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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 870768, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957155

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB), considered an ancient disease, is still killing one person every 21 seconds. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) still has many challenges, especially in low and middle-income countries with high burden disease rates. Over the last two decades, the amount of drug-resistant (DR)-TB cases has been increasing, from mono-resistant (mainly for isoniazid or rifampicin resistance) to extremely drug resistant TB. DR-TB is problematic to diagnose and treat, and thus, needs more resources to manage it. Together with+ TB clinical symptoms, phenotypic and genotypic diagnosis of TB includes a series of tests that can be used on different specimens to determine if a person has TB, as well as if the M.tb strain+ causing the disease is drug susceptible or resistant. Here, we review and discuss advantages and disadvantages of phenotypic vs. genotypic drug susceptibility testing for DR-TB, advances in TB immunodiagnostics, and propose a call to improve deployable and low-cost TB diagnostic tests to control the DR-TB burden, especially in light of the increase of the global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance, and the potentially long term impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disruption on TB programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology
3.
Trials ; 23(1): 484, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis disease affects around 460,000 people each year. Currently recommended regimens are 9-24 months duration, have poor efficacy and carry significant toxicity. A shorter, less toxic and more efficacious regimen would improve outcomes for people with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: TB-PRACTECAL is an open-label, randomised, controlled, phase II/III non-inferiority trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of 24-week regimens containing bedaquiline and pretomanid to treat rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Conducted in Uzbekistan, South Africa and Belarus, patients aged 15 and above with rifampicin-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and requiring a new course of therapy were eligible for inclusion irrespective of HIV status. In the first stage, equivalent to a phase IIB trial, patients were randomly assigned one of four regimens, stratified by site. Investigational regimens include oral bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid. Additionally, two of the regimens also included moxifloxacin (arm 1) and clofazimine (arm 2) respectively. Treatment was administered under direct observation for 24 weeks in investigational arms and 36 to 96 weeks in the standard of care arm. The second stage of the study was equivalent to a phase III trial, investigating the safety and efficacy of the most promising regimen/s. The primary outcome was the percentage of unfavourable outcomes at 72 weeks post-randomisation. This was a composite of early treatment discontinuation, treatment failure, recurrence, lost-to-follow-up and death. The study is being conducted in accordance with ICH-GCP and full ethical approval was obtained from Médecins sans Frontières ethical review board, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine ethical review board as well as ERBs and regulatory authorities at each site. DISCUSSION: TB-PRACTECAL is an ambitious trial using adaptive design to accelerate regimen assessment and bring novel treatments that are effective and safe to patients quicker. The trial took a patient-centred approach, adapting to best practice guidelines throughout recruitment. The implementation faced significant challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic. The trial was terminated early for efficacy on the advice of the DSMB and will report on data collected up to the end of recruitment and, additionally, the planned final analysis at 72 weeks after the end of recruitment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02589782. Registered on 28 October 2015.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Diarylquinolines/therapeutic use , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Diarylquinolines/pharmacology , Humans , Linezolid/pharmacology , Pandemics , Rifampin/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Young Adult
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736632, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775881

ABSTRACT

To evaluate China's current rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) screening strategy from stakeholders' perspectives, the perceptions, attitudes, and interests of 245 stakeholders from three eastern, central, and western China provinces on RR-TB screening strategies, were investigated through stakeholder survey and interview. The attitudes toward three RR-TB screening strategies were statistically different: inclination to choose who to screen (Z = 98.477; P < 0.001), funding for rapid diagnostic technology screening either by reimbursed health insurance or directly subsidized financial assistance (Z = 4.142, P < 0.001), and respondents' attitude during RR-TB screening implementation levels (Z = 2.380, P = 0.017). In conclusion, RR-TB screening scope could be expanded by applying rapid diagnostic technologies. Provinces with different economic status could adjust their screening policies accordingly.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis , Humans , Mass Screening , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis
5.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 28(3): 211-217, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713778

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is undergoing substantial changes, owing availability of new diagnostic tools and drugs, coupled with global underdiagnosis and undertreatment. Recent developments are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular diagnostics, for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex detection and prediction of drug resistance, implemented in the last decade, accelerated TB diagnosis with improved case detection. Nevertheless, access and coverage of drug-resistance testing remain insufficient. Genome sequencing-technologies, based on targeted next-generation sequencing show early potential to mitigate some of the challenges in the future. The recommendation to use an all oral, bedaquiline based regimen for treatment of multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant TB is major advancement in DR-TB care. TB regimen using new and repurposed TB drugs demonstrate in recent clinical trials like, NIX-TB, ZeNIX and TB PRACTECAL considerable treatment success, shorten treatment duration and reduce toxicity. Their optimal use is threatened by the rapid occurrence and spread of strains, resistant to new drugs. Children benefit only very slowly from the progress. SUMMARY: There is notable progress in improved diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant TB, but complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic the majority of TB patients worldwide don't have (yet) access to the advances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Pandemics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid and early detection of drug susceptibility among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients could guide the timely initiation of effective treatment and reduce transmission of drug-resistant TB. In the current study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of GenoType MTBDRsl (MTBDRsl) ver1.0 assay for detection of resistance to ofloxacin (OFL), kanamycin (KAN) and ethambutol (EMB), and additionally the XDR-TB among MDR-TB patients in Bangladesh. METHODS: The MTBDRsl assay was performed directly on 218 smear-positive sputum specimens collected from MDR-TB patients and the results were compared with the phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) performed on solid Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) media. We also analyzed the mutation patterns of gyrA, rrs, and embB genes for detection of resistance to OFL, KAN and EMB, respectively. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the MTBDRsl compared to phenotypic L-J DST were 81.8% (95% CI, 69.1-90.9) and 98.8% (95% CI, 95.6-99.8), respectively for OFL (PPV: 95.7% & NPV: 94.1%); 65.1% (95% CI, 57.5-72.2) and 86.7% (95% CI, 73.2-94.9), respectively for EMB (PPV: 94.9% & NPV: 39.4%); and 100% for KAN. The diagnostic accuracy of KAN, OFL and EMB were 100, 94.5 and 69.6%, respectively. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of MtBDRsl for detection of XDR-TB was 100%. The most frequently observed mutations were at codon D94G (46.8%) of gyrA gene, A1401G (83.3%) of rrs gene, and M306V (41.5%) of the embB gene. CONCLUSION: Considering the excellent performance in this study we suggest that MTBDRsl assay can be used as an initial rapid test for detection of KAN and OFL susceptibility, as well as XDR-TB directly from smear-positive sputum specimens of MDR-TB patients in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Bangladesh/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/genetics , Female , Genotype , Genotyping Techniques/methods , Humans , Kanamycin/therapeutic use , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Ofloxacin/therapeutic use , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/chemistry , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261442, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593549

ABSTRACT

A laboratory validation study was conducted to assess the equivalence of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra testing on the GeneXpert System and the GeneXpert Omni System ('Omni') for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. High concordance of the two devices was demonstrated for well-characterized clinical samples as well as control materials, with controls tested on Omni at normal and challenging environmental conditions (i.e. 35°C, 90% relative humidity). Equivalence of the Cts for all probes was also shown. Equivalence was demonstrated for the Omni and GeneXpert devices for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance detection for a diverse range of clinical specimens and environmental conditions.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Point-of-Care Testing , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S96-S99, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575764

ABSTRACT

The WHO 2020 global TB Report estimates that in 2019 there were an estimated 500,000 cases of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) of which only 186,772 MDR-TB cases were diagnosed, and positive treatment outcomes were achieved in 57% of them. These data highlight the need for accelerating and improving MDR-TB screening, diagnostic, treatment and patient follow-up services. The last decade has seen three new TB drugs being licensed; bedaquiline, delamanid and pretomanid, and combinations these new, existing and repurposed drugs are leading to improved cure rates. The all oral six month WHO regimen for MDR-TB is more tolerable, has higher treatment success rates and lower mortality. However, the unprecedented ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is having major direct and indirect negative impacts on health services overall, including national TB programs and TB services. This adds further to longstanding challenges for tackling MDR-TB such as cost, rollout of diagnostics and drugs, and implementation of latest WHO guidelines for MDR-TB. In light of COVID-19 disruption of TB services, it is anticipated the numbers of MDR-TB cases will rise in 2021 and 2022 and will affect treatment outcomes further. Investing more in development of new TB drugs and shorter MDR-TB treatment regimens is required in anticipation of emerging drug resistance to new TB drug regimens. There is an urgent need for protecting current investments in TB services, sustaining gains being made in TB control and accelerating roll out of TB diagnostic and treatment services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Clinical Protocols , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology
10.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(3): 264-267, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356267

ABSTRACT

The recent guidelines on the Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (DR-TB) in India (PMDT) have been released in March 2021 on World TB Day. The new guidelines have considered emerging diagnostic trends including TrueNat, Xpert Mtb/XDR, Next generation sequencing and evaluation for resistance to newer drugs including Bedaquiline (Bdq) and Delamanid. The emerging therapeutic trends include focus on oral shorter Bdq based regimen with phasing out injectables use. The replacement sequence of drugs for DR-TB have also been updated. Updated definitions for pre-XDR, XDR, culture conversion and default have also been added. These guidelines are a paradigm shift which will make treating DR-TB easier and more efficient especially during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
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