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2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879127

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, COVID-19 dominates the public health agenda and poses a permanent threat, leading to health systems' exhaustion and unprecedented service disruption. Primary healthcare services, including tuberculosis services, are at increased risk of facing severe disruptions, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Indeed, corroborating model-based forecasts, there is increasing evidence of the COVID-19 pandemic's negative impact on tuberculosis case detection. METHODS: Applying a segmented time-series analysis, we assessed the effects of COVID-19-related measures on tuberculosis diagnosis service across districts in Mozambique. Ministry health information system data were used from the first quarter of 2017 to the end of 2020. The model, performed under the Bayesian premises, was estimated as a negative binomial with random effects for districts and provinces. RESULTS: A total of 154 districts were followed for 16 consecutive quarters. Together, these districts reported 96 182 cases of all forms of tuberculosis in 2020. At baseline (first quarter of 2017), Mozambique had an estimated incidence rate of 283 (95% CI 200 to 406) tuberculosis cases per 100 000 people and this increased at a 5% annual rate through the end of 2019. We estimated that 17 147 new tuberculosis cases were potentially missed 9 months after COVID-19 onset, resulting in a 15.1% (95% CI 5.9 to 24.0) relative loss in 2020. The greatest impact was observed in the southern region at 40.0% (95% CI 30.1 to 49.0) and among men at 15% (95% CI 4.0 to 25.0). The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis increased at an average rate of 6.6% annually; however, an abrupt drop (15%) was also observed immediately after COVID-19 onset in March 2020. CONCLUSION: The most significant impact of the state of emergency was observed between April and June 2020, the quarter after COVID-19 onset. Encouragingly, by the end of 2020, clear signs of health system recovery were visible despite the initial shock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Mozambique/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 732, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent globally, killing about 1.5 million people annually, yet 3 million cases are missed every year. The World Health Organization recommends systematic screening of suspected active TB patients among those visiting the healthcare facilities. While many countries have scaled-up systematic screening of TB, there has been limited assessment of the extent of its integration into the health system. This study sought to explore factors that shape the integration of systematic screening of TB in outpatient departments of primary healthcare facilities in Kitwe district, Zambia. METHODS: This was a qualitative case study with health providers including district managers, TB focal point persons and laboratory personnel working in six purposively selected primary healthcare facilities. Data was collected through key informant (n = 8) and in-depth (n = 15) interviews. Data analysis was conducted using QDA Miner software and guided by Atun's Integration framework. RESULTS: The facilitators to integration of systematic screening for TB into out patient departments of primary health facilities included the perceived high burden TB, compatibility of the systematic screening for TB program with healthcare workers training and working schedules, stakeholder knowledge of each others interest and values, regular performance management and integrated outreach of TB screening services. Constraining factors to integration of systematic screening for TB into outpatient departments included complexity of screening for TB in children, unbalanced incentivization mechanisms, ownership and legitimacy of the TB screening program, negative health worker attitudes, social cultural misconceptions of TB and societal stigma as well as the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Systematic screening of TB is not fully integrated into the primary healthcare facilities in Zambia to capture all those suspected with active TB that make contact with the health system. Finding the missing TB cases will, therefore, require contextual adaptation of the systematic screening for TB program to local needs and capacities as well as strengthening the health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Child , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Zambia/epidemiology
5.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(2): 633-639, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872828

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 affect the lungs and are transmitted mainly by aerosols or particles of saliva from infected persons. Clinical similarities between diseases can affect correct diagnosis. Individuals belonging to the population deprived of liberty (PDL) are at increased risk of contagion due to precarious sanitary conditions and overcrowded environments. A variety of specimens may be suitable for the diagnosis of COVID-19, using molecular diagnostic techniques; however, there is little data on the analysis of sputum samples with the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2® for the diagnosis of COVID-19, especially in this population group. The present study reports a case of TB and COVID-19 co-infection detected in sputum from an individual belonging to the PDL. For the detection, it used the GeneXpert platform (Cepheid, USA). Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was detected using the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra® cartridge and SARS-CoV-2 was detected using the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2® cartridge. The genes IS6110 and IS1081 were detected within 80 min indicating the presence of MTC, with no mutations related to resistance to rifampicin. The SARS-CoV-2 E and N2 genes were detected within 45 min. The result was confirmed by RT-qPCR with detection of E, N, and RdRP/S genes in the sputum and nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens. Rapid diagnoses that allow the identification and differentiation of such diseases are important for adequate epidemiological surveillance, isolation of infected individuals, and interruption of the transmission chain. Using the GeneXpert platform, specimens can be tested as soon as they are received, without the need for prior preparation. The US Food and Drug Administration has issued emergency authorization for the use of the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 using specimens from a NP or nasal wash/aspirate. The case presented here gains an innovation with the use of the sputum to COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Coinfection/diagnosis , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Rifampin , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/microbiology
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1081, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic along the U.S.-Mexico border region and evaluate the relationship of COVID-19 related mortality, socioeconomic status, and vaccination. METHODS: We used indirect standardization to age-adjust mortality rates and calculate standardized mortality ratios [SMR] in both countries. To examine the impact of socioeconomic factors, we calculated the Human Development Index (HDI) by county/municipality. We performed linear regression to understand the relationship between mortality, vaccination, and HDI. We used choropleth maps to visualize the trends seen in the region. RESULTS: Between January 22nd, 2020 and December 1st, 2021, surges of cases and deaths were similar in dyad cities along the U.S.-Mexico border visualizing the interconnectedness of the region. Mortality was higher in U.S. counties along the border compared to the national average (SMR 1.17, 95% CI 1.15-1.19). In Mexico, border counties had a slightly lower mortality to the national average (SMR 0.94, 95% CI 0.93-0.95). In U.S. border states, SMR was shown to negatively correlate with human development index (HDI), a socioeconomic proxy, resulting in a higher SMR in the border region compared to the rest of the counties. Conversely in Mexican border states, there was no association between SMR and HDI. Related to vaccination, U.S. counties along the border were vaccinated at a greater percentage than non-border counties and vaccination was negatively correlated with HDI. In Mexico, states along the border had a higher ratio of vaccinations per person than non-border states. CONCLUSIONS: The U.S.-Mexico border is a divide of incredible importance not only to immigration but as a region with unique social, economic, environmental, and epidemiological factors that impact disease transmission. We investigated how the COVID-19 pandemic followed trends of previously studied diseases in the corridor such as tuberculosis, HIV, and influenza H1N1. These data state how targeted intervention along the U.S.-Mexico border region is a necessity when confronting COVID-19 and have implications for future control of infectious diseases in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 976, 2022 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) from tuberculosis (TB) treatment and care is a major public health problem as patients can be infectious and also may develop a multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The study aimed to assess whether LTFU differs by the distance TB patients travelled to receive care from the nearest health facility. METHODS: A total of 402 patient cards of TB patients who received care were reviewed from March 1-30, 2020. The Kaplan-Meir curve with the Log-rank test was used to compare differences in LTFU by the distance travelled to reach to the nearest health facility for TB care. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify predictors. All statistical tests are declared significant at a p-value< 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients were LTFU with the incidence rate of 11.26 per 1000 person-months of observations (PMOs) (95% CI: 8.15-15.53). The incidence rate ratio was 12.19 (95% CI: 5.01-35.73) among the groups compared (those who travelled 10 km or more versus those who travelled less than 10 km). Age ≥ 45 years (aHR = 7.71, 95% CI: 1.72, 34.50), educational status (primary schooling, aHR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.49, 8.40; secondary schooling, aHR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.08, 7.03), lack of family support (aHR = 2.80, 95% CI: 1.27, 6.19), nutritional support (aHR = 3.40, 95% CI:1.68, 6.89), ≥ 10 km distance to travel to a health facility (aHR = 6.06, 95% CI: 2.33, 15.81) had significantly predicted LTFU from TB treatment and care. CONCLUSIONS: LTFU from adult TB care and treatment was 12 times higher among those who travelled ≥10 km to reach a health facility compared to those who travelled less. To retain adult TB patients in care and ensure appropriate treatment, health professionals and other stakeholders should give due attention to the factors that drive LTFU. We suggest identifying concerns of older patients at admission and those who travel long distance and establish social support platforms that could help people to complete TB treatment.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Adult , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Lost to Follow-Up , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
8.
J Med Chem ; 65(11): 7489-7531, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864721

ABSTRACT

Over the past 2000 years, tuberculosis (TB) has claimed more lives than any other infectious disease. In 2020 alone, TB was responsible for 1.5 million deaths worldwide, comparable to the 1.8 million deaths caused by COVID-19. The World Health Organization has stated that new TB drugs must be developed to end this pandemic. After decades of neglect in this field, a renaissance era of TB drug discovery has arrived, in which many novel candidates have entered clinical trials. However, while hundreds of molecules are reported annually as promising anti-TB agents, very few successfully progress to clinical development. In this Perspective, we critically review those anti-TB compounds published in the last 6 years that demonstrate good in vivo efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, we highlight the main challenges and strategies for developing new TB drugs and the current global pipeline of drug candidates in clinical studies to foment fresh research perspectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20210109, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1863716
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(5): e246-e248, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853265

ABSTRACT

A 6-year-old boy with autistic spectrum disorder was diagnosed with tuberculosis infection following contact tracing of his mother who had isoniazid-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. He progressed to develop mediastinal lymphadenopathy causing a persistent cough. He was too small to undergo endobronchial ultrasound-guided biopsy. As an alternative, he underwent esophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy, leading to confirmation of the diagnosis. We believe this approach to diagnostic biopsy is underrecognized in pediatric practice, and highlight its utility with this case and a brief literature review.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Tuberculosis , Bronchoscopy , Child , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Mediastinum/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinum/pathology , Tuberculosis/pathology , Ultrasonography
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 798, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disruption to healthcare services globally and has impacted on tuberculosis (TB) patients and TB diagnosis and treatment services both in low- and high-income countries. We therefore explored the perspectives of members of regional and international TB control and research networks to further understand TB service disruptions and compared the experiences of members from West African and European countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional, explorative descriptive study was conducted from May to July 2020 using an open online survey with target respondents from both West African and European countries. The survey comprised discrete questions exploring challenges faced with TB screening, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and changes implemented. Additionally, respondents were asked to provide recommendations for remedial actions. RESULTS: We analysed responses from 124 respondents based in 29 countries located in Europe and West Africa. About half of the respondents reported challenges in delivering routine TB services during the COVID-19 pandemic, with over one third reporting having some form of guidance issued regarding maintaining delivery of routine TB services. Respondents emphasised the need for strengthening TB services especially in light of COVID-19 pandemic. Considerable similarities were found between the challenges experienced by TB professionals in both West African and European settings. Responses also highlighted the hidden challenges faced in some countries prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in some West African settings where staff shortages and laboratory issues predated COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: TB control and research professionals in West African and European settings experienced similar challenges to the delivery of TB diagnosis and treatment services due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlighted the need for clear communication of guidelines, prioritisation of routine TB service delivery, ongoing health education, and possible integration of TB and COVID-19 services to ensure that TB services are more resilient against the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840566

ABSTRACT

Though the COVID-19 pandemic has made international headlines since 2020, behind the scenes, tuberculosis (TB) has remained a leading cause of global mortality. According to the WHO, TB is 1 of the top 10 causes of death globally, with about one-quarter of the world's population infected. This case report highlights a female patient who presented to the emergency department with signs and symptoms of COVID-19 and was admitted to hospital. When the patient demonstrated minimal clinical improvement after initiating treatment for COVID-19, further investigations uncovered concomitant reactivated TB. This case is helpful in underscoring the potential implications of the COVID-19 pandemic and current treatment guidelines on the global burden of TB, which could subsequently impact how practitioners approach screening and management of latent TB infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
17.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(4): 507-518, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO-recommended tuberculosis screening and diagnostic algorithm in ambulatory people living with HIV is a four-symptom screen (known as the WHO-recommended four symptom screen [W4SS]) followed by a WHO-recommended molecular rapid diagnostic test (eg Xpert MTB/RIF [hereafter referred to as Xpert]) if W4SS is positive. To inform updated WHO guidelines, we aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of alternative screening tests and strategies for tuberculosis in this population. METHODS: In this systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis, we updated a search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, the Cochrane Library, and conference abstracts for publications from Jan 1, 2011, to March 12, 2018, done in a previous systematic review to include the period up to Aug 2, 2019. We screened the reference lists of identified pieces and contacted experts in the field. We included prospective cross-sectional, observational studies and randomised trials among adult and adolescent (age ≥10 years) ambulatory people living with HIV, irrespective of signs and symptoms of tuberculosis. We extracted study-level data using a standardised data extraction form, and we requested individual participant data from study authors. We aimed to compare the W4SS with alternative screening tests and strategies and the WHO-recommended algorithm (ie, W4SS followed by Xpert) with Xpert for all in terms of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity), overall and in key subgroups (eg, by antiretroviral therapy [ART] status). The reference standard was culture. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020155895. FINDINGS: We identified 25 studies, and obtained data from 22 studies (including 15 666 participants; 4347 [27·7%] of 15 663 participants with data were on ART). W4SS sensitivity was 82% (95% CI 72-89) and specificity was 42% (29-57). C-reactive protein (≥10 mg/L) had similar sensitivity to (77% [61-88]), but higher specificity (74% [61-83]; n=3571) than, W4SS. Cough (lasting ≥2 weeks), haemoglobin (<10 g/dL), body-mass index (<18·5 kg/m2), and lymphadenopathy had high specificities (80-90%) but low sensitivities (29-43%). The WHO-recommended algorithm had a sensitivity of 58% (50-66) and a specificity of 99% (98-100); Xpert for all had a sensitivity of 68% (57-76) and a specificity of 99% (98-99). In the one study that assessed both, the sensitivity of sputum Xpert Ultra was higher than sputum Xpert (73% [62-81] vs 57% [47-67]) and specificities were similar (98% [96-98] vs 99% [98-100]). Among outpatients on ART (4309 [99·1%] of 4347 people on ART), W4SS sensitivity was 53% (35-71) and specificity was 71% (51-85). In this population, a parallel strategy (two tests done at the same time) of W4SS with any chest x-ray abnormality had higher sensitivity (89% [70-97]) and lower specificity (33% [17-54]; n=2670) than W4SS alone; at a tuberculosis prevalence of 5%, this strategy would require 379 more rapid diagnostic tests per 1000 people living with HIV than W4SS but detect 18 more tuberculosis cases. Among outpatients not on ART (11 160 [71·8%] of 15 541 outpatients), W4SS sensitivity was 85% (76-91) and specificity was 37% (25-51). C-reactive protein (≥10 mg/L) alone had a similar sensitivity to (83% [79-86]), but higher specificity (67% [60-73]; n=3187) than, W4SS and a sequential strategy (both test positive) of W4SS then C-reactive protein (≥5 mg/L) had a similar sensitivity to (84% [75-90]), but higher specificity than (64% [57-71]; n=3187), W4SS alone; at 10% tuberculosis prevalence, these strategies would require 272 and 244 fewer rapid diagnostic tests per 1000 people living with HIV than W4SS but miss two and one more tuberculosis cases, respectively. INTERPRETATION: C-reactive protein reduces the need for further rapid diagnostic tests without compromising sensitivity and has been included in the updated WHO tuberculosis screening guidelines. However, C-reactive protein data were scarce for outpatients on ART, necessitating future research regarding the utility of C-reactive protein in this group. Chest x-ray can be useful in outpatients on ART when combined with W4SS. The WHO-recommended algorithm has suboptimal sensitivity; Xpert for all offers slight sensitivity gains and would have major resource implications. FUNDING: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Adolescent , Adult , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 65-70, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838853

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cross-reactivity with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species might limit the use of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the utility of the LAM test among hospitalized HIV-positive patients. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled HIV-positive inpatients with any TB symptom or seriously ill patients with advanced immunodeficiency. Urine samples were tested using the Alere Determine LAM Ag, and participants were categorized as confirmed TB, confirmed NTM infection, unclassified mycobacteria infection, and no mycobacteria infection based on microbiologic reference standards. RESULTS: A total of 382 participants were included. The prevalence of confirmed TB and NTM infection was 5.24% (20 of 382) and 4.45% (17 of 382), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the urine LAM for TB diagnosis were 65.00% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40.78-84.61) and 89.36% (95% CI 85.68-92.36), respectively. The LAM test for NTM yielded a sensitivity of 58.82% (95% CI 32.92-81.56) and specificity of 88.61% (95% CI 84.87-91.70). Notably, the negative predictive values of the urine LAM for TB and NTM were 97.85% (95% CI 95.63-99.13) and 97.85% (95% CI 95.63-99.13), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-reactivity with NTM cause high false-positive LAM for TB diagnosis in PLWH. The correct identification of mycobacteria species is crucial for deciding treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/urine , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prospective Studies , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
19.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(2): e20210515, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung function in a cohort of patients with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis in Brazil, as well as to evaluate the decline in lung function over time and compare it with that observed in similar cohorts in Mexico and Italy. METHODS: The three cohorts were compared in terms of age, smoking status, pulmonary function test results, six-minute walk test results, and arterial blood gas results. In the Brazilian cohort, pulmonary function test results, six-minute walk test results, and arterial blood gas results right after the end of tuberculosis treatment were compared with those obtained at the end of the follow-up period. RESULTS: The three cohorts were very different regarding pulmonary function test results. The most common ventilatory patterns in the Brazilian, Italian, and Mexican cohorts were an obstructive pattern, a mixed pattern, and a normal pattern (in 58 patients [50.9%], in 18 patients [41.9%], and in 26 patients [44.1%], respectively). Only 2 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases were included in the Brazilian cohort, whereas, in the Mexican cohort, 27 cases were included (45.8%). Mean PaO2 and mean SaO2 were lower in the Mexican cohort than in the Brazilian cohort (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.002 for PaO2 and SaO2, respectively). In the Brazilian cohort, almost all functional parameters deteriorated over time. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of early and effective treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis patients, because multidrug-resistant tuberculosis increases lung damage. When patients complete their tuberculosis treatment, they should be evaluated as early as possible, and, if post-tuberculosis lung disease is diagnosed, they should be managed and offered pulmonary rehabilitation because there is evidence that it is effective in these patients.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Lung , Mexico/epidemiology , Oxygen , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
20.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(5): 510-514, 2022 May 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834946

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and tuberculosis (TB) are two respiratory infectious diseases with a high incidence of transmission, mainly via respiratory droplets and both can weaken the immune system and lower the number of CD4+T cells in patients. COVID-19 can occur before, at the same time or after the diagnosis of TB. Patients with pulmonary TB are more likely to have co-infection when they have a history of epidemiological exposure to COVID-19. At present, many cases of nosocomial infection of COVID-19 caused by ineffective prevention and control measures in tuberculosis hospitals have been reported successively at domestic and overseas. Therefore, it is urgent to strengthen the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in tuberculosis hospitals. The superposition of the two diseases can lead to a worsening prognosis, aggravating the patient's condition and making treatment more difficult. In addition, in the context of the new coronavirus epidemic, early recognition of co-infection with new coronavirus should be made when TB patients in chest hospitals present with symptoms such as aggregated fever or progressive disease. At the same time, we should focus on identifying the clinical and imaging manifestations of TB and COVID-19 co-infection. At present, research on COVID-19 complicated with pulmonary TB is scarce, and there are disputes on many aspects. As a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, it is of great practical significance to identify the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment of the two infectious diseases in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
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