well-intentioned but there is mistrust in their ability to handle pandemic matters. Participants reported complying, or not, with T&T and pandemic guidance to different degrees but, overall, observed a drop in compliance over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to the wider implications of changes in DCT app use over time for public health. Findings suggest that trust in the wider T&T app ecosystem could be linked to changes in the use of the app; however, further empirical and theoretical work needs to be done to generalize the results because of the small, homogeneous sample. Initial novelty effects occurred with the app, which lessened over time as public concern and media representation of the pandemic decreased and normalization occurred. Trust in the sociotechnical capabilities of the app, stakeholders involved, and salience maintenance of the T&T app in conjunction with other measures are needed for sustained use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Ecosystem , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , State Medicine , Trust , United Kingdom
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18132, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096795

ABSTRACT

In September 2021 we conducted a survey to 1482 people in Italy, when the vaccination campaign against Covid19 was going on. In the first part of the survey we run three simple tests on players' behavior in standard tasks with monetary incentives to measure their risk attitudes, willingness to contribute to a public good in an experimental game, and their beliefs about others' behavior. In the second part, we asked respondents if they were vaccinated and, if not, for what reason. We classified as no-vaxxers those (around [Formula: see text] of the sample) who did not yet start the vaccination process and declared that they intended not to do it in the future. We find that no-vaxxers contribute less to the public good in the experimental game because they trust others less to do so. from the three tests we extrapolated a classification based on the benchmark of rationality and other-regarding preferences for each respondent, and we found that in this respect no-vaxxers do not differ from the rest of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Game Theory , Humans , Trust , Vaccination , Motivation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL