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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058195, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Prevalence surveys remain the best way to assess the national tuberculosis (TB) burden in many countries. Challenges with using culture (the reference standard) for TB diagnosis in prevalence surveys have led to increasing use of molecular tests (Xpert assays), but discordance between these two tests has created problems for deciding which individuals have TB. We aimed to design an accurate diagnostic algorithm for TB prevalence surveys (TBPS) that limits the use of culture. DESIGN: TBPS in four communities, conducted during 2019. SETTING: Three Zambian communities and one South-African community included in the TBPS of the Tuberculosis Reduction through Expanded Anti-retroviral Treatment and Screening study. PARTICIPANTS: Randomly sampled individuals aged ≥15 years. Among those who screened positive on chest X-ray or symptoms, two sputum samples were collected for field Xpert-Ultra testing and a third for laboratory liquid-culture testing. Clinicians reviewed screening and test results; in Zambia, participants with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-positive results were followed up 6-13 months later. Among 10 984 participants, 2092 screened positive, 1852 provided two samples for Xpert-Ultra testing, and 1009 had valid culture results. OUTCOMES: Culture and Xpert-Ultra test results. RESULTS: Among 946 culture-negative individuals, 917 were Xpert-negative, 12 Xpert-trace-positive and 17 Xpert-positive (grade very low, low, medium or high), with Xpert categorised as the highest grade of the two sample results. Among 63 culture-positive individuals, 8 were Xpert-negative, 9 Xpert-trace-positive and 46 Xpert-positive. Counting trace-positive results as positive, the sensitivity of Xpert-Ultra compared with culture was 87% (95% CI 76% to 94%) using two samples compared with 76% (95% CI 64% to 86%) using one. Specificity was 97% when trace-positive results were counted as positive and 98% when trace-positive results were counted as negative. Most Xpert-Ultra-positive/culture-negative discordance was among individuals whose Xpert-positive results were trace-positive or very low grade or they reported previous TB treatment. Among individuals with both Xpert-Ultra results grade low or above, the positive-predictive-value was 90% (27/30); 3/30 were plausibly false-negative culture results. CONCLUSION: Using Xpert-Ultra as the primary diagnostic test in TBPS, with culture only for confirmatory testing, would identify a high proportion of TB cases while massively reducing survey culture requirements. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03739736.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , South Africa/epidemiology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Zambia/epidemiology
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 854327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887100

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health crisis and the number one cause of death for an infectious disease. The health consequences in high-burden countries are significant. Barriers to TB control and eradication are in part caused by difficulties in diagnosis. Improvements in diagnosis are required for organisations like the World Health Organisation (WHO) to meet their ambitious target of reducing the incidence of TB by 50% by the year 2025, which has become hard to reach due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Development of new tests for TB are key priorities of the WHO, as defined in their 2014 report for target product profiles (TPPs). Rapid triage and biomarker-based confirmatory tests would greatly enhance the diagnostic capability for identifying and diagnosing TB-infected individuals. Protein-based test methods e.g. lateral flow devices (LFDs) have a significant advantage over other technologies with regard to assay turnaround time (minutes as opposed to hours) field-ability, ease of use by relatively untrained staff and without the need for supporting laboratory infrastructure. Here we evaluate the diagnostic performance of nine biomarkers from our previously published biomarker qPCR validation study; CALCOCO2, CD274, CD52, GBP1, IFIT3, IFITM3, SAMD9L, SNX10 and TMEM49, as protein targets assayed by ELISA. This preliminary evaluation study was conducted to quantify the level of biomarker protein expression across latent, extra-pulmonary or pulmonary TB groups and negative controls, collected across the UK and India, in whole lysed blood samples (WLB). We also investigated associative correlations between the biomarkers and assessed their suitability for ongoing diagnostic test development, using receiver operating characteristic/area under the curve (ROC) analyses, singly and in panel combinations. The top performing single biomarkers for pulmonary TB versus controls were CALCOCO2, SAMD9L, GBP1, IFITM3, IFIT3 and SNX10. TMEM49 was also significantly differentially expressed but downregulated in TB groups. CD52 expression was not highly differentially expressed across most of the groups but may provide additional patient stratification information and some limited use for incipient latent TB infection. These show therefore great potential for diagnostic test development either in minimal configuration panels for rapid triage or more complex formulations to capture the diversity of disease presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolism , Pandemics , RNA-Binding Proteins , Sorting Nexins/metabolism , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(4): 507-518, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO-recommended tuberculosis screening and diagnostic algorithm in ambulatory people living with HIV is a four-symptom screen (known as the WHO-recommended four symptom screen [W4SS]) followed by a WHO-recommended molecular rapid diagnostic test (eg Xpert MTB/RIF [hereafter referred to as Xpert]) if W4SS is positive. To inform updated WHO guidelines, we aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of alternative screening tests and strategies for tuberculosis in this population. METHODS: In this systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis, we updated a search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, the Cochrane Library, and conference abstracts for publications from Jan 1, 2011, to March 12, 2018, done in a previous systematic review to include the period up to Aug 2, 2019. We screened the reference lists of identified pieces and contacted experts in the field. We included prospective cross-sectional, observational studies and randomised trials among adult and adolescent (age ≥10 years) ambulatory people living with HIV, irrespective of signs and symptoms of tuberculosis. We extracted study-level data using a standardised data extraction form, and we requested individual participant data from study authors. We aimed to compare the W4SS with alternative screening tests and strategies and the WHO-recommended algorithm (ie, W4SS followed by Xpert) with Xpert for all in terms of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity), overall and in key subgroups (eg, by antiretroviral therapy [ART] status). The reference standard was culture. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020155895. FINDINGS: We identified 25 studies, and obtained data from 22 studies (including 15 666 participants; 4347 [27·7%] of 15 663 participants with data were on ART). W4SS sensitivity was 82% (95% CI 72-89) and specificity was 42% (29-57). C-reactive protein (≥10 mg/L) had similar sensitivity to (77% [61-88]), but higher specificity (74% [61-83]; n=3571) than, W4SS. Cough (lasting ≥2 weeks), haemoglobin (<10 g/dL), body-mass index (<18·5 kg/m2), and lymphadenopathy had high specificities (80-90%) but low sensitivities (29-43%). The WHO-recommended algorithm had a sensitivity of 58% (50-66) and a specificity of 99% (98-100); Xpert for all had a sensitivity of 68% (57-76) and a specificity of 99% (98-99). In the one study that assessed both, the sensitivity of sputum Xpert Ultra was higher than sputum Xpert (73% [62-81] vs 57% [47-67]) and specificities were similar (98% [96-98] vs 99% [98-100]). Among outpatients on ART (4309 [99·1%] of 4347 people on ART), W4SS sensitivity was 53% (35-71) and specificity was 71% (51-85). In this population, a parallel strategy (two tests done at the same time) of W4SS with any chest x-ray abnormality had higher sensitivity (89% [70-97]) and lower specificity (33% [17-54]; n=2670) than W4SS alone; at a tuberculosis prevalence of 5%, this strategy would require 379 more rapid diagnostic tests per 1000 people living with HIV than W4SS but detect 18 more tuberculosis cases. Among outpatients not on ART (11 160 [71·8%] of 15 541 outpatients), W4SS sensitivity was 85% (76-91) and specificity was 37% (25-51). C-reactive protein (≥10 mg/L) alone had a similar sensitivity to (83% [79-86]), but higher specificity (67% [60-73]; n=3187) than, W4SS and a sequential strategy (both test positive) of W4SS then C-reactive protein (≥5 mg/L) had a similar sensitivity to (84% [75-90]), but higher specificity than (64% [57-71]; n=3187), W4SS alone; at 10% tuberculosis prevalence, these strategies would require 272 and 244 fewer rapid diagnostic tests per 1000 people living with HIV than W4SS but miss two and one more tuberculosis cases, respectively. INTERPRETATION: C-reactive protein reduces the need for further rapid diagnostic tests without compromising sensitivity and has been included in the updated WHO tuberculosis screening guidelines. However, C-reactive protein data were scarce for outpatients on ART, necessitating future research regarding the utility of C-reactive protein in this group. Chest x-ray can be useful in outpatients on ART when combined with W4SS. The WHO-recommended algorithm has suboptimal sensitivity; Xpert for all offers slight sensitivity gains and would have major resource implications. FUNDING: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Adolescent , Adult , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
4.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(5): 510-514, 2022 May 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834946

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and tuberculosis (TB) are two respiratory infectious diseases with a high incidence of transmission, mainly via respiratory droplets and both can weaken the immune system and lower the number of CD4+T cells in patients. COVID-19 can occur before, at the same time or after the diagnosis of TB. Patients with pulmonary TB are more likely to have co-infection when they have a history of epidemiological exposure to COVID-19. At present, many cases of nosocomial infection of COVID-19 caused by ineffective prevention and control measures in tuberculosis hospitals have been reported successively at domestic and overseas. Therefore, it is urgent to strengthen the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in tuberculosis hospitals. The superposition of the two diseases can lead to a worsening prognosis, aggravating the patient's condition and making treatment more difficult. In addition, in the context of the new coronavirus epidemic, early recognition of co-infection with new coronavirus should be made when TB patients in chest hospitals present with symptoms such as aggregated fever or progressive disease. At the same time, we should focus on identifying the clinical and imaging manifestations of TB and COVID-19 co-infection. At present, research on COVID-19 complicated with pulmonary TB is scarce, and there are disputes on many aspects. As a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, it is of great practical significance to identify the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment of the two infectious diseases in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
5.
Tuberk Toraks ; 70(1): 8-14, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789611

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and tuberculosis are serious and mortal diseases worldwide. There are few studies about the association between tuberculosis and COVID-19 pneumonia. We aimed to describe the characteristics of tuberculosis and COVID-19 co-infection cases in light of the literature. Materials and Methods: Tuberculosis patients who applied to the tuberculosis outpatient clinic between September 1-September 30, 2020, and patients hospitalized in the COVID-19 service between June 1- September 30, 2020, were retrospectively screened. Patients with tuberculosis and COVID-19 co-infection were recorded. Clinical, radiological, laboratory data, and treatments were recorded and analyzed. For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, sputum acid-resistant bacillus (ARB) smear or culture positivity or pathological diagnosis were used. For the diagnosis of COVID-19, positive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and/or typical radiological findings were sought. Result: Seven hundred and fifty-one patients' data at the tuberculosis outpatient clinic, 229 patients' data at the COVID-19 clinic were screened. Sixteen patients meet the criteria. COVID-19 infection rate in tuberculosis patients was 2.1%. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had received COVID-19 disease during diagnosis or initial tuberculosis treatment phase. There were no drugdrug interactions between anti-tuberculosis drugs and COVID-19 treatment. During the COVID-19 treatment, one patient (6%) died, 15 (94%) patients completed the treatment. Conclusions: : In our study, no effect of the coexistence of TB and COVID-19 on morbidity or mortality was observed. Although the number of patients is small, it can be said that patients with early TB disease and with widespread involvement may be riskier for COVID-19 infection. Frequent hospital visits by TB patients may be a risk for COVID-19. It may be beneficial to carry out the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis patients by tuberculosis dispensaries as in our country or authorized units to reduce the risk of hospital admissions and COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Turkey/epidemiology
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 204, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was a lack of information about prognostic accuracy of time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) in forecasting cure among extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of SCC at various time points in forecasting cure among XDR-TB patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 355 eligible pulmonary XDR-TB patients treated at 27 centers in Pakistan between 01-05-2010 and 30-06-2017. The baseline and follow-up information of patients from treatment initiation until the end of treatment were retrieved from electronic nominal recording and reporting system. Time to SCC was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, and differences between groups were compared through log-rank test. Predictors of time to SCC and cure were respectively evaluated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards and binary logistic regression analyses. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 226 (63.6%) and 146 (41.1%) patients respectively achieved SCC and cure. Median time to SCC was significantly shorter in patients who achieved cure, 3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.47-3.53), than those who did not (median: 10 months, 95% CI: 5.24-14.76) (p-value < 0.001, Log-rank test). Patient's age > 40 years (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.632, p-value = 0.004), baseline sputum grading of scanty, + 1 (HR = 0.511, p-value = 0.002), + 2, + 3 (HR = 0.523, p-value = 0.001) and use of high dose isoniazid (HR = 0.463, p-value = 0.004) were significantly associated with early SCC. Only SCC at 6 month of treatment had statistically significant association with cure (odds ratio = 15.603, p-value < 0.001). In predicting cure, the sensitivities of SCC at 2, 4 and 6 months were respectively 41.8% (95%CI: 33.7-50.2), 69.9% (95%CI: 61.7-77.2) and 84.9% (95%CI: 78.1-90.3), specificities were respectively, 82.8% (95%CI: 76.9-87.6), 74.6% (95%CI: 68.2-80.4) and 69.4% (95%CI: 62.6-75.5) and prognostic accuracies were respectively 65.9% (95%CI: 60.7-70.8), 72.7% (95%CI: 67.7-77.2) and 75.8% (95%CI: 71.0-80.1). CONCLUSION: In forecasting cure, SCC at month 6 of treatment performed better than SCC at 2 and 4 months. However, it would be too long for clinicians to wait for 6 months to decide about the regimen efficacy. Therefore, with somewhat comparable prognostic accuracy to that SCC at 6 month, using SCC at 4 month of treatment as a prognostic marker in predicting cure among XDR-TB patients can decrease the clinicians waiting time to decide about the regimen efficacy.


Subject(s)
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sputum , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
8.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(4): 643-647, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic could have negative effects on tuberculosis (TB) control. The objective was to assess the impact of the pandemic in contact tracing, TB and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in contacts of patients with pulmonary TB in Catalonia (Spain). METHODS: Contact tracing was carried out in cases of pulmonary TB detected during 14 months in the pre-pandemic period (1 January 2019 to 28 February 2020) and 14 months in the pandemic period (1 March 2020 to 30 April 2021). Contacts received the tuberculin skin test and/or interferon gamma release assay and it was determined whether they had TB or LTBI. Variables associated with TB or LTBI in contacts (study period and sociodemographic variables) were analyzed using adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The pre-pandemic and pandemic periods showed, respectively: 503 and 255 pulmonary TB reported cases (reduction of 50.7%); and 4676 and 1687 contacts studied (reduction of 36.1%). In these periods, the proportion of TB cases among the contacts was 1.9% (84/4307) and 2.2% (30/1381) (P = 0.608); and the proportion of LTBI was 25.3% (1090/4307) and 29.2% (403/1381) (P < 0.001). The pandemic period was associated to higher LTBI proportion (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5), taking into account the effect on LTBI of the other variables studied as sex, age, household contact and migrant status. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is affecting TB control due to less exhaustive TB and LTBI case detection. An increase in LTBI was observed during the pandemic period. Efforts should be made to improve detection of TB and LTBI among contacts of TB cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tuberculin Test , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714383

ABSTRACT

We report a case of an adolescent girl presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation. Initial presentation during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic was compatible with multisystem inflammatory response in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C). Subsequently a diagnosis of tuberculosis was made. During ventilation, she developed significant abdominal distension which was not relieved with nasogastric decompression. There was a high index of suspicion of bronchoenteric fistula. Bronchoscopy with adjunct oesophagoscopy demonstrated tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TEF). The classical presentation of TEF has been masked by onset of ARDS. During the pandemic the diagnosis of tuberculosis in high-burden countries decreased for multiple reasons leading to development of complications which are often confused with MIS-C. While diagnosing MIS-C, maintaining a high level of suspicion for concomitant or alternative aetiologies is essential.


Subject(s)
Tracheoesophageal Fistula , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/complications , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/diagnosis , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/surgery , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e41, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709007

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a granulomatous illness that mostly affects the lungs. Pakistan is one of the eight nations that accounts for two-thirds of all new cases of developing TB. TB has long been an endemic disease in Pakistan. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the nation has over 500 000 incident TB infections per year, with a rising number of drug-resistant cases. Recently, the coexistence of COVID-19 and TB in Pakistan has provided doctors with a problem. Fever or chills, cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing are all signs of COVID-19. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, cough might persist for weeks or months and it is frequently accompanied by persistent tiredness, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea or pain - a group of long-term consequences known as post-COVID syndrome or protracted COVID. Coughing with mucus or blood, and coughing that continues over 2 months are indications of TB. The same clinical presentation features make it difficult for healthcare personnel to effectively evaluate the illness and prevent the spread of these fatal diseases. Pakistan lacks the necessary healthcare resources to tackle two contagious diseases at the same time. To counteract the sudden increase in TB cases, appropriate management and effective policies must be implemented. Thus, in order to prevent the spread of these infectious diseases, it is critical to recognise and address the problems that the healthcare sector faces, as well as to create an atmosphere in which the healthcare sector can function at its full potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685569

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Active case finding (ACF) of individuals with tuberculosis (TB) is a key intervention to find the 30% of people missed every year. However, ACF requires screening large numbers of individuals who have a low probability of positive results, typically <5%, which makes using the recommended molecular tests expensive. METHODS: We conducted two ACF surveys (in 2020 and 2021) in high TB burden areas of Lao PDR. Participants were screened for TB symptoms and received a chest X-ray. Sputum samples of four consecutive individuals were pooled and tested with Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampicin (RIF) (Xpert-MTB/RIF) (2020) or Xpert-Ultra (2021). The agreement of the individual and pooled samples was compared and the reasons for discrepant results and potential cartridge savings were assessed. RESULTS: Each survey included 436 participants, which were tested in 109 pools. In the Xpert-MTB/RIF survey, 25 (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 72.8% to 96.3%) of 28 pools containing MTB-positive samples tested positive and 81 pools containing only MTB-negative samples tested negative (specificity 100%, 95% CI 95.5% to 100%). In the Xpert-Ultra survey, all 32 (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 89.3% to 100%) pools containing MTB-positive samples tested positive and all 77 (specificity 100%, 95% CI 95.3% to 100%) containing only MTB-negative samples tested negative. Pooling with Xpert-MTB/RIF and Xpert-Ultra saved 52% and 46% (227/436 and 199/436, respectively) of cartridge costs alone. CONCLUSION: Testing single and pooled specimens had a high level of agreement, with complete concordance when using Xpert-Ultra. Pooling samples could generate significant cartridge savings during ACF campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Laos , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(3): e20, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused disruptions to healthcare systems, consequently endangering tuberculosis (TB) control. We investigated delays in TB treatment among notified patients during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea. METHODS: We systemically collected and analyzed data from the Korea TB cohort database from January to May 2020. Groups were categorized as 'before-pandemic' and 'during-pandemic' based on TB notification period. Presentation delay was defined as the period between initial onset of symptoms and the first hospital visit, and healthcare delay as the period between the first hospital visit and anti-TB treatment initiation. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with delays in TB treatment. RESULTS: Proportion of presentation delay > 14 days was not significantly different between two groups (48.3% vs. 43.7%, P = 0.067); however, proportion of healthcare delay > 5 days was significantly higher in the during-pandemic group (48.6% vs. 42.3%, P = 0.012). In multivariate analysis, the during-pandemic group was significantly associated with healthcare delay > 5 days (adjusted odds ratio = 0.884, 95% confidence interval = 0.715-1.094). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with healthcare delay of > 5 days in Korea. Public health interventions are necessary to minimize the pandemic's impact on the national TB control project.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261849, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 pandemics are both diseases of public health threat globally. Both diseases are caused by pathogens that infect mainly the respiratory system, and are involved in airborne transmission; they also share some clinical signs and symptoms. We, therefore, took advantage of collected sputum samples at the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in Ghana to conduct differential diagnoses of long-standing endemic respiratory illness, particularly tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY: Sputum samples collected through the enhanced national surveys from suspected COVID-19 patients and contact tracing cases were analyzed for TB. The sputum samples were processed using Cepheid's GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in pools of 4 samples to determine the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Positive pools were then decoupled and analyzed individually. Details of positive TB samples were forwarded to the NTP for appropriate case management. RESULTS: Seven-hundred and seventy-four sputum samples were analyzed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both suspected COVID-19 cases (679/774, 87.7%) and their contacts (95/774, 12.3%). A total of 111 (14.3%) were diagnosed with SARS CoV-2 infection and six (0.8%) out of the 774 individuals tested positive for pulmonary tuberculosis: five (83.3%) males and one female (16.7%). Drug susceptibility analysis identified 1 (16.7%) rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis case. Out of the six TB positive cases, 2 (33.3%) tested positive for COVID-19 indicating a coinfection. Stratifying by demography, three out of the six (50%) were from the Ayawaso West District. All positive cases received appropriate treatment at the respective sub-district according to the national guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the need for differential diagnosis among COVID-19 suspected cases and regular active TB surveillance in TB endemic settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261442, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593549

ABSTRACT

A laboratory validation study was conducted to assess the equivalence of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra testing on the GeneXpert System and the GeneXpert Omni System ('Omni') for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. High concordance of the two devices was demonstrated for well-characterized clinical samples as well as control materials, with controls tested on Omni at normal and challenging environmental conditions (i.e. 35°C, 90% relative humidity). Equivalence of the Cts for all probes was also shown. Equivalence was demonstrated for the Omni and GeneXpert devices for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance detection for a diverse range of clinical specimens and environmental conditions.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Point-of-Care Testing , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
15.
J Mother Child ; 25(2): 127-134, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498444

ABSTRACT

Various guidelines are in place for management for COVID-19 and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in pregnancy. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no significant guidelines for the management of COVID-19 and PTB co-infection in pregnancy. Pregnancy being an altered physiological state, the use of various drugs and their outcomes are altered. Here we present two cases of COVID-19 and PTB co-infection in pregnancy which were managed successfully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Latent Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19193, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442802

ABSTRACT

Outside of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, tuberculosis is the leading cause of infectious disease mortality globally. Currently, there is no commercially available point-of-care diagnostic that is rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis disease. Here we describe the development and optimization of a novel, highly sensitive prototype bioelectronic tuberculosis antigen (BETA) assay to detect tuberculosis-specific antigen, CFP10, in small-volume serum and urine samples. In this proof-of-concept study we evaluated the performance of the BETA assay using clinical specimens collected from presumptive tuberculosis patients from three independent cohorts. Circulating CFP10 antigen was detected in ALL serum (n = 19) and urine (n = 3) samples from bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis patients who were untreated or had less than one week of treatment at time of serum collection, successfully identifying all culture positive tuberculosis patients. No CFP10 antigen was detected in serum (n = 7) or urine (n = 6) samples from individuals who were determined to be negative for tuberculosis disease. Additionally, antigen quantification using the BETA assay of paired serum samples collected from tuberculosis patients (n = 8) both before and after treatment initiation, indicate consistently declining within-person levels of CFP10 antigen during treatment. This novel, low-cost assay demonstrates potential as a rapid, non-sputum-based, point-of-care tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis disease.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Peptide Fragments , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Antigens, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Antigens, Bacterial/urine , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Peptide Fragments/blood , Peptide Fragments/isolation & purification , Peptide Fragments/urine , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
18.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): 553-557, 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1328012

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: although pediatric patients have comparatively fewer cases of COVID-19, children with Down Syndrome exhibit comorbidities such as immunodeficiency, diabetes and, in this perspective, are considered a population at risk for severe COVID-19. In addition, the literature also points to an unfavorable perspective on co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, considered an important comorbidity and a predictor of a worse clinical outcome. Description: female child, nine years old, with Down Syndrome, congenital heart disease and prematurity, with significant weight loss and intermittent fever for six months. A week ago, she had an intensification of fever, productive cough and mild respiratory distress. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 detectable in nasopharynx swab, chest X-ray with diffuse alveolar infiltrate, chest CT with consolidations, excavation, solid micronodules in a sprouting tree pattern mainly in the right upper and lower lobes. Molecular rapid test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detectable in gastric lavage. After specific treatment, the patient progressed well and was discharged from the hospital after 72 hours without fever and improvement in her breathing pattern. Discussion: despite the extensive pulmonary involvement, the patient did not require invasive ventilatory support and presented a satisfactory short-term outcome. Therefore, the relevance of the association of Tuberculosis and COVID-19 and other comorbidities in the pediatric age group still remains uncertain.


Resumo Introdução: apesar dos pacientes pediátricos apresentarem, comparativamente, menos casos da COVID-19, crianças com Síndrome de Down manifestam comorbidades como imunodeficiência, diabetes e, nessa perspectiva, são apontadas como população de risco para COVID-19 grave. Ademais, a literatura também sinaliza para um cenário desfavorável na coinfecção com Mycobacterium tuberculosis, considerada comorbidade importante e preditora para pior desfecho clínico. Descrição: criança de nove anos, sexo feminino, com Síndrome de Down, cardiopatia congênita e prematuridade, história de perda ponderal significativa e febre intermitente vespertina há seis meses. Há uma semana, apresentou intensificação da febre, tosse produtiva e desconforto respiratório leve. RT-PCR para SARS-CoV-2 em swab de nasofaringe detectável, radiografia de tórax com infiltrado alveolar difuso, tomografia de tórax com consolidações, focos de escavação, micronódulos sólidos em padrão de árvore em brotamento principalmente em lobos superior e inferior direitos. Teste rápido molecular para Mycobacterium tuberculosis detectável em lavado gástrico. Após início de tratamento específico, a paciente exibiu melhora clínica e de padrão respiratório e recebeu alta hospitalar após 72 horas afebril. Discussão: apesar do extenso comprometimento pulmonar, a paciente não necessitou de suporte ventilatório invasivo e apresentou um desfecho satisfatório em curto prazo. Portanto, a relevância da associação de tuberculose e COVID-19 e outras comorbidades na faixa etária pediátrica ainda permanecem incertas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Down Syndrome/complications , Coinfection , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Risk Groups , Brazil/epidemiology
19.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.2): 553-557, 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1328011

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: although pediatric patients have comparatively fewer cases of COVID-19, children with Down Syndrome exhibit comorbidities such as immunodeficiency, diabetes and, in this perspective, are considered a population at risk for severe COVID-19. In addition, the literature also points to an unfavorable perspective on co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, considered an important comorbidity and a predictor of a worse clinical outcome. Description: female child, nine years old, with Down Syndrome, congenital heart disease and prematurity, with significant weight loss and intermittent fever for six months. A week ago, she had an intensification of fever, productive cough and mild respiratory distress. RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 detectable in nasopharynx swab, chest X-ray with diffuse alveolar infiltrate, chest CT with consolidations, excavation, solid micronodules in a sprouting tree pattern mainly in the right upper and lower lobes. Molecular rapid test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detectable in gastric lavage. After specific treatment, the patient progressed well and was discharged from the hospital after 72 hours without fever and improvement in her breathing pattern. Discussion: despite the extensive pulmonary involvement, the patient did not require invasive ventilatory support and presented a satisfactory short-term outcome. Therefore, the relevance of the association of Tuberculosis and COVID-19 and other comorbidities in the pediatric age group still remains uncertain.


Resumo Introdução: apesar dos pacientes pediátricos apresentarem, comparativamente, menos casos da COVID-19, crianças com Síndrome de Down manifestam comorbidades como imunodeficiência, diabetes e, nessa perspectiva, são apontadas como população de risco para COVID-19 grave. Ademais, a literatura também sinaliza para um cenário desfavorável na coinfecção com Mycobacterium tuberculosis, considerada comorbidade importante e preditora para pior desfecho clínico. Descrição: criança de nove anos, sexo feminino, com Síndrome de Down, cardiopatia congênita e prematuridade, história de perda ponderal significativa e febre intermitente vespertina há seis meses. Há uma semana, apresentou intensificação da febre, tosse produtiva e desconforto respiratório leve. RT-PCR para SARS-CoV-2 em swab de nasofaringe detectável, radiografia de tórax com infiltrado alveolar difuso, tomografia de tórax com consolidações, focos de escavação, micronódulos sólidos em padrão de árvore em brotamento principalmente em lobos superior e inferior direitos. Teste rápido molecular para Mycobacterium tuberculosis detectável em lavado gástrico. Após início de tratamento específico, a paciente exibiu melhora clínica e de padrão respiratório e recebeu alta hospitalar após 72 horas afebril. Discussão: apesar do extenso comprometimento pulmonar, a paciente não necessitou de suporte ventilatório invasivo e apresentou um desfecho satisfatório em curto prazo. Portanto, a relevância da associação de tuberculose e COVID-19 e outras comorbidades na faixa etária pediátrica ainda permanecem incertas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Down Syndrome/complications , Coinfection , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Risk Groups , Brazil/epidemiology
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309821

ABSTRACT

Scarce data exist about the coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). A young woman who was undergoing treatment for multiple sclerosis was brought to our hospital with a COVID-19 positive status. On further evaluation, her chest X-ray showed right upper and mid-zone opacity, which lead to the suspicion of MTB. Her sputum came positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining and cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT) confirmed it, and rifampicin resistance was not detected. She was started on an antitubercular regimen. She was discharged, and by the end of the intensive phase of treatment, her symptoms subsided, but her sputum CBNAAT still showed the presence of TB bacillus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
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